Mariona Costa

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EVOLUTION H.R IN SPAIN:

EVOLUTION H.R IN SPAIN 1936 1939 1950 2000 1965 1980 2012

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These dates are important, because from 1936 to 1939 was the Spanish Civil War . * A Civil War : in a civil war, there are two bands, and both of them are of the same country.

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This war started the 17 th of July 1936 and finished the 1 st of April 1939. There were two sides, each one with different ideas, feelings.... We found the national side , and the republican side.

THE FRANQUIST OR NATIONAL SIDE:

THE FRANQUIST OR NATIONAL SIDE FRANCO was the leader of this band. He had the power until the 20 th of November 1975. On 17 th of July 1936 the more conservative soldiers stood up against the Republican govern, led by the general Francisco Franco. Little by little more soldiers stood up, and they were getting the Spanish area.

THE REPUBLICAN SIDE:

THE REPUBLICAN SIDE But the Republican side fought against the N ational side, so the S panish area were divided in two parts: the Republican and the National. The Republican side wanted democracy, and all people to h ave their own human rights.

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The Republican part The National part

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The National side had more soldiers, arms, and they knew more tactics, but Russia helped the Republican side, and sent a lot of arms and soldiers.

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A lot of Spanish people went out of their country way to France, with the objective of save their lives. O ver 400.000 people arrived France on January of 1939. The majority of them were politics, artists… Belgium, Britain and the USSR helped this refugees.

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On 1939 the National side won, and all Spain was under its power. The looser was the Republican side. A lot of Republican people escaped of the country, but some people couldn’t make this, and this people were exiled , died or sent to concentration camps . The LOOSER and the WINNER

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THE LIFE AND THE RIGHTS OF PEOPLE AFTER THE FRANCO’S VICTORY

WITHOUT HUMAN RIGHTS:

WITHOUT HUMAN RIGHTS Franco was a dictator, like Mussolini in Italy or Hitler in Germany. So, in dictatorships we find a lot of violations of HUMAN RIGHTS. For example: N obody in S pain had freedom from slavery.

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CINEMA

CINEMA.THE 13 ROSES:

CINEMA .THE 13 ROSES

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This Spanish film talks about the life of thirteen women during the Franco’s dictatorship. One day, this girls ( between 16-29 years) were jailed during the postwar, they were accused to sent information to the Republicans, but this wasn’t true.

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They only had three days before be judged, but the soldiers killed them a day before , they didn't have any judgment. All girls, on the day of their death, wore their best clothes, and before the soldiers shot them, they shouted:

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ARTICLE 3: Life, Liberty, Personal Security. Because the thirteen woman were exiled and killed by the police . ARTICLE 5: Freedom from Torture and degrading Treatment . Because the police tortured them and killed them . ARTICLE 6: Recognition as a Person before the law . Because they didn’t have any judgment. ARTICLE 7 : Equality in front of the Law. They didn’t have equality before the law, because they were Republican women . ARTICLE 8: Remedy by Competent Tribunal . Because they didn’t go to any tribunal. HUMAN RIGHTS’ VIOLATIONS IN THE FILM:

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ARTICLE 9: Freedom from Arbitrary arrest and exile . The police exiled and took away them . ARTICLE 11: Be considered Innocent until Proven Guilty . They were considered guilty without any evidence and being innocents. ARTICLE 19: Freedom of Opinion and Information. Because the Republican people couldn’t say their ideas and their feelings. ARTICLE 30 : Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above rights . Because all human rights weren’t respected .

CINEMA.BLACK BREAD:

CINEMA .BLACK BREAD

PA NEGRE (BLACK BREAD):

PA NEGRE (BLACK BREAD) This film is named Pa N egre (Black Bread) because this bread was that poor people ate, as we can see in this film. Andreu (the protagonist boy) was poor. All this things were happened during the postwar. His father was in prison because being Republican and he was accused to kill two men, his mother worked in a factory and Andreu was a good student. In this film we can see the hard life of the Republican people, and the life living above the two different sides in the same village. This film was directed by Agustí Villaronga and it was created by Emili Teixidor .

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HUMAN RIGHTS’ VIOLATIONS IN THE FILM: ARTICLE 1: Equality Because the Republican people were considered worst that the National people. ARTICLE 2: Freedom from Discrimination. We see in this film that if one person said that was Republicans he/she was discriminated. Also, we saw in the film one boy treated as an ill, only because was gay, in that time the other people saw this like a sickness and some people was tortured and killed for this. ARTICLE3: Life, Liberty, Personal Security Because the father of the protagonist is exiled of his house and killed by the police. ARTICLE5: Freedom from Torture and Degrading Treatment. Because the police tortured and killed the father. ARTICLE 6: Recognition as a Person in front of the Law. Because the father was killed without a previous judgment.

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ARTICLE 7:Equality in front of the Law. Because the National people had more possibilities to be considered innocent than the Republican people. ARTICLE 9: Freedom from Arbitrary Arrest and E xile . Because in the film the police enter without authority in the protagonist’s home and took away his father . ARTICLE 19: Freedom of Opinion and Information . Because the Republican people mustn’t say their real feelings and ideas . ARTICLE 30: Freedom from State or Personal Interference in the above rights. Because in this film we can see a lot of human rights’ violations .

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ART

ART. POSTER DESIGN:

ART. POSTER DESIGN

This is a REPUBLICAN POSTER. Its author is Pere Català and it’s called: CRUSH THE FASCISM :

This is a REPUBLICAN POSTER . Its author is Pere Català and it’s called: CRUSH THE FASCISM This type o f posters were a kind of publicity, in this case one way to recruit men for the war in the Republican band. Here we can see the foot of a Republican boy, and he is wearing the typical Catalan shoe. This foot is going to crush the the Fascist sign.

ART. PAINTING:

ART. PAINTING

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THE STAIRS OF EVASION This painting was made by Joan Miró , a famous C atalan painter. At first we only see some draws, but if we see the painting patiently, we could see the people that are painted inside it and the horror reflected on their eyes . Then we see like a stairs , reason of the name of the painting. I t was painted in 1940, when Franco won the Spanish Civil War, at that time M iró was in Normadia with his family.

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MUSIC

MUSIC. LLUIS LLACH:

MUSIC. LLUIS LLACH

LLUIS LLACH :

LLUIS LLACH He is a Catalan singer, he is 64 years old. He was the initiator of the style: NEW SONG. This style was the typical of the Catalans singers who were against Franco’s regime. He had to go out of his country (Catalonia) to France, and there he could publish all his songs .

THE HEN SAID NO, LONG LIVE THE REVOLUTION!!! (LA GALLINA HA DIT QUE NO, VISCA LA REVOLUCIÓ!):

THE HEN SAID NO, LONG LIVE THE REVOLUTION!!! (LA GALLINA HA DIT QUE NO, VISCA LA REVOLUCIÓ!) This song is against Franco, but the singer hid it, searching another way to explain this, and finally this song pass the censure. In the song, the “ HEN ” means CATALONIA, because it wants the revolution against Franco , in the song say that Catalonia didn ’t want more Franco, and Catalonia didn’t want to do or to be that Franco wants. Catalonia wants to grow up against Franco’s regime , against the Franco’s H uman R ights violations , and this song is dedicated for the people who fought for the Democracy.

MUSIC. LUIS EDUARDO AUTE:

MUSIC. LUIS EDUARDO AUTE

LUIS EDUARDO AUTE:

LUIS EDUARDO AUTE He is a Spanish singer, his father was Catalan and his mother Philippine. One of his most important songs is: “ AL ALBA” This song was made it, the day before the last Franco’s executions, the song talks about the people who are going to die the next morning. The meaning of this song is hidden to avoid the censure, who saw it like a love song.

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LITERATURE

LITERATURE.REMEDIOS MONTERO:

LITERATURE. REMEDIOS MONTERO

Historias de una guerrillera. Stories of a soldier woman.:

Historias de una guerrillera. Stories of a soldier woman . This book is the real story of Remedios Montero . She was a S panish R epublican girl who was denounced by a friend in front of the F ranco’s regime, she was accused to be Republican, she had to go to the mountains with other Republican people to be alive. One day, the police caught her, she had been in prison eight years. She was in love with one Republican general, but they couldn’t be together because of the War.

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While she was in the prison, she heard that her love, Florián , died. These was one of the worst possible notices for her. When she went out of prison, she could receive a passport, and she went to France to be a point of support for the Republicans. After a time living in France she went to Czechoslovakia , finally Florián was alive because the notice were a mistake. At the end she met Florián and have been married. When they knew that Franco died, they obtained the passports to return to Spain.

LITERATURE.SALVADOR ESPRIU:

LITERATURE. SALVADOR ESPRIU

SALVADOR ESPRIU( Sta. Coloma de Farners 1913- Barcelona 1985):

SALVADOR ESPRIU( Sta. Coloma de F arners 1913- B arcelona 1985) He was a poet and a novelist. One important poem that he made was “PELL DE BRAU”, it talks about the Spanish Civil War, and here we have one of its lines: SOMETIMES IT IS NECESSARY AND FORCED THAT A MAN DIE FOR A VILLAGE BUT NEVER A VILLAGE MUST DIE FOR A MAN.

*:

* IMPORTANT INFORMATION

THE WOMEN DURING THE DICTATORSHIP:

THE WOMEN DURING THE DICTATORSHIP All women lost their rights, they couldn’t work, they couldn’t vote, they only were mothers and wives . Lots of Republican women were maltreated and some of them died .

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GUIDE OF THE GOOD WIFE

CATALONIA UNDER FRANCO’S REGIME:

CATALONIA UNDER FRANCO’S REGIME Catalonia was one of the areas with the worst situation during the Franco’s dictator ship, because was Republican. Franco prohibited the Catalan language and a lot of traditional and cultural Catalan values . There were at least 300 executions of Catalans . 63.000-75.000 Catalans died. 110.000 C atalans were exiled out of Spain. Thousands of C atalans were sent to concentration camps.

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Drawing made it during the Civil W ar by Francisco Redolat , a refugee boy of eleven years Tossa de Mar.

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