Elena Costa

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THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR:

THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

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The more conservative military started to fight against the Republic till get the power with the general FRANCISCO FRANCO as a leader. FRANCSICO FRANCO was a dictator and established a dictatorship during 40 years. Franco was fighting with the help of The Church and the army to keep in the power . The citizen asked for help to finish with the dictatorship.

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In the Spanish Civil War there was two bands: The R epublican band and the Franco’s band called national band . The dictatorship finished in 1975 . Some consequences of the S panish Civil War were the violations of human rights like the freedom expression, with Franco it didn't exist . Because of this, the citizens fought against him in many ways.

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Franco started to conquer Spain from the north-west and after two years of war he wanted to arrive to the Mediterranean in order to separate the Republican band in two areas. The idea was follow the Ebro river to made the separation. On the Ebro was the last battle, the Republican band lost and because the defeat, Franco had the free way to the occupation of Catalonia, and finally the war was finished the 1st of A pril on 1939.

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THIS IS THE ORIGIN OF THE SPANISH CIVIL WAR

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During the dictatorship there was all kind of censorship. In the Music field the songs were one of the best ways to explain the feelings and ideas of the people. The Famous Black list was a list with all the songs against Franco. In this list were 21 singers and 15 of them were C atalans .

MARIA DEL MAR BONET :

MARIA DEL MAR BONET Maria del Mar Bonet is a Catalan singer, on that list she was defined as a communist, because she was in a project that its objective was saying all the things that were hiding. One of the most important songs against Franco was: “ Què volen aquesta gent?” the same as “What do these people want ?”. This song is a true story. The song was about Rafael Guijarro , a R epublican Student.

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The song talks about the feelings of Rafael, he was nervous and unrelaxed beacause he was a Republican and the police wanted to catch all the Republicans. Some of them were killed and others were jailed . The song explain that one day he was sleeping and the police called at his house at midnight , and before they could catch him , he threw himself through the window .

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATED:

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATED ARTICLE 3:RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, PERSONAL SECURITY ARTICLE 5 :FREEDOM FROM TORTURING AND DEGRADING TREATMENT These articles are violated because of the police, they called at the house of the boy and entered looking for him, but before they could find the boy, he jumps out the window to won't be tortured and killed by Franco's regime.

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ARTICLE 9:FREEDOM FROM ARBITRARY ARREST AND EXILE ARTICLE 11:RIGHT TO BE CONSIDERED INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY It’s because the police wanted to catch him , without any evidence .

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ARTICLE 19:FREEDOM OF OPINION AND INFORMATION The boy thoughts different than Franco’s Regime, because of this the police wanted to arrest him . ARTICLE 30:FREEDOM FROM STATE OR PERSONAL INTERFERENCE IN THE ABOVE RIGHTS

LLUÍS LLACH :

LLUÍS LLACH Lluís Llach is a very important singer too. He had to change of country because of the censorship. He made a recital at “Palau de la Música ” on 1975, he was denounced and fined . Some examples of his songs against Franco are : The L ittle H en , The B andit , The Stake... The Little H en was able to pass the censorship because the Franquists didn’t understand the meaning of the song.

THE STAKE:

THE STAKE The meaning of this song is that the Stake is Franco and if all the population are united against Franco (The Stake) and fighting together they could defeat Franco and turn the Stake.

THE RIGHTS VIOLATED:

THE RIGHTS VIOLATED ARTICLE 3:RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, PERSONAL SECURITY This right is violated because of Franco, with him at the power there wasn’t any freedom, only repression, the people had to fight for the things they believed, for example the CATALAN language.

Here there’s an example about the prohibition of the Catalan language :

Here there’s an example about the prohibition of the Catalan language If somebody spoke catalan , it was fined .

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To José Juan Jubert , 100 pts , and to Javier Porrera, 100 pts for speaking in Catalan from table to table in the dinning room of a hotel.

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ANOTHER RIGHT VIOLATED: ARTICLE 30:FREEDOM FROM STATE OR PERSONAL INTERFERENCE IN THE ABOVE RIGHTS

POSTER:

POSTER It was one of the most used ways of expression forms . There were a lot of posters made during the S panish Civil W ar. One example is a collection of Culture Ministry. There are 2.280 posters from both bands(the Republican and N ational ) and other important things of the war.

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ART FOR OUR INDEPENDENCE

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The last poster was made by: Bardasano , he was an important painter during the war, and he made other posters too . Here there’s another very important:

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It means : -CATALANS! -Better to die standing than live kneeling! The objective of the poster is say to the C atalan population that it’s better to fight for their liberty and rights, it means that in the wars you can die, but it’s better to die making something than live without making nothing . I think that Catalan language it’s now in Catalonia thanks to this people that fought for their rights. I think is unfair all the deaths and all the wars, they a re unnecessary, because if everyone respects the rights of the people, there won't exist the wars.

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THE NEXT POSTER WAS CREATED BY THE REPUBLICAN BAND TO CELEBRATE A YEAR OF WAR

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IT MEANS THAT: The Republican band had an army, that could throw mortal shocks against nazis .

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we are going to crush them!!!... …with the popular army It means that the popular army thought that they could win against the franCO’S ARMY. At the poster we can see THAT IN the middle of the nazi’S sign, the power of THE REPUBLICAN army and we can see the sign broken.

PHOTOGRAPHY:

PHOTOGRAPHY

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With the photos of the S panish civil war we can see how was the life of the soldiers and how the people suffered so much because of the war .

GUERNICA:

GUERNICA This is Guernica’s photography

THIS IS THE PICTURE OF GUERNICA MADE BY PICASSO:

THIS IS THE PICTURE OF GUERNICA MADE BY PICASSO This picture want to show the suffering of the people and the objective point of Picasso about the last photo . This picture is one of the more representatives during the S panish C ivil War .

REC:

REC CINEMA

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“LOS SANTOS INOCENTES ”- “THE HOLY INNOCENTS” PRINCIPAL OBJECTIVES OF THE FILM: -OPPRESSION BY THE MISTERS -HUMILIATION SUFFERED BY SERVANTS - IGNORANCE OF THE LOWER SOCIAL CLASSES - The consideration of members of lower social classes , NOT AS A HUMAN

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During the film we can see an example of the unfair situation of the characters : One noble killed a servant because he thought that he can do whatever he want while he was in the power . This movie is set at the 20th century , during the postwar , in Extremadura.

“30 AÑOS DE OSCURIDAD”- “THIRTY YEARS OF DARKNESS”:

“30 AÑOS DE OSCURIDAD”- “THIRTY YEARS OF DARKNESS” It was about the postwar , the historians said that the war finished at 1939, but for the “moles” ( the spies ), it finished at 1969. This film talked about how the war affect to the families of the two bands.

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In the film, when the S panish C ivil W ar finished, the Republican Manuel Cortés (the last Mayor of Mijas , a town of Malaga), he couldn’t escape from Spain, but he could return to his house at night without be discovered. H is wife told him that there were a lot of Republican’s murders and because of this they decided to make a hole in a wall on their house because if he needed to hide . This hole wall was his prison during 30 years. IT’S A TRUE HISTORY

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Federico Garcia Lorca was a poet, playwright and prose writer S panish. He was murdered because of his liberty form of expression and to be homosexual without hide it.

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ANTONIO MACHADO Was an other important writer of those time, he made a poetry when Federico Garcia Lorca was murdered. It’s called: “the crime was in granada ” He was seen walking between the rifles, by a long street take the field cold even with stars of the morning. They killed Federico when the light appeared…

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATED:

HUMAN RIGHTS VIOLATED ARTICLE 2: FREEDOM FROM DISCRIMINATION ARTCLE 3:RIGHT TO LIFE, LIBERTY, PERSONAL SECURITY ARTICLE 30:FREEDOM FROM STATE OR PERSONAL INTERFRENCE IN THE ABOVE RIGHTS.

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LUIS CERNUDA He dedicated a poetry to Federico Garcia Lorca when he was murdered too . This poem is called : TO A DEAD POET - As in the rock never see - The white flower opening, - Among a people sullen and hard - It shines beautifully - The cool, high ornament of life. - Therefore , I killed him, because you were - Greenery in our arid land - And our dark blue air…

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DOING THIS PROJECT I HAVE LEARNED ALL THE HORROR, DEATH AND UNFAIR SITUATIONS, CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR. BUT NOT ONLY IN SPAIN, I THINK THIS SUFFERING IS THE SAME IN ALL THE WARS, PEOPLE CAN’T LIVE IN PEACE AND WITHOUT VIOLENCE, AND I DON’T LIKE IT. I HOPE ALL THE WARS END, LIKE ALL THE SUFFERING AND DEATHS. NO MORE WARS!!

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