Aleth Marti

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Aleth Martí Saumell

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At 1932, Spain become a republic. At 1936 Francisco Franco (a general officer) along with another military, made a putsch because they were disagreed with the republic. The church was also disagreed with the republic because it was lay, so the church was supporting economically the putsch. The republic was democratic, many people was agree with it, but not everybody. The Franco’s putsch developed a civil war, the fascist ones (military and people that weren’t agree) against the republican ones (military and people that were agree with republic) also called “els rojos” (the reds). At end in 1939, fascists ones won the war, and Franco was declared dictator for god’s grace.

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During Franco’s dictatorship, the people lived oppressed. If any person didn’t do what Franco ordered, that person was condemned to death. He committed serious violation of human rights. People wanted defend them. For Catalan people , it wasn’t different. Well, it was worse, because Franco hated Catalan language, Catalan people, and everything about Catalonia. If any person (especially at the beginning of the dictatorship) spoke Catalan in the school or in any official building, the police put him at the jail immediately.

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ART First I’m going to talk a bit about allegations of human rights violations in the field of art. I’d like to talk about two different artists, both were working for republican advertising in time of the war. The another one is Pere Català Pic, he was photographer, and during the war he took some “controversial” photos. The first one is Carles Fontserè, and during the civil war he made a lot of posters. All of them were against fascism. He was persecuted by the government and he must go to another country.

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Children and war. These two words can’t stay together, but fifty years ago in spain (like in many other countries) were it. Children died because of hunger and diseases, so the government among with international organizations, made stamps to beneficiate children. When you bought a stamp the money went to food, drugs, help in general, for children affected by the war. This poster was made for make advertising of that stamps. I think is important make things like this, even if is the government who do it, because exactly kids, have no guilt about war. Poster made by Carles Fontserè

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I especially like this picture for it’s meaning, because is like view a revolution. We can see the foot wore with the typical Catalan shoes of working class. The people were fed up of oppressions, war, abuse… People were fed up of what fascism did with their lives. So, the foot over the broken swastika means the working class revolution against fascism. The street floor, tell us, that the street is theirs. This photo have had a big impact on the people, I think it’s because the photo show what many people thought. Photo made by Pere Català Pic

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CINEMA Now I'm going to talk about allegations of human rights violations in the field of cinema. But, I'm not talking allegations of human rights violation about 1936-39 (in the war), I'll talk about films made today. The first one is “A Tornallom”. It is a documentary about the eviction of “l’horta de la punta” a village from València. Valencian government wanted to evict it for make highways (another port access). The antoher one is a film called “el bola”. It is a film about abuse by a father to his son. Is a very hard but true film.

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On July of 2005, was demolished the last house (centenary) of that village. Consequently, every body who lives in, both in the home and in the village, were evicted from their homes and their land, witch one that they had worked all their life. After ten years fighting they ended up losing those lives that, based on years had been built. The evictions and the works started without a warrant. I like this documentary because shows what happens from the other side. It shows the suffering and the struggle of those people for their land, for the place where they had live all their lives, they, their parents and their grandparents. And the documentary shows the injustices committed once again because of greed, money and lust for power. Without regard for the feelings and the importance of NOT material things for the people. Government made to much publicity about the people’s compensation. But the affected just claimed a bit of money, only for some months of rent for a little floor. But they can’t saw anything about a new village or a new land for work. Documentary made by Enric Peris and Miguel Castro

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This film explains the history of a 12 years old boy. He has big problems in his house. His father hit him every time. His mother is a sad women, but she doesn’t make anything. One day the boy (el bola) met another boy in the school, and slowly he met another type of family. In his friend family everybody love the another one and help him, something he had never seen. And then, with his friend’s parents help he can face to his father. This film show you how miserable can be a person. And it remembers you that unfortunately things like this still happens today. But I also think it’s important to know when this happens, to make something. And it’s perfect to raise awareness people that this happens, it isn’t right and is a serious violation of human rights. Film made by Achero Mañas and Veronica Fernández

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MUSIC Ovidi Montllor was a Valencian singer. He belonged at “la nova cançó” (the new song). It was a movement that claimed the use and the normalization of Catalan. He, like his mates claims Catalan and Catalan countries trough his songs. Lots of persons had use the music for report the human rights violations. For me the best moment of protest music in Spain, is during Franco’s dictatorship in Catalonia. Because especially in Catalonia people lived so oppressed, and they used the music to report it without much suspicious about what they were saying. Els esquirols (the squirrels), were a Catalan folk group. They weren’t from la Nova cançó, but they are known for their claiming songs. Now some of their songs are become anthems.

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Ovidi Montllor, with another people from “la nova cançó” (the new song), made different songs about oppression lived in Catalonia in those times. They defended Catalan, Catalonia and Catalan traditions. They also wanted the independence of Catalonia. He made a wonderful song called “voleu guerra?” (do you want war?). This song talk about the feelings of the people who were living in a country in war. He said he’s hungry and ill. He talk about violent scenes and about dead people. He explains that he’s fed up of suffering for loved people who don’t return home. At end he ask at “important people” if it is ok, is ok that suffering, that hungry and that disease. I think he’s right to ask at “important people” if it is ok, if they are happy now, when the people is hungry, killed, dead and sick. I want to know it too. Ovidi Montllor

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Els esquirols (the squirrels), were a music folk group at the beginning of Franco’s dictatorship. This group were so admired, especially at the beginning, because when the war ends were very, very difficult make something in Catalan. And when they started, made all their songs in Catalan, and were protest songs. (secretly of course) For me the best song is “ cada dia és un nou pas” (everyday is a new step). This song say they had anguish in their hearts because they were oppressed people. Then it say that with effort we (Catalan people) will get freedom. Maybe with the voice, maybe with the hands. The quid is make the things together. I really admire those people, because they fought for our country. They fought for don’t lose Catalan and they awoke the fighting spirit of thousands of young. For me this is absolutely magnificent, because without people like they, now we can’t be who we are. Els esquirols

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LITERATURE

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Her name is Alba Diez, she’s not to famous, but for me, is the kind of person who missing in this world. She hasn’t done big feats, but at the same time, every day, she does the biggest one. In her daily live, she fight for the human rights. She like much other, defends above all , equality and human rights. She has written a poem about women rights. This is a part of the poem, my favorite: (it’s translated, so isn’t the same as the original) FORWARD! […] The woman is a treasure. You can’t fix the price of a life, of a heart. If you look a little farther, you will realize that you understand them if you are able to hear them. A woman isn’t an object, award or possession. She don’t deserve any punishment or penalty. She isn’t an animal or a furniture. She never should feel weak. […] Let’s looking for the freedom of those women, prisoners in many places. Let’s find a life without chains, we can still living the traditions in another way. […]

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Salvador Espriu was a Catalan poet. He stands for his poetry about the postwar period. In the poems of that time he catch the sadness of the world around him. This poem talk about the necessity of people to be free, especially when the repression is bigger. In the Spain case, the repression comes from Franco’s dictatorship, but in the poem, he don’t say Spain any moment, he talks about Spain saying Separhard. He talks about the difficult to live, if you aren’t free. He said freedom is de quid for live, even if the freedom involves the fight. (sorry for the traduction, it isn’t the same in English) WE SHOULDN’T SAY THE NAME We can’t say the name of the people who thinks in us, even if we scared. If we clash in the darkness with that blind strange, where will base our life,but rather in the vacuum and nothingness? We will try to raise in the sand the dangerous palace of our dreams and we will learn this humble leason along the time of tiredness. Because only in that way we are free to finght for the last victory over the scare. Listen, Sepharad: the people can’t be, if they aren’t free. Sepharad you know that the men can be, if they aren’t free. And the Voice of the people will shout: “amen”.

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And during the history, thanks to people like them, our world is a little better.

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