Children at work, Catia, Laurine, Manon

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PowerPoint presentation about children at work in France, by Catia, Laurine and Manon

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EQUALITY FOR EVERYONE ?:

EQUALITY FOR EVERYONE ?

Introduction:

Introduction Children’s conditions are not the same in the world and over the centuries. In fact, we can see these differences between the rich and the poor countries. To see these differences we are going to compare Europeans and African countries. Finally, we’re going to give our opinion about this topic.

Plan :

Plan I. The children’s conditions in different countries and over the centuries. a. In France b. In England c. In Ivory Coast II. The laws evolution in these countries. a. In France b. In England c. In Ivory Coast III. Our opinion and our conditions.

I.CHILDREN’S CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OVER THE CENTURIES :

I.CHILDREN’S CONDITIONS IN DIFFERENT COUNTRIES OVER THE CENTURIES a. In France In France, for a long time until the 20th century, children were used to work. In fact, these ones worked in fields, in mines and in industries like textile factories. They were many children between 6 and 12 who were working in these terrible conditions. Indeed, in 1840, they were around 144000! They were so much because of the economic crisis; their families were so poor so they had to send their child to work to try to earn some money to not starve to death and to try to live in better conditions.

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However, children did not earn much money because they were exploited and they did the jobs that anybody doesn’t want to do. In fact, their wages were also between 5 cents and 2 francs it is equivalent today between minus 1 cent and 30 cents! With that, they could not survive! Moreover, they worked in terrible conditions and they were exposed to a lot of accidents and mutilations. For example, they went under the machines when they were working, so they risked to be mutilated.

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Moreover, they worked during lots of hours like 12 hours a day or more in the cold or under a terrible heat. They were exposed to all the meteorological conditions. They did not sleep enough so they were exhausted at the end of the day.

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b. In England In England, children’s situation is almost the same as in France. In fact, at the Victorian period about 82 259 boys were mainly agricultural laborers so they worked in fields and most of the girls were cotton manufacturers, about 37 058. Like in France, they worked when they were very young to earn money and to help their parents.

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So we can say that they were employed to work for the same reasons in the 2 countries. And we found too the same injustice in France like in England, for example these children had to work before having an education, go to school and take advantage of the life like all the children love do that.

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c. In Ivory Coast Today in France and in England, children do not work anymore because it is forbidden there are laws to protect them. But in certain countries children’s work is always topical. Indeed, in Africa 80 millions of children who are between 5 and 14 years old still work today. It is the most affected country by children’s work. Sometimes these children are volunteer because they are poor and they cannot go to school but most of the time they are forced by their parents to go to work. In fact, Africa is enormously touched by the poverty. These children work in fields but they can cook or take care of bring water at home. They could be domestic servant too.

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When you walk in the city, you can see lot of children who work in the street, they polish shoes, and they are salesman or parking boy. They can work also in cocoa plantations, like in Ivory Coast where 200 000 children work in these farms. But in this country and in others there is a big traffic.

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In 2001, Nestle, a chocolate industry, has tried to stop this traffic, by refusing to buy chocolate which come of countries where children work. Moreover, UNICEF, an organization, and their partners give some food and some drinks at these children to try to help them and take out them of awful conditions of work.

II. The laws' evolution in these countries:

II. The laws' evolution in these countries a. In France France is not the first country which reacted to stop the exploitation of children. In France, until the 19th century, it wasn’t abnormal to see a lot of young children working sometimes during a long day. In fact, it was necessary to wait 1840 to have the first debate about the conditions of the children’s work. Eleven years later, it had been forbidden to use a child during the night or the Sunday. Then, in 1853 the first famous person who disputed this exploitation thanks to a book, was Victor Hugo.

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But these actions weren’t sufficient to stop definitively it. Thus, the work of children had became a State problem only in 1882, when Jules Ferry created the state education. Thanks to this novelty, the children could go to school more easily. In 1967, the school had became obligatory until 16 years old. In 1905, the first real law against the children’s work had been promulgated. Today it is totally forbidden to exploit a child.

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b. In England The British government was the first in Europe to promulgate laws to the protection of children. In fact, in 1801, they promulgated a law which says that children minus eight years old aren’t able to work. Then in 1802, children’s time to work was regulate, the night’s work and their conditions too. In fact, in 1819, the British government promulgated a law which said that children under the age of 9 are not able to work in cotton mills. Then in 1833, a law to regulate and to decrease their time to work was promulgated.

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These one said that children’s work do not exceeded forty eight hours weekly, and between 8 and 11 a day. Then, in 1841, they promulgated an additional one, which said that children under the age of eight could not be employed in agriculture. So little by little, children had won laws to their protection, but these ones were always not very good, so in 1870, a law to offered an education to the children was promulgated these one said that schooling for children aged 5 to 12 must be mandated, so after that children start to have a small education.

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Then in 1875, a law appeared to say that it was illegal to send boys up chimneys because it was very dangerous to their health and their development. Finally, in 1933, a last law was promulgated to force all children of compulsory school age to go to be registered and issued with a work permit.

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c. In Ivory Coast In Ivory Coast, and generally in African countries, children do not have any laws to protect them. In fact, in these countries children still working nowadays, because of the government, this one doesn’t promulgate and create laws to protect children. The only laws that are existing to protect these children are the laws promulgated by the ILO ( International Labor Organization), this organization is a specialized agency of ONU, they have to goal to protect all children who are working in the world. In addition, to realize this, they have many laws to protect children. In fact, a first law was promulgating in 1919, which set the age minimal to work in industries.

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Then in 1920, they have set an age minimal to work in maritime works… over time they have created various laws to protect all children who are working nowadays yet. But this serious project doesn’t have the results expected, and then in Africa they are children who still work today! They are working today because they are too poor and they cannot go to school, or some bosses and industries exploit them. So with the analysis given by the organization Amnesty international and Unicef France, we can say that in poor countries like in Africans ones, even if they are laws which are existing to protect children, they are still working and it’s very sad buy we almost cannot do anything for them.

III. Our opinion and ours conditions:

III. Our opinion and ours conditions According to the happiness ladder, we situate our happiness at 9 to 10 because we are satisfied of our life and our situation but we think that we could be one d ay h appier and we always hope a better life but we have a lmos t all we want, we have some friends, a family and a good health! Therefore, it is almost perfect! When we compare our situation with the poor children one’s who work every day we c o uld say that we are fortunat e! For examp le , we love eat chocolate but wh en we thi nk and imagine that these one have been done by children of our age or less we could feel guilty.

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We have the chance to go to school and to have an education but we always complain about that but in poor countries, some children dream and wish to go to school and to could have a future! Moreover, when we go back home, after a school day we have our house heated or air-conditioned and we could open the fridge and this one has always some food to eat, whereas the poor children don’t have anything to eat and to drink.

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Besides, we have the chance to have the possibility that to go to a hospital or to have an appointment with a doctor when we want. The French Social Security allows an access to the health and to cares for all. In the majority of African countries, children don’t have any vaccines so they are exposed to dangerous diseases and they don’t have any prevention. Therefore, African countries are the most affected by AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), in fact they don’t have any access to the contraception.

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In these countries, they are happy if they have only a tee-shirt whereas in rich countries, children always want more clothes, and if these are not clothing brand, they complain and refuse sometimes to wear them. It’s the same thing with the new technologies which have invade our lives and without them we are lost. They become indispensable.

conclusion:

conclusion In spite of the laws which are speaking about equality and liberty, nowadays although the evolution, like we saw before in certain countries, children still worked and are exploited. So “equality” is not the same between poor and rich countries. So, can we speak about the existence of an equality in the world ?

Pictography:

Pictography http://www.connectionivoirienne.net/?p=61441 http://www.franceinter.fr/emission-la-marche-de-l-histoire-le-travail-des-enfants http://blogs.mondomix.com/samarra.php/2011/11/16/lewis-hine http://www.etu.univ-bordeauxsegalen.fr/_contents-images/ametys-internal%253Asites/etudiants/ametys-internal%253Acontents/la-securite-sociale---dispense-de-cotisation-article/_metadata/illustration/image_max180x510/assurance_maladie.png http://s.plurielles.fr/mmdia/i/20/1/journee-mondiale-de-lutte-contre-le-sida-le-sidaction-2704201hcudv_2041.jpg?v=1 http://bn.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A6%9A%E0%A6%BF%E0%A6%A4%E0%A7%8D%E0%A6%B0:ILO_logo.png http://envi2bio.com/2011/08/15/casques-verts-onu/logo-onu/

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