Children at work, Sébastien and Hugo

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A PowerPoint presentation on the history of children at work in France, by Sébastien and Hugo

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Child labour , yesterday and today, in France and in the world

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Us, young people of 16 years old, we often complain of all the house work we have and we say that we can’t have any time to do something after school. But, can we really complain of it? We can go to school, we have a house and at 16 years old we do not still working! With this presentation we will show you that we are really lucky to only have these problems. Indeed, only 100 years ago in our country lots of children, younger than us, worked in horrible conditions and it’s still the case in other countries of the world.

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Summary Children at work I/Children’s labour in the past 1. Before the Victorian and Napoleonian period 2. French and English situations II/Evolution of children's rights 1. Thanks who ? The main actors of the evolution 2. The most important dates III/Current situation of children's work 1. In France 2. Study of a case : the prostitution in France. 3. In the world Conclusion : our own opinion about child labour in the world.

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The children labor is a tradition in the rural world and more particularly among the peasant. During this period the life was rather short so the teenagers were considered like an adult and a child was like a teenager. For centuries, most of the children worked very early. In the countryside, they were employed to work in the fields. In the city, they helped their parents who where artisans. It was a familial work and the children often had the same labor as their parents... Right from the 17th century Savoyard chimney sweeps are children. The textile factories employed children from the age of seven years. In manufacturing many children who had from seven to twelve years where employed. Another example: In the region of Tourcoing, in 1790, 38% of the worker of the mill where children and sometimes some of them drowned in pools where the wool where washed. I/Children’s labour in the past 1. Before the Victorian and Napoleonian period

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In the nineteenth century, in France, because of the development of machines, and the new technologies we use the steam-powered machines and so we needed lot of coal and iron... Children worked in mines until 1880. They were smaller than the adults so they could go in the narrow pits… They had to trap without light, in the dark and they had to push the coal’s wagons in the mine. It was a very dangerous labor and lots of children were killed crushed by the wagons that were too heavy. The work’s conditions were really unhealthy and they could have fourteen hours of work a day. In the XIXs the mill employed a lot of children who were doomed to toil fourteen hours a day, or who must go under the machinery to repair them. 2. French and English situations This was a dangerous labor too, lot of children had accidents: their muscled were lacerated and their bones were broken… And for this labor they had got only half of the salary of the adults. At the beginning of the 1840s, around 143,000 children worked in the industry, including 93,000 in the only textile sector. In 1840, women and children represented 75% of the textile labor. In the 19th century, 150 million children around the world had a full-time work and 100 million a part-time work. So it is understandable that the 19th century is called the “black century” of child exploitation.

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Charles Dickens is an English writer and social critic. Today, he's considered as the best novelist of the Victorian period. He is probably one of the most important character of the commitment against child's labour . There are many explications of this commitment. First of all, he's humanist and philanthropist, who really took an interest to the Human's conditions. Knowing that he lived in England during Victorian period, he was very scandalized of the children's conditions. Indeed, when he was young, his father was imprisoned for debts, and his mother, on her own, decided to send him in an industry to earn a little bit more money, because they were instead poor. Years later, he wrote books where those he met, that's to say all these children, compelled to work hard in mines, factories or industries, were described exactly, and precisly . Thank his talent and his sad experience, he moved million of readers and the entire world, writing Oliver Twist or Nicolas Nickelby . II/Evolution of children's rights 1. Thanks who ? The main actors of the evolution

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Victor Hugo was a French poet, novelist, and dramatist who lives in France during the Napoleonian period. He is considered one of the most well-known French Romantic writers. His father was an officer, so the family moved frequently and Hugo learned much from these travels. Hugo was a freethinking republican, his mother was a Catholic Royalist who is believed to have taken as her lover General Victor Lahorie , who was executed in 1812 for plotting against Napoleon. His difficult childhood and his all travels made him very intelligent and helped him to forge a world view. He's abolitionist and humanist, who want change the point of view of the population about lots of social facts. He is defending poor people and children in his writings like in les misérables , one of his most famous works.

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ONU: United States President Franklin D. Roosevelt was first used the name of "United Nations" in the Declaration by United Nations of 1 January 1942, during the Second World War, when representatives of 26 nations decided to continue fighting together against the Axis Powers. In 1945, representatives of 50 countries met in San Francisco at the United Nations Conference on International Organization to draw up the United Nations Charter. On 11 December 1946, the global community proclaims a new organization for protection and care of children: the United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) to respond to the millions of displaced and refugee children deprived of shelter, fuel and food after World War II.

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2.The most important dates 1813, France: children under 10 years old can’t descend into the coal mines The 1819's law, England: the children who are under 9 years old can't work anymore. The 1841's law, France: For the children working in factories and industries. Now, they can't work the nights and the Sundays. 1850 and 1867: In France : In France : Towns with more than 500 habitants must have a Girl’s school. The 1851's law, France: This law limits the duration of children's work. Indeed, now the kids who are 14 years old or less cannot work more than 8 hours a day. For those between 14 and 16 years old, 12 hours a day. The 1878's law, England: Factory Act, the work is prohibited for children under 10 years old, the other ones who are between 10 and 14 years, can work only half a day each day. 1882, France, Ferry’s Law : Primary school secular and free for children between 6 and 13 years old The 1891's law, England: Factory Act, the children are authorized to work, only if they are 11 years old. 1913: creation of the international association for the childhood protection 1989: Adoption by the ONU of the international convention of the children rights .It contains 54 articles 1990: First world summit at the ONU for the childhood. World Declaration for the Survival, Protection and Development of the children 2003: June 12 is declared " World Day Against Child Labour " by the ONU

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III/Current situation of children's work 1. In France France is, like most of the Western Europe's countries, almost saved by this new modern slavery which is the children's work. However, a few kids work illegally and clandestinely, but it is very difficult to determine how many they are. It is also quite difficult to know what are the jobs practiced. Although we don't have many informations , we can give some examples. The children compelled to work come from, mainly, families with economical difficulties. In fact, the condemnations are instead rare, and give an incomplete vision of this phenomen . The jobs exercised are quite different than those of the Victorian period in England for example. One of them is very interesting because of its seriousness, and its appearance which is very recent.

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It is a very serious problem, which appeared approximately 10 years ago in France and in all the European countries. The explication of the phenomen is the arrival of many immigrants of Eastern Europe in 2000. The children's and teenager's exploitation began with the prostitution's birth. Nowadays, most of the prostitutes, boys and girls, said that they started very young, that's to say when they were minors. Hundreds of French children sell their bodies, often or rarely, with various rates, by laughing or with pain... Most of them don't have family anymore, or have been, when they were younger, raped. Mostly, the girls come from Albania, Kosovo, Ukraine, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Russia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Cameroon, Ghana. About the boys, the continents are the same, but the countries are different : Algeria, Morocco and Romania. They're also French, who are immigrants. They are as many girls as boys, and as many strangers as French. Prostitution About the ages, they're mainly between 15 and 18 years old. But worse than it, children who are about to 10 years old already work as prostitute. They work most of the time in big cities, where they're lots of potential clients. On top of that the conditions of work are awful, they do it in the street, on sidewalk and rarely in flats or hotels... The procurement is ubiquitous with the prostitutes of that age, because they're vulnerable and ingenuous.

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To conclude, we both know that children's work is awful, it makes the children tired, they are hurt. But, and it is a personal opinion, prostitution, which is a job, exactly as any other jobs, is probably worse for many reasons. First of all, the violence is ubiquitous, and sometimes, we unfortunately have to talk about sexual violence which is absolutely worse. These poor children loose their innocence, everything which make them kids and not adult. They live in an adult's world, without children of their ages except those with who they work. Adults, sex, procurement, money, everything which doesn't qualify a child's universe...

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Children at work Entertainment, fashion , advertising Children who are under 16 years old can't work in a show's company, cinema's, radio's or television's company without an individual authorization. It exactly the same thing for children who work as models. These children can't work during school's period and sundays . It is totally prohibited to publish informations about the child's privacy, only informations about the artistic creation are authorized to be published. The law prohibits all the jobs which are dangerous for their health and life, like shows with animals, acrobatics (these situations are prevalent in circus).

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3. In the world According to this map, we can conclude that most of the children who work live in Africa. About the Asia, there are many children at work too (especially in Nepal). However, we cannot exclude the south- american children who, especially in Brazil, work. The disappointing point is the absence of informations about several countries. Among them, most of the European countries, and North America. While we are always talking about the children's situation in Africa for example (I mean French people), why are we so disinterested of the situation in our own country, where some children are forced to work, exactly as in other foreign countries, where the tasks are certainly different ? Because, in my opinion, a child who works in a carpet weaving industry in India, or another one who works as a prostitute in the parisians streets, are in the same awful conditions of work, which represent the new modern slavery. With that, it is easy to understand that the country of Human rights doesn't want to accept it, and prefers hide it and let a few organizations try to find answers of this significant problem.

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You have to be In which country ? To work where ? 18 years old Bolivia United States Luxembourg Peru Building Building Slaughterhouse Navigation 17 years old Austria Canada Burma Pakistan Tannery, glassware Marine works Mines Circular saw 16 years old Ivory Coast Mexico United Kingdom Mines Acids Toxic subtances 15 years old Costa Rica Italy Thailand Street trading Moving machinery Bars 14 years old Cyprus India Sri Lanka Building Explosives, carpet weaving Street trading 13 years old Germany Denmark Small farming Shops (as assistant) 12 years old Benin Burkina Faso Egypt Small farming Domestic Domestic Country (or continent) Low Hypothesis High Hypothesis France 130 000 children at work 285 000 children at work Europe (25 countries only ) 3 850 000 children at work 10 155 000 children at work Table of the children's jobs In the world: Statistics Children at work in rich countries France and Europe:

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World Example : China Everybody knows Samsung for their mobile phones. But did someone know that in their industries, hundred teenagers worked ? This discovery is very recent. In fact, Chinese militants penetrated in an industry, and found out these poor teenager's who were supposed to attend lessons at school. Because this story is a sordid plot between the industrialists and the teachers who were corrupted. These kids worked 11 hours a day, and earned 145 € per month. They slept in overpopulated dormitories (they payed for that, 20€ each month). Thanks this exploitation, Samsung earned 16 billion. Wow, well done, such an incredible income. But, did they calculate the price of all the tears shed ? Because they may be indebted.

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CONCLUSION After the work that we did, focusing on children's labour in France, in the world, on the history around it, and the evolution, we learned lots of things we ignored before. That was an instructive work to do, but the subject was quite hard and sore. Indeed, the situation of children nowadays in the world is still worrying, exactly as it was centuries ago. However, there's a shade to do. We both know that the conditions are better, that's sure, but children are still suffering today, in the world. Everybody believes that this pain exists, but it is only in far countries like India. They're right, but not entirely, because the suffering is not as far as they know, it is near them, close to them. Because pain is everywhere, it is on children or on adults, everybody is vulnerable face to this reality. When this suffering is provoked by other people who'd like to be richer than they are (we think about procurers or industrialists for example), it is pretty pathetic, and for us, inacceptable nowadays.

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SAIGNES Hugo et RIOU Sébastien 1ere F

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