Human Rights in Italy

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The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 is definitely the document that marks a fundamental step in the affirmation of human rights. The rights proclamated in the Declaration are the result of a long journey in every country. Let’s see this journey in Italy . History of HUMAN RIGHTS in Italy

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Ancient Rome In ancient Rome the exercise of any right was reserved exclusively to free male citizens and to pater familias. In addition, probably over a quarter of the people living under ancient Roman rule were slaves. In fact , Rome was a slave – owning society acquiring its slaves through its wars of conquest and through trade. Millions of men, women and children lived their lives in a state of legal and social non-existence with no rights of any kinds. Slavery was a brutal,violent and dehumanizing institution. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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The feudalism An important contribution was made by Christianity , that is based on the idea of equality of men . In reality this principle clashed with the reality of the period, authoritarianism and religious conservatorism dominated medieval society. The idea of human rights emerged later as an idea of humanism in the early modern period and a position in the XVIII century age of Enlightenment. The decline in power of the church led society to place more emphasis on the individual. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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The history of human rights in the XX century One of the worst page in the history of human rights in Italy was The Fascism period. Fascism basically rejected the idea of democracy focusing on ethnicity and on “our” race being better than “your” race. Fascism’s dictatorship was characterized by terrorism and police surveillance. Fascism used censorship and oppression. In Italy, under Mussolini (1885-1945) violence increased and freedom lessened. All other political parties were banned, so were labour unions. Books and newspapers were censored. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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Human Rights in Italy after World War II Luckily, since World War II, Italy has been highly active on human rights issues. Priority issues carried out: The campaign for the abolition of the death penalty; The protection of freedom, of religion or belief; The rights of the children and most especially, children affected by armed conflicts; The rights of women,and particulary, the fight against female genital mutilation; The fight against racism and xenophobia; The promotion of democracy and the rule of law. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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Problems: Immigration; Social Infrastructure; socioeonomic integration In the last decades we have witnessed a gradual integration of foreigners . There is a widespread concern in countries that receive migrants, because they do not have appropriate structures to host them . The socio-economic integration of immigrants in Italy today History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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The socio-economic integration of immigrants in Italy today Foreigners residing in Italy since 1 January 2010 are 4.235.059 the 7.0% of total residents. Around half of foreign residents (2 million 86 000 people, 49.3% of the total) comes from Eastern European countries: a quarter comes from new accession countries of the European Union (1 million 71 thousand, excluding Cyprus and Malta, including 888 000 from Romania); and another quarter (1 million 15 000) is represented by the citizens of Eastern European countries not belonging to the European Union. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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There are 20 regions in Italy. Abruzzo is the region where I live. Foreign residents from 1 January in the Abruzzo region (years 2002-2010) for 100 residents Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Abruzzo 1,7 1,9 2,5 3,0 3,4 3,7 4,5 5,2 5,7 History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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Actual Problems History of HUMAN RIGHTS From the reports of Amnesty International we know that some violations of human rights persist in Italy. Our government is failing to take effective action to prevent and prosecute racist and xenophobic violence. In addiction, a serious cause for concern is the political trend to spread the culture of fear. Immigrants and Rom have often been the victims of brutal attacks in recent years. For example, The United Nation Human Rights Commissioner, Ms Navy Pillay, in her first visit to Italy in 2010 raised concerns that the countries authorities are treating Rom and migrants as security problems rather than looking at ways to include them in our society. On a positive note, Ms Pillay praised Italy’s initiatives to abolish the death penalty and improve the situation of women and children all over the world

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We would like to conclude this short journey about the history of human rights in Italy with a thought expressed by a great Italian: the spaceman Paolo Nespoli of the European Space Agency . He reminded that “from above of the earth appears without borders; but they exist and make themselves heard”. History of HUMAN RIGHTS

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