The Evolution of Human Rights in Greece

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“From the Antiquity & Turkish Occupation to the Establishment of Greek Democracy”(5th Century B.C.-1975) THE EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RIGHTS IN GREECE

“Historical Evolution” : 

“Historical Evolution” From Slavery in Antiquity, to contemporary Democracy there has been a long evolutionary process…

“In Ancient Greece” : 

“In Ancient Greece” In Ancient Greece, the individual was identified with the citizen. But not all individuals had rights. Only the citizens were free and entitled to certain rights. Thus, the Freedom of Individual was confined.

“The System of Direct Democracy” : 

“The System of Direct Democracy” The system of direct democracy, within which the citizens had the right to vote, ensured the civil rights of each individual as well as respect of other people’s rights. Furthermore, the law suggested “egalitarianism” – equal treatment of citizens –and guaranteed equal freedom of expression. Pericles ,(5th Century B.C.)

“The Sophists & Stoics” : 

“The Sophists & Stoics” The Sophists and Stoics believed in natural equality among all people. Also, Christianity played a major role in fundamental human rights. For Christianity, all people are equal – before God – and free. Protagoras

“18th Century-Turkish Occupation” : 

“18th Century-Turkish Occupation” In the 18th century Greece had already been enslaved to the Turks for four centuries. In the fight for independence, Greeks were inspired by the European Enlightment.

“The Greek Enlightment” “Adamantios Korais” : 

“The Greek Enlightment” “Adamantios Korais” The leading figure in Greece was Adamantios Korais who believed that education would bring freedom. So, he started publishing classical writings aiming at the education of the nation. Adamantios Korais, (1748-1833)

“Rhigas Ferraios” : 

“Rhigas Ferraios” Another representative of the Modern Greek Enlightenment was Rhigas Feraios. His manifesto contained the declaration of the rights of man and was inspired by the ideals of freedom, equality and brotherhood. Rhigas Ferraios (1757-1798)

“1821-The Greek Revolution” : 

“1821-The Greek Revolution” It was inspired by the belief in the natural rights of Man and the examples of the French and the American revolution. The first Greek constitution the basic rights of freedom of thought, press, speech and religious freedom. Theodoros Kolokotronis

“Greek Constitutions during the Fight” : 

“Greek Constitutions during the Fight” During the fight for Independence there were three Greek Constitutions: Equality! Civil Rights! Right to Report! Protect of Property! Dignity! Safety! Freedom of Expression! No torture! Protect of Widows & Orphans! Freedom of Religion! Education! Independence! Right to Citizenship!

“Monarchy-The 1st King of Greece” : 

“Monarchy-The 1st King of Greece” In the first years after the liberation of the Greek state there was serious tension which led to the introduction of monarchy. King Otto gave rights to the citizens such as: Otto (king of Greece from 1832 to 1862) Protection of Property! Prohibition of slavery! Personal Freedom! Prohibition of tortures!

“Dethronement of Otto” : 

“Dethronement of Otto” But only a few could enjoy such freedoms; those who were loyal to King Otto. Hence, some of these freedoms were violated leading to the dethronement of King Otto in 1862.

“The next Resolution” : 

“The next Resolution” In the next resolution of 1864 there are some more rights mentioned, such as: Personal safety Asylum of residence Right to form partnership Right to report to the Authorities Tax equality Juridical independence Permanency of public employees Implemented for the first time in society.

“Period of Division”“Mentions” : 

“Period of Division”“Mentions” The years from 1915 to 1922 will be remembered as a period of division of the Greek people; those supporting a liberal statesman, Eleftherios Venizelos, and those who supported King Otto. Eleftherios Venizelos

“The Constitution of 1925/1926” : 

“The Constitution of 1925/1926” The protection of religious freedom Freedom of art and science and their teaching Confidentiality in mail and telephone conversations Protection of young people from public spectacles and improper performances.

“The 2nd King of Greece-King George” : 

“The 2nd King of Greece-King George” Referendum of 1935 Restoration of monarchy Unsuccessful attempt to restore parliamentary democracy Rise of dictatorship in fear of communism Violation of rights Civil war George (King of Greece from 1863 to 1913)

“Dictatorship 1967” : 

“Dictatorship 1967” The ensuing turmoil led to the formation of a military dictatorship in 1967. This dictatorship took away fundamental rights by using police like methods; media censorship, unlawful arrests, and even tortures.

“The Establishment of the Greek Democracy” : 

“The Establishment of the Greek Democracy” The next two constitutions of 1974 and 1975 protected: Fundamental human rights Citizen rights Statutory rights Social rights

“Fundamental Human Rights” : 

“Fundamental Human Rights” The right of respecting and protecting the value of human being The right of individuality and participation in the social, economic & political life of the country The right to those within the Greek territory for protection of their life, honor & freedom The sacred of personal freedom The asylum of residence The freedom of communication The religious freedom

“Citizen Rights” : 

“Citizen Rights” The principle of equality The right to free education The freedom of entry into and exit from the country The right to congregate The right to constitute unions The right to constitute political parties The active and passing electoral right

“Statutory Rights” : 

“Statutory Rights” The principle of parliamentary independence The principle of juridicial independence The protection of family The right to local administrative units to independent administration The freedom of research and education The permanence of public employees

“Social Rights” : 

“Social Rights” Familial rights (e.g. protection of family, maternity, etc) The rights of social insurance (e.g. protection of health, protection of old age, etc) The economic rights (e.g. right to work, etc) The cultural rights (e.g. right to education, right to participation in the cultural life, etc)

“The recognition and protection of the fundamental and unalienable human rights by the state aims at the realization of social progress within freedom and justice” : 

“The recognition and protection of the fundamental and unalienable human rights by the state aims at the realization of social progress within freedom and justice” Greek Constitution 1975, article 25, par. 2

Thank you for watching!!!By: Christina Michou & Nelly Zelelidou3rd General Lyceum “Miltos Kountouras” in Athens, Greece, March 2012Comenius Project, 2011-13 : 

Thank you for watching!!!By: Christina Michou & Nelly Zelelidou3rd General Lyceum “Miltos Kountouras” in Athens, Greece, March 2012Comenius Project, 2011-13

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