Category: Education

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by Nelli Ze


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Immigration Migration Emigration Transmigration:

Immigration M igration E migration T ransmigration Nelly Zelelidou, March 2012

Declaration of Human Rights:

Declaration of Human Rights #1 We are all born and equal #2 Don’t Discriminate #3 We have the right to Life #6 We have rights; No matter where we go #13 Freedom to move #14 The right to seek a safe place to live #25 Food and shelter for all #26 The right to education #28 A fair and free world #38 Noone can take away your human rights


Definition Emigration is the act of leaving one's country or region to settle in another. It is the same as immigration but from the perspective of the country of origin. Human movement in general is termed migration .

Types of migration:

Types of migration Within country-To another country Voluntary-Involuntary Primary-secondary Complete-Incomplete Short term-Long term Continental-Intercontinental

History of human migration (1):

History of human migration (1) Prehistory : Population (tribe) movement from cold climate to warmer places, from mountains to valleys, from poor to rich places in food (hunting-gathering) . Historical era : Huge populations transfer from one place to another within the frame of the domination of one nation to another and the conquest of new places. This also refers to the ancient Greek colonization in the Mediterrranean .

History of human migration (2):

History of human migration (2) The migration of Europeans to Asia, Africa and America was impressively big after their discovery because of their natural wealth .

History of human migration (3):

History of human migration (3) After World War I , economic crisis push Europeans in massive migration to the USA . This phenomenon continued even after World War II .

History of human migration (4):

History of human migration (4) India-Pakistan : In 1947 , after the declaration of independency of India, there was a massive movement from India to Pakistan and vice versa , according to their religion. Their number is estimated at 12,5 million with human losses of approx. 1 India’s Muslims were relocated to Pakistan and what is now Bangladesh, while Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan and Bangladesh migrated to India .

Causes of human migration:

Causes of human migration Economic Politic Social

Economic causes:

Economic causes Minimal or no income in poor countries due to lack of jobs and nonexistent industry .

Political - Social causes:

Political - Social causes Political conflicts War Huge natural disasters (flood, prolonged droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions)

Theories for migration:

Theories for migration There are theories that attempt to describe the phenomenon of migration : Ravenstein theory Lee theory Climate cycles Gravity model of migration Buffer theory

Lee theory 1. Push factors (Homeland):

Lee theory 1. Push factors ( Homeland ) Not enough jobs Few opportunities Primitive conditions Desertification Famine or drought Political fear or persecution Slavery or forced labor Poor medical care Natural disasters War Lack of political or religious freedom Poor chances of marrying

Lee theory 2. Pull factors (Host country):

Job opportunities Better living conditions Political and/or religious freedom Enjoyment Education Better medical care Attractive climates Security Family links Industry Better chances of marrying Lee theory 2. Pull factors (Host country )

Problems faced by the immigrants themselves:

Problems faced by the immigrants themselves Problems of survival, cover basic needs, unemployment They are exploited by the local population as cheap labor Racism, hostile climate, rights violations, marginalization Insecurity, inferiority complexes, psychological problems Nostalgia, desire to return home Adjustment problems (new language, other customs, different cultures) Unequal treatment, limited educational opportunities Inadequate securing civil rights, inability to active citizenship.

Problems of the host countries:

Problems of the host countries Strengthening of the unemployment problem for the locals as immigrants are considered as cheap labor Upsurge of violence and crime, climate of suspicion, loosening of social cohesion Heterogeneity of the population, inability to effective communication and cooperation, risk of deterioration of the local ethnic population Confirming of racism and stereotypes, undermining of the property and orderly social and political institutions

Problems of Homelands:

Problems of Homelands Suspension of economic progress, because the young people which are the most vital part of the population leave usually Risk of enslavement, economic or political dependence on other more powerful countries

Illegal immigration:

Illegal immigration Illegal immigration is the input of people in a country without official permission. It is made from poor to richer countries.

Causes of illegal immigration:

Causes of illegal immigration Poverty of Third World countries Liberalization of trade Overpopulation of poor countries Wars-civil conflicts Family reunion

Risks faced by illegal immigrants:

Risks faced by illegal immigrants Use as slaves to forced labor Forced prostitution (trafficking). This phenomenon occurred in Western Europe with women illegally brought from Eastern Europe Death (frequent), amputation (sale of organs)

Methods of illegal immigration:

Methods of illegal immigration Border crossing Prolonged stay in the host country after the expiry of the visa

How to tackle problems Α. The host country for immigrants :

How to tackle problems Α. The host country for immigrants Methodical attempt and integration programs for immigrants, while ensuring human living and affordability of basic needs Safeguarding the inalienable rights (eg. life, education, work) and recognition of their civil rights Equal footing with the local population, combat racist attitudes and prejudices Respect of their cultural specificity Friendly attitude, mental and material support, protection from injustice and exploitation

How to tackle problems B. The immigrants for the host country :

How to tackle problems B . The immigrants for the host country Trying to adapt to the circumstances of the country without fear and prejudice Respect the locals, respect the laws and institutions Expression of socially acceptable behavior, rejection of violence and aggression as a means to claim their rights and satisfaction of their claims

How to tackle problems C. The International Organizations The International Community :

How to tackle problems C . The International Organizations The International Community Control and reduction of uncontrolled immigration Initiatives for economic aid and humanitarian assistance where necessary Specific legislation on the rights of immigrants and uninterrupted effort and checking for compliance with and enforcement of

«There is no consolation for the living separation...»:

« There is no consolation for the living separation ...»

PowerPoint Presentation:

« Immigration is not an option, it is a necessity ...»

PowerPoint Presentation:

Thank you for your attention ! Nelly Zelelidou March 201 2

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