Introduction to Philosophy

Views:
 
Category: Education
     
 

Presentation Description

It's good to have some very general notion of philosophy

Comments

Presentation Transcript

PowerPoint Presentation:

Introduction to Philosophy

PowerPoint Presentation:

Definitions Philosophy – pursuit of wisdom Ontology/metaphysics – the study of what is real Epistemology – the study of knowledge, its scope and limits Axiology – the study of values Ethics – the study of good and what constitutes a good life Aesthetics – the study of the beautiful

PowerPoint Presentation:

The Value of Philosophy Seeks knowledge – increases knowledge Gives freedom from narrow and practical aims; an escape from the daily round More apparent than real Asks questions Frees us from prejudices Read the article “The Value of Philosophy” by Bertrand Russell .

PowerPoint Presentation:

Sophie’s World A Course in Philosophy. Handle with care. (p. 11) ‏ “The best way of approaching philosophy is to ask a few philosophical questions...” (p. 13) ‏ “Today as well each individual has to discover his own answer to these same questions.” (p. 13) ‏ “The only thing we require to be good philosophers is the faculty of wonder.” (p. 15) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Analogy of the Rabbit's Fur Who is the magician? “All mortals are born at the very tip of the rabbit's fine hairs, where they are in a position to wonder at the impossibility of the trick. But as they grow older they work themselves ever deeper into the fur. And there they stay.” (p. 18) Where are you? Why do adults stay deep into the fur? What are the benefits of crawling back to the tip?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Philo-sopher Philo-sopher – one who loves wisdom Knows, in reality, he know and understands very little Draw people's attention at eternally good, beautiful and true

PowerPoint Presentation:

Mythology Aim of early Greek philosophers is to find natural rather than supernatural explanations for natural practices

PowerPoint Presentation:

Natural Philosophers Nature of the physical world Science Thales – 625BC – 545BC – Greek colony in Asia Minor – first know philosopher – everything from water – single basic substance Anaximander – 610-546 BC – all created things are limited – that which comes before and after must be “boundless” - basic stuff could not be as ordinary as water Anaximenes – 570-526 BC – source of all things must be air of vapour

PowerPoint Presentation:

Democritus 460-370 BC “everything was built up of tiny invisible blocks” (p. 43) ‏ Each block was eternal and immutable firm and solid not all the same – different shapes and sizes unlimited number Called atoms, “un-cuttable” (p. 43) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

How accurate is Democritus theory to what we know today? Atoms theory still exists P. 84 – the lego horse – Plato’s idea of the model plan – “World of ideas”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Athens – circa 450 BC “Cultural center of the Greek world.” (p. 61) ‏ Focus changed from natural philosophy to “the individual and the individual’s place in society.” (p. 62) ‏ Democracy evolved Art of rhetoric – “saying things in a convincing manner.” (p. 62) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Prominent Philosophers Sophist – “a wise and informed person” (p. 62) – “ man and his place in society” (p. 62)” “No absolute norms for what was right or wrong.” (p. 63) ‏ Protogoras (485-410 BC) “Man is the measure of all things” (p. 62) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Socrates 470-399 BC there are norms wrote nothing down greatest influence on western thinking taught in the city squares known to us through Plato’s writings we must use our reason to grasp “philosophical truths” p. 65 feigned ignorance – “Socratic irony”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Socrates died because of his convictions

PowerPoint Presentation:

Reading Assignment Athens (p. 72-77) ‏ Plato (p. 78-93) ‏ Aristotle – (p. 104-120) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Plato 428-347 BC Pupil of Socrates theory of ideas Myth of the cave – denies the reality of the natural world We must become enlightened

PowerPoint Presentation:

Myth of the Cave From The Republic What we take in with our senses is not real, but rather a poor copy of it – we see only shadows – imprisoned by our senses – the shadows are less real than the actual Should take in the world intellectually Ignorance is likened to imprisonment

PowerPoint Presentation:

Put the “Myth of the Cave” in your own words . l

PowerPoint Presentation:

Plato and Aristotle

PowerPoint Presentation:

Aristotle 384-322 BC student of Plato Elemental theory – fire, water, wind, earth Rejected Plato's “world of ideas” Senses are important Women as inferior

PowerPoint Presentation:

Medieval/Baroque Machiavelli – 1469-1527 – control populace – politics, government - two books, The Prince is still used today in politics (Stalin really liked The Prince) ‏ Spinoza – 1632-1677 - in God (one substance) tolerance and free thought – “Rationalist Mystic” Hobbes – 1588-1679 – materialist – natural world – political thinking - The Leviathan – “The value or worth of a man is, as of all things, his price.” Hume

PowerPoint Presentation:

Locke – 1632-1704 – father of empiricism and liberalism, education. “All mankind is good and ought not to harm one another.” “No man’s knowledge here can go beyond his experiences.” Hume – 1711-1776 – nothing is certain (complexity), empiricist, take actions because of morals Leibniz – 1646 – 1716 – rationalist –borrowed reality – “There is a reason why every fact is as it is and not otherwise.” – calculus (Leibniz or Newton) ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Enlightenment

PowerPoint Presentation:

Romanticism

PowerPoint Presentation:

Existentialism/Modernism Kierkegaard – 1813-1855 – father of existentialism - individual finds own identity a problem – mystery of own existence deBeauvoir - 1908-1986 – French existentialist – Sartre - feminism Sartre – 1905-1980 – fate doesn't exist – man is what he conceives himself to be “Hell is other people.” Descartes – 1596-1650 – father of modern philosophy – method of doubt - “Cogito ergo sum - I think therefore I am .” Camus– 1913-1960 – French writer – absurd that humans demand significance in an indifferent universe - “Man is the only creature who refuses to be what he is. ”

PowerPoint Presentation:

Egyptian Thinking

PowerPoint Presentation:

Senses or Reason Empiricists – believe that we learn through our senses; we learn based on observation, experience ; we are born with a clean slate (tabula rasa) ‏ Rationalists – believe one has to have an understanding of one’s self to learn “Know thyself”; senses offer a limited world; rely on “truths,” logic and intuition Kant synthesized the two – need reason and the senses to learn

PowerPoint Presentation:

Philosophy Essay Part 1: Biography Part 2: Presentation of key ideas Part 3: How did your thinker break from or change previous ideas? (Refer to 2 or 3 other thinkers) ‏ Part 4: Historical impact (significance of your thinker) ‏ Part 5: Relevance to contemporary thinking

PowerPoint Presentation:

Part 1 – Biography (Introduction) ‏ Birth time and place Family information Education Hobbies, interests Thesis – Why is this philosopher important? ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Part 2, 3, and 4 Overview of the philosopher’s ideas How did these ideas connect with or contradict with previous thinkers? What new thinking did your thinker introduce? What impact did this thinker have?

PowerPoint Presentation:

Part 5 (Conclusion) ‏ Why do we still talk about this thinker today? What relevance does this thinker still have? Connect to modern day ‏

PowerPoint Presentation:

Philosophy Essay Planning Plan your thinking before you begin to write Topic – Your philosopher’s importance Audience – interested students and adults Purpose – To convince your audience of your philosopher’s importance Outline – traditional, mind map or cluster, looseleaf

PowerPoint Presentation:

Draft 1 Draft 1 – turn-off spell and grammar check Don’t worry about fonts Just write – it’s ideas that count

PowerPoint Presentation:

Draft 2 Read first draft Are details vivid and convincing? Check organization – paragraph structure, topic sentence for each paragraph, smooth transitions Fix grammar and spelling errors

PowerPoint Presentation:

Draft 3 Get a trustworthy, honest proof reader. Decide which suggestions you will use and which ones you will discard.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Final Draft Neatness Title page, including the title of you essay Double space Bibliography

PowerPoint Presentation:

Writer’s Block Insecurities Fear of risk Lack of perseverance Remember – no first draft sounds polished – write it anyways Use free writing Manipulate your environment – work at the best time of the day for you; don’t write with the tv on; tell family members not to interrupt

authorStream Live Help