final Renewable energy sources

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Presentation Transcript

Renewable energy sources: 

Renewable energy sources


Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S. Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for Coal 125 1300 Petroleum 5 50? Natural gas 5 50? Oil shale 0 2500 Conventional reactors 3 15 Breeder reactors 115 750 Fusion 106 to 109 Geothermal surface 0.2 60 deep rock 0 600


Estimates of renewable energy Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for an indefinite period. Tidal energy 0.1 Organic Waste 0.1 Photosynthesis 0.23 Hydropower 0.14 Wind Power 5 Solar radiation 740


Geothermal Heat near surface of the earth = geysers, volcanoes, hot springs


Use heat to make steam to turn turbine for electrical generation Note: deep hot waters are corrosive to best to inject clean water in a closed system and bring it back to the surface as steam.


In U.S., much done on public land = cheap Very little potential in east and mid west


World wide distribution of volcanos, hot springs, etc. Japan, Iceland,New Zealand big users of geothermal.


Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot everywhere if you go down far enough.


Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump down water to make steam.


Hydropower = dams Not much used in world, why??


Norway, Zambia, Ghana big users


Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia

Problems with hydroelectric: 

Problems with hydroelectric Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns Hard to build dams in populated river valleys Siltation of dams – limited life.


Tidal Power In areas of large tides Anywhere – build offshore dam


Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!


Tidal power anywhere No dam – but a turbine. Problems: Corrosion Navigation Appearance Amount of energy available is low Best tides are near poles – away from people.


Wind Power = wijnd farms Banning Pass


Best wind location = Aleutian Islands, why no wind development there?


Best U.S. localities Midwest, mountains And coastal areas.


Netherlands = coastal development


England = off shore

Wind energy problems : 

Wind energy problems Location – near population center Bird migration – Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity. (intermittent supply)


Solar farm = big solar plants


At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths: 

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = Big plants Centralized production Soft = Decentralized units per household


Energy efficient house; wind power on roof. Solar panels for heat and electricity.


Solar electricity generation


Solar water heating solar air heating

Solar house problems: 

Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.

Solar house economics: 

Solar house economics Add $16,000 to price of house Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs 15 years to break even Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in 1986 City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not trust solar?


Electrical generation Switch from petroleum to coal and natural gas Why has hydroelectric declined? When did nuclear go up?


Note: drop in fusion, fission – why? drop in renewables, increase in fossil fuels.

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