final Renewable energy sources

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Presentation Transcript

Renewable energy sources: 

Renewable energy sources

Slide2: 

Estimates of depletable energy resources in the U.S. Numbers = how long it would last if all energy came from one source Resource recoverable recoverable and hoped for Coal 125 1300 Petroleum 5 50? Natural gas 5 50? Oil shale 0 2500 Conventional reactors 3 15 Breeder reactors 115 750 Fusion 106 to 109 Geothermal surface 0.2 60 deep rock 0 600

Slide3: 

Estimates of renewable energy Numbers = proportion of current U.S. energy needs that could be supplied for an indefinite period. Tidal energy 0.1 Organic Waste 0.1 Photosynthesis 0.23 Hydropower 0.14 Wind Power 5 Solar radiation 740

Slide4: 

Geothermal Heat near surface of the earth = geysers, volcanoes, hot springs

Slide5: 

Use heat to make steam to turn turbine for electrical generation Note: deep hot waters are corrosive to best to inject clean water in a closed system and bring it back to the surface as steam.

Slide6: 

In U.S., much done on public land = cheap Very little potential in east and mid west

Slide7: 

World wide distribution of volcanos, hot springs, etc. Japan, Iceland,New Zealand big users of geothermal.

Slide9: 

Although hot areas near surface are limited, the earth is hot everywhere if you go down far enough.

Slide10: 

Bright idea!? – drill deep enough to find heat. Since rock is a poor conductor of heat, set off a big bomb to crack the rock and allow heat to move – then pump down water to make steam.

Slide12: 

Hydropower = dams Not much used in world, why??

Slide13: 

Norway, Zambia, Ghana big users

Slide15: 

Most unused hydropower in U.S. = Alaska, In World = Canada, Russia

Problems with hydroelectric: 

Problems with hydroelectric Location = unused rivers are in extreme north or low population areas Competition with recreational uses (U.S.) and environmental concerns Hard to build dams in populated river valleys Siltation of dams – limited life.

Slide17: 

Tidal Power In areas of large tides Anywhere – build offshore dam

Slide18: 

Highest tides in the world = Bay of Fundy 16 meters = 48+ feet!

Slide19: 

Tidal power anywhere No dam – but a turbine. Problems: Corrosion Navigation Appearance Amount of energy available is low Best tides are near poles – away from people.

Slide20: 

Wind Power = wijnd farms Banning Pass

Slide21: 

Best wind location = Aleutian Islands, why no wind development there?

Slide22: 

Best U.S. localities Midwest, mountains And coastal areas.

Slide24: 

Netherlands = coastal development

Slide25: 

England = off shore

Wind energy problems : 

Wind energy problems Location – near population center Bird migration – Visual Must be coupled with other sources of electricity. (intermittent supply)

Slide28: 

Solar farm = big solar plants

Slide31: 

At focal point = heat liquid – steam to turn turbine

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths: 

‘hard’ vs ‘soft’ energy paths Hard = Big plants Centralized production Soft = Decentralized units per household

Slide35: 

Energy efficient house; wind power on roof. Solar panels for heat and electricity.

Slide36: 

Solar electricity generation

Slide37: 

Solar water heating solar air heating

Solar house problems: 

Solar house problems The Los Angeles air = smog Retrofitting- very expensive Hard for big hotels, Walmarts, etc.

Solar house economics: 

Solar house economics Add $16,000 to price of house Pay back - $1500 per year in energy costs 15 years to break even Federal tax incentive; 40% of investment can be written off. Discontinued in 1986 City of Claremont – solar energy ordinance. 60% of hot water – solar Exceptions for equivalent savings of energy = Colleges approach. Why not trust solar?

Slide41: 

Electrical generation Switch from petroleum to coal and natural gas Why has hydroelectric declined? When did nuclear go up?

Slide42: 

Note: drop in fusion, fission – why? drop in renewables, increase in fossil fuels.