TGchapter3 Concepts Part II

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Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Chapter 3 – Transportation Modes (Part II) CONCEPTS Copyright © 1999-2007, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. Jean-paul.Rodrigue@hofstra.edu You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans

Concept 5: 

Concept 5 Air Transport

US Post Office Airmail Routes, 1921: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. US Post Office Airmail Routes, 1921

Selected Transcontinental DC-3 Routes, Late 1930s: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Selected Transcontinental DC-3 Routes, Late 1930s

Early Intercontinental Air Routes, 1930s: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Sharjah Early Intercontinental Air Routes, 1930s Dakar Tangier Casablanca Agadir Natal Rio de Janeiro Buenos Aires Santiago Punta Arenas Alicante Marseilles Lisbon Azores New York Botwood Eyeries London Paris Brindisi Wadi Halfa Khartoum Juba Nairobi Mbeya Harare Johannesburg Cape Town Cairo Alexandria Athens Jask Gwadar Karachi Jodhpur Calcutta Allahabad Rangoon Bangkok Alor Setar Basra Baghdad Kuwait Medan Singapore Palembang Jakarta Surabaya Kupang Waingapu Darwin Katherine Mount Isa Brisbane Sydney Charleville Longreach Dayr az Zawr Gaza Amsterdam Imperial Airways African Route (c1933) Imperial Airways/Quantas Australian Route (c1934) Aeropostale (1930) Pan American Transatlantic Route (1939) KLM Amsterdam – Jakarta (1935) Toulouse Akyab

Shortest Air Route between London and Sydney, 1955 - 2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Shortest Air Route between London and Sydney, 1955 - 2006

Flight Times by Piston and Jet Engines from Chicago: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Flight Times by Piston and Jet Engines from Chicago Piston Engine Jet Engine 10 hours 15 hours 20 hours 24 hours 30 hours 40 hours 10 hours 15 hours 20 hours 24 hours

Concorde Services, 1976-2003: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Concorde Services, 1976-2003

Average Airfare (roundtrip) between New York and London, 1946-2004 (in 2004 dollars): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Airfare (roundtrip) between New York and London, 1946-2004 (in 2004 dollars)

Regional Sales of Boeing 747s: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Regional Sales of Boeing 747s

Main Commercial Passenger Aircraft, 1935-2008: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Main Commercial Passenger Aircraft, 1935-2008

Selected Ultra-Long-Range Nonstop Airline Routes: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Selected Ultra-Long-Range Nonstop Airline Routes

Range from New York of Different Modern Commercial Jet Planes: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Range from New York of Different Modern Commercial Jet Planes B-747-400 (11,400 km) B-777-100 (7,400 km) A-320 (3,700 km)

World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Air Travel and World Air Freight Carried, 1950-2006

World Air Travel and Gross World Product, 1950-2001: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Air Travel and Gross World Product, 1950-2001

Air Transportation Growth (Passengers and Freight) and Economic Growth, 1950-2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Transportation Growth (Passengers and Freight) and Economic Growth, 1950-2006

New York / Hong Kong Air Routes: Conventional and Polar: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. New York / Hong Kong Air Routes: Conventional and Polar

Characteristics of Major Air Travel Markets: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Major Air Travel Markets

Airline Deregulation and Hub-and-Spoke Networks: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Airline Deregulation and Hub-and-Spoke Networks Before Deregulation After Deregulation Hub Hub

Passenger Plane Load Factor, 1950-2005 (in %): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Passenger Plane Load Factor, 1950-2005 (in %) Air Deregulation Act

Market Share of the top 4 American Airlines, 1977-2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Market Share of the top 4 American Airlines, 1977-2005

Largest Airline Companies by Revenue, 2005 (in $millions): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Largest Airline Companies by Revenue, 2005 (in $millions)

Strategies of Low-Cost Carriers: 

Strategies of Low-Cost Carriers Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use.

Selected Low-Cost Carriers: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Selected Low-Cost Carriers

Air Freedom Rights: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Freedom Rights First Second Home Country A Country B Third Fourth Fifth Sixth Seventh Eight Ninth

Air Hubs and Market Fragmentation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Air Hubs and Market Fragmentation

Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Eastbound Transatlantic Nonstop Routes: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Eastbound Transatlantic Nonstop Routes

Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Westbound Transpacific Nonstop Routes: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Composition of Weekly Frequencies on Westbound Transpacific Nonstop Routes

Market Share of World Airline Traffic, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Market Share of World Airline Traffic, 2005

Major Air Freight Flows Between Regions, 2003 (in billions of ton-km): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Air Freight Flows Between Regions, 2003 (in billions of ton-km) 22.4 1.3 9.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 9.9 11.6 2.7 4.6 24.2 24.2 North America Latin America Africa Europe Middle East Asia / Pacific 12.3 2.7 2.2 1.7 2.5 3.3 1.9 12.4 13.8 13.8

Development Costs for Selected Aircraft: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Development Costs for Selected Aircraft

Operating Profit in the Global Airline Industry, 1960-2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Profit in the Global Airline Industry, 1960-2005

The World’s Most Profitable Airlines, 1994-2004: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The World’s Most Profitable Airlines, 1994-2004

A380 and B787 Orders at End 2006: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. A380 and B787 Orders at End 2006

Trend in Aircraft Fuel Efficiency (Fuel burned per Seat): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Trend in Aircraft Fuel Efficiency (Fuel burned per Seat)

Stages in Air Network Development: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Stages in Air Network Development Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4

World’s 10 Largest Passengers Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World’s 10 Largest Passengers Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers)

World’s 10 Largest Freight Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 tons): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World’s 10 Largest Freight Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 tons)

Commodities Shipped by Air Freight, 2003: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Commodities Shipped by Air Freight, 2003

Network Effect of Strategic Alliances: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Network Effect of Strategic Alliances A B C D E

Income per passenger-km of major airline alliances, 1997: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Income per passenger-km of major airline alliances, 1997

Operating Expenses of the Airline Industry, 2004: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Expenses of the Airline Industry, 2004

Market Share of the Transatlantic Route by Airlines, 1995: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Market Share of the Transatlantic Route by Airlines, 1995

Operating Revenues of the Airline Industry, 2004: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Revenues of the Airline Industry, 2004

Seat Capacity of Selected Aircrafts, pre and post-1985: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Seat Capacity of Selected Aircrafts, pre and post-1985

Operating Fleet, Major US Carriers, 2001: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Operating Fleet, Major US Carriers, 2001

Major Air Traffic Flows Between Regions, 2000 (% of IATA Scheduled Passengers): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Air Traffic Flows Between Regions, 2000 (% of IATA Scheduled Passengers) 35.5 23.2 15.9 3.2 1.3 1.1 2.6 1.5 3.9 1.9 1.3 1.8 1.7 1.7 North America Central America South America Africa Europe Middle East Asia Southwest Pacific 1.7

Major Air Traffic Flows, 1999 (millions of passengers): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Major Air Traffic Flows, 1999 (millions of passengers)

World’s 10 Largest International Air Carriers, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World’s 10 Largest International Air Carriers, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers)

World’s 10 Largest Domestic Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World’s 10 Largest Domestic Airlines, 2000 (in 1,000 passengers)

Generation and Attraction of Global Air Freight Flows, 2003 (in billions of ton-km): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Generation and Attraction of Global Air Freight Flows, 2003 (in billions of ton-km)

Concept 6: 

Concept 6 Intermodal Transportation

Integrated Transport Systems: From Fragmentation to Coordination: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Integrated Transport Systems: From Fragmentation to Coordination

Evolution of Intermodal Integration: 

Evolution of Intermodal Integration Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerization of Maritime Transport Systems Container port Containerization of Inland Transport Systems Intermodal terminal Pendulum Services Intermodal and Transmodal Operations Corridor Offshore hub Inland Port Gateway

Intermodal Transport Chain: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodal Transport Chain Composition Transfer Interchange Decomposition Local / Regional Distribution National / International Distribution Transport Terminal ‘First mile’ ‘Last mile’

Multimodal and Intermodal Transportation: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Multimodal and Intermodal Transportation A C D F E B Multimodal Point-to-Point Network A C D F E B Intermodal Integrated Network Rail Road Transshipment Transshipment

Integrated Freight Transport Systems: Intermodal and Transmodal Operations: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Integrated Freight Transport Systems: Intermodal and Transmodal Operations ROAD RAIL MARITIME Intermodal Terminal Thruport Ship-to-ship DCs / CD Intermodal operations Transmodal operations On-dock rail Transloading Integrated Freight Transport System Port container yard

Multimodal Transport System: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Multimodal Transport System Nation Region Locality Transshipment Handling Terminals Flows Modal Function Intermodal Function Competition / Cooperation Maritime / Land interface Articulation points Distribution centers

Integrated Transport Systems (under construction): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Integrated Transport Systems (under construction) Modes Terminals Shippers

Piggyback and Doublestack Train Cars : 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. 40’ (12.2 m) 9’ (2.7 m) 85’ (25.9 m) Piggyback (TOFC) 65’ (19.8 m) Doublestack (COFC) 18’ (5.5 m) Piggyback and Doublestack Train Cars 17’ (2.7 m)

World Container Traffic, 1980-2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Container Traffic, 1980-2005

Canadian Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1970-2002: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Canadian Intermodal Rail Traffic, 1970-2002

Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Length of Haul, Domestic Freight in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles)

Average Length of Haul, Domestic Passenger Modes in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Length of Haul, Domestic Passenger Modes in the United States, 1960-2003 (in miles)

Driving Forces of Containerization and Multimodal Transport: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Management and coordination Control over cargo Mergers Multimodal operators Modal integration Through rates and billing Logistics Deregulation Driving Forces of Containerization and Multimodal Transport Containerization Unitization Standardization Cellular ships Gantry cranes Specialized terminals Transshipment productivity Land consumption Multi-rate structure Multimodal Transportation

Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 1995-2006 (in millions of TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 1995-2006 (in millions of TEUs)

Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 2005: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Containerized Cargo Flows along Major Trade Routes, 2005 1.8 (-18%) 4.3 (+30%) USA 6.1 Asia 13.9 (+148%) 23.8 8.9 3.3 (+14%) 9.9 (+120%) 5.6 (+55%) 17.2 11.7 9.9 Europe Million TEUs Growth (2000-2005) Imports (Million TEUs) Exports (Million TEUs)

US Containerized Trade with Asia, 1996-2005 (TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. US Containerized Trade with Asia, 1996-2005 (TEUs)

Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs : 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Distance Transport costs per unit Road Rail Maritime D1 D2 C1 C2 C3 Distance, Modal Choice and Transport Costs

Value Per Ton of U.S. Freight Shipments by Transportation Mode, 2002: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Value Per Ton of U.S. Freight Shipments by Transportation Mode, 2002

Intermodal Transportation Cost Function: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Intermodal Transportation Cost Function Costs Origin Destination Composition Connection Connection Interchange Decomposition C(T) Transshipment C(cp) C(cn) C(I) C(cn) C(dc) Local / Regional Distribution Cost National / International Distribution Cost

Time and Cost of Transport Activities Involving Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Time and Cost of Transport Activities Involving Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe

Cumulative Cost and Time of Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Cumulative Cost and Time of Moving a 40 Foot Container between the American East Coast and Western Europe

Container Transport Costs: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Container Transport Costs

Container Transport Costs from Inland China to US West Coast ($US per TEU): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Container Transport Costs from Inland China to US West Coast ($US per TEU)

Carrying Capacity of Containers (in cubic feet): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Carrying Capacity of Containers (in cubic feet)

Number of Units and Weight of Standard Consumption Goods that Can be Carried by a 20 Foot Container: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Number of Units and Weight of Standard Consumption Goods that Can be Carried by a 20 Foot Container

Global Fleet of Maritime Containers, 2000 (in TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Global Fleet of Maritime Containers, 2000 (in TEUs)

World Container Fleet (in thousand TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. World Container Fleet (in thousand TEUs)

Six Generations of Containerships : 

New Panamax Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Six Generations of Containerships First (1956-1970) Converted Tanker Second (1970-1980) Cellular Containership Third (1980-1988) Panamax Class Fourth (1988-2000) Post Panamax Plus Fifth (2000-2005) Post Panamax Converted Cargo Vessel TEU Length 135 m 200 m 500 800 215 m 1,000 – 2,500 250 m 3,000 290 m 4,000 275 – 305 m 4,000 – 5,000 335 m 5,000 – 8,000 Draft < 9 m < 30 ft 10 m 33 ft 11-12 m 36-40 ft 11-13 m 36-43 ft 13-14 m 43-46 ft Sixth (2006-) 397 m 15.5 m 50 ft 11,000 – 14,500

Characteristics of Some Historical Containerships: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Characteristics of Some Historical Containerships

Specifications for Very Large Post-Panamax Containerships: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Specifications for Very Large Post-Panamax Containerships

The Largest Available Containership, 1970-2007 (in TEUs): 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. The Largest Available Containership, 1970-2007 (in TEUs)

Average Cost per TEU by Containership Capacity and By Route, 1997: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Average Cost per TEU by Containership Capacity and By Route, 1997

Economies and Diseconomies of Scale in Container Shipping: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Economies and Diseconomies of Scale in Container Shipping Costs per TEU Capacity in TEU Maritime Shipping Transshipment Inland Transportation

Functional Integration of Supply Chains: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Functional Integration of Supply Chains Shipping Line Shipping Agent Stevedore Custom Agent Freight Forwarder Rail / Trucking Depot Trucking Megacarrier Economies of scale Land Distribution Maritime Distribution Level of functional integration

Impacts of River / Sea Shipping: 

Copyright © 1998-2007, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University. For personal or classroom use ONLY. This material (including graphics) is not public domain and cannot be published, in whole or in part, in ANY form (printed or electronic) and on any media without consent. This includes conference presentations. Permission MUST be requested prior to use. Road / Rail Maritime Fluvial Fluvial River/sea A B C Road / Rail Road / Rail Road / Rail Maritime Impacts of River / Sea Shipping Seaport Fluvial Port Origin Destination