Gamification in Education

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Presentation for Diffusion and Integration of Technology in Education Course

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Gamification in Education :

Gamification in Education Palandria Hunt Palandria.hunt@waldenu.edu Diffusion and Integration of Educational Technology Dr. Timothy Green Walden University

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Introduction

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…is the use of game thinking, game logic and gaming mechanics in a non-gaming contexts to engage students in solving problems.

History of Gamification:

History of Gamification Gamified learning has been around for centuries. Gamification started in the early 1900s.

Benefits of Gamification :

Benefits of Gamification Progression Levels Points Investment Achievements Collaboration Virality Appointments Meaning Information Theory Bonus Discovery Infinite Play Synthesis Loss Aversion

The Problem and Solution Gaming Statistics :

The Problem and Solution Gaming Statistics 1.2. million students in the U.S fail to graduate high school. According to Joey Lee and Jessica Hammer, the environment of school often results inn disengagement, failed outcomes, cheating, and dropping out. 28 million people play Farmville every day. Over 5million play an average of 45 hours a week of games The planet spends about 3 billion hours a week playing video and computer games.

Research :

Research Jane McGonigal is being called the leading face of Gamification. Two teachers from Columbia University in New York noticed how the gaming concept is invading the real world. Analyst predict that the market will become a multi-billion dollar industry by 2015. Millions of people spend countless hours gaming. Projected to change students perspective on learning. Gamification can serve as intervention. Could absorb teacher resources and teach students that learning only takes place when being rewarded. Thought of as ways of engagement, provides immediate feedback, gives a sense of accomplishment, reduces the sting of failure, provides a sense of control, critical thinking, and the ability to be challenged and overcome those challenges.

Development and Commercialization:

Development and Commercialization Many companies have already incorporated the gaming concept in there business: Crisco has a game called, The Binary Game, which is used to teach people the basics of binary numbers. This game mimics Tetris. IBM has an interactive first-person thinking game, called INNOVs. This game teaches the complex idea of business management. It gives students responsibility to make decisions for a fictitious company, named After, Inc. The military has always used game-based learning, war preparedness, simulations, and military strategies. They believe when it come to life or death scenarios, game-based learning helps to make a better impact on the learner. Although businesses are buying a building different software to accommodate the idea of gamification. Schools and education do not. Gamification is not hard or software, but the basic addition of game-based learning in education.

Innovation-Decision Process:

Innovation-Decision Process IDP is the process through which an individual (or other decision-making unit) passes from gaining initial knowledge of an innovation, to forming an attitude toward the innovation, to making a decision to adopt or reject, to implementation of the new idea, and to confirmation of this decision (Rogers, 2003).

Gamification Decision Process Timeline:

Gamification Decision Process Timeline Turco, K. (2014, March 27). The history of gamification: from stamps to space. [Web log post]. Retrieved October 7 2014 from http://technologyadvice.com/gamification/blog/history-of-gamification-infographic/

Gamification S-Curve:

Gamification S-Curve This S-Curve is designed to show the growth of Gamification over the past 20 years.

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Attributes, Critical Mass, and Change Agents Who will you recommend as key change agents in your organization, and how can the seven roles of a change agent be used in your organization to effect positive social change? Key Change Agents: Young Educators and Technology Leaders Seven Roles of Change Agents: To develop a need for change. Young Educators and Technology Leaders will point the problems in our current education system. They will then express the benefits of Gamified learning. Establish an information exchange relationship. Change agents will build a rapport with other teachers and students to prove their competence and the importance of the innovation. They will To diagnose problems. The change agent will observe teaching and learning in a number of different classrooms to analyze the problem of current strategies. To create an intent to change in the client. The agent will present and motivate teachers in the direction of Gamified learning in the classroom. To translate an intent into action Change agents will work with teacher leaders/ opinion leaders to influence other teachers and students. Change agents will give opinion leaders the tools they need for interpersonal communication about the innovation. To stabilize adoption and prevent discontinuance Change agents will help teachers and students use and establish Gamified learning in the classroom. Agents will help create lessons and team teach with teachers in order to make the transition and establishing process easy and continuous. To achieve a terminal relationship The change will slowly transition out of the picture, giving teachers and students the resources they need to become their own change agents and use the innovation to their advantage.

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Who would you expect to be (or who are) the innovators and early adopters in your field of work for the innovation you are exploring? What strategies are the most persuasive in convincing them to adopt the innovation? The innovators and early adopters of this Gamified learning are teachers and students that indulge in games on a daily/weekly basis. Strategies that should be used to convince other teachers to adopt would be giving them opportunity to observe other teachers using the Gamified learning in the classroom, using the try before you buy method, and showing data with positive results. Who do you think would be (or who are) the laggards in terms of rejecting the innovation? What strategies would be best to help move them toward adoption? The laggards would be teacher, educators, or students that are not familiar with the concept of games. The same strategies that we would use for convincing and persuading early adopters, would be used to help convince laggards, just more intensified. Which combination of perceived attributes would be best for helping your innovation meet critical mass in your industry?  Trailability, Compatibility, and Observability are attributes that should be used to help meet critical mass in the industry. Educators enjoy being able to try different strategies and methods without being judged on them. The also appreciate any new innovation that can make their jobs more purposeful and effective. Educators are also fans of being able to see the new innovation in action, before even trying. With these three attributes Gamification is sure to reach critical mass in now time. Do you believe a centralized or decentralized approach would work best for the adoption of the innovation you are proposing to the Board of Directors?  A decentralized approach would work best for Gamified learning. Allowing the students and teachers to be exposed and try the innovation beforehand, will put the adoption of the innovation in the client-control and share in the process of convincing others to adapt. Has the innovation you are proposing to the Board already met critical mass in society? If it has not met critical mass, which of the four strategies for achieving critical mass do you recommend to the Board for your innovation? Critical mass for the adaption of Gamified Learning has not been reached. Systems need to focus on allowing highly-respected individuals to help promote the innovations in a positive and effective way. The innovation should be introduced to groups of individuals that appreciate the practices learned from games. These individuals will be easily convince others that the adaption will reach fully critical mass soon. Attributes, Critical Mass, and Change Agents Continued

The Need for Gaming:

The Need for Gaming Two Teaching Methods Instructor-Led Benefits- Can be very interactive Downside- The effectiveness of lesson depends on instructor Computer-Based Benefits- Cheap and can take place anytime, anywhere Downside- Lacks interactivity Gamification Caters to both methods Allows more student interaction and more practice

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“Games are the new normal.” - Al Gore

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References Gamification. (n. d). Wikipedia. Retrieved October 7, 2014, from http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamification#History Kapp , K. (2012).  The gamification of learning and instruction: Game-based methods and strategies for training and education . San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer . Lazzaro , N. (2004). Why we play games: Four keys to more emotion without story. Retrieved from: http://www.xeodesign.com/xeodesign_whyweplaygames.pdf Lee, J. J. & Hammer, J. (2011). Gamification in Education: What, How, Why Bother? Academic Exchange Quarterly, 15(2). Rogers E. M., (2003).  Diffusion of innovations  (5th ed.) New York; Free press Turco, K. (2014, March 27). The history of gamification: from stamps to space. [Web log post]. Retrieved October 7 2014 from http ://technologyadvice.com/gamification/blog/history-of-gamification-infographic/

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