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Almotiry 430911099 Sudan’s Map : Sudan’s Map Country overview : Country overview Population : 43.2 million (UN,2010) Area:2.5 million sq km Major language: Arabic, English Major religion: Islam , Christianity and Animism. Monetary unit: Sudanese pound Main exports: Oil, cotton, sesame , livestock and hides , gum arabic Health indicators : Health indicators Birth rate 36.12 births/ 1000 population (2011 .est) Death rate 11 deaths/ 1000 population ( 2011.est) Infant mortality rate total:68.07 deaths/ 1000 live births Male: 68.77 deaths/ 1000 live births femae: 67.34 deaths/ 1000 live births Health indicators cont’d : Health indicators cont’d Life expectancy at birth total population: 55.42 years male: 54.18 years female: 56.71 years Total fertility rate 4.84 children born/ women (2011.est) Three tiered health system : Three tiered health system The national health strategies : The national health strategies Encouragement the national and foreign organization to provide services in health institutions under the supervision of the health authorities Reducing the mortality and morbidity of both mothers and children that represent 70% of population Encouragement of community involvement in the planning , implementation and supervision of health services The national health strategies cont’d : The national health strategies cont’d Reinforcement of primary health care and delivery of its components through the area health system Coordinated development of the different level of the health system. Encouragement of scientific research into more pressing health problems , including environmental pollution, endemic and epidemic diseases and malnutrition National health strategies cont’d : National health strategies cont’d Improvement of the managerial skills of personnel at all levels Emphasis on coordination between health related ministries and departments Priorities health program in government health sectors : Priorities health program in government health sectors Programs for maternal health Child health and immunization Control of communicable diseases e.g. malaria, schistosomiasis, tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS Programs for lieshmaniasis, guinea worm Blindness control program There seven diseases that are non-communicable need to be implemented as programs Priorities cont’d : Priorities cont’d These diseses are:- 1- mental health 2- social health 3- oral health 4- cancer prevention 5- tobacoo control 6- diabetes programs 7- elderly health Financing the health care system : Financing the health care system Until nineties the health services introduced as free of charge In the early nineties , there was introduced user fees or Cost Sharing Policy (csp) as component of an economic reform plan and also to generate and free more resources to health care system The fees ranges from SDD 250 – SDD 500 (US$ 1- US$ 2) Financing health care system cont’d : Financing health care system cont’d These fees include consultation, diagnostic, wound dressing , minor surgical procedures and dental services plus medications cost To ameliorate the drawbacks of the CSP the emergencies cases and diseases like cancers are treated free . The problems were found with CSP like insufficient training and preparation Financing health care system cont,d : Financing health care system cont,d Weak mechanism to protect the poor Revenues from CSP were not enough to cover health costs Reduction in access and utilization of health services , shortage of essential medicines and poor quality of services Financing health care system cont’d : Financing health care system cont’d The Health Insurance Scheme (HIS) IT was introduced in the mid nineties as radical solution for the user fees( CSP) It is compulsory for all employees working in the both public and private sectors. The government pays for the retirees, full time students and poor people The person who are not covered by HIS can subscribe through charges as US$ 47 annually per family paid on monthly basis Financing health care system cont,d : Financing health care system cont,d HIS covered only 15% population as 85% of those are government workers HIS Covers most health services excludes highest cost diseses namely cardiac surgery, renal failure and cancers plus denture and plastic surgery The HIS covers 75% of medications cost for the drugs existed in the medications list, the medications out of the list not covered Financing health care system cont’d : Financing health care system cont’d Other sources include zakat and international contributions e.g. UN Agencies, WHO There are suggestions to improve the financial accessibility to health care like :- Private rooms at public hospitals Expansion of social health insurance coverage Zakat coverage Co-ordination between agencies like Zakat Chamber, National Health Insurance Fund and FMOH. CHALLENGES AND OPPOURTINTIES : CHALLENGES AND OPPOURTINTIES CHALLENGES:- 1- governance function needs to be strengthened at all levels of the health system 2- institutional weakness 3- political environment 4- inadequate financing of health sector 5- old health information system (HMIS) 6- Inequities in the health system 7- gaps in human resources for health Challenges and Opportunities : Challenges and Opportunities Opportunities:- 1- The peace agreement 2- Rapid economic growth and political commitment 3- Human resources for health 4- Federalism and decentralization policy 5- Enhanced international commitment You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.