Theories of change

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Theories of change:

Theories of change

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Change management is a structured and systematic approach to achieving a sustainable change in human behaviour within an organisation . Realising Change Change management is an organised , systematic application of the knowledge, tools, and resources of change that provides organisations with a key process to achieve their business strategy . LaMarsh The co-ordination of a structured period of transition from situation A to situation B in order to achieve lasting change within an organisation . BNET Business Directory Change Management: the process, tools and techniques to manage the people-side of change processes, to achieve the required outcomes, and to realise the change effectively within individuals, teams, and the wider systems . Unattributed Change management is a style of management that aims to encourage organizations and individuals to deal effectively with the changes taking place in their work. English Collins Dictionary Definitions

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Using Formal Models Aid to understanding Aid to communication Highlight the important and relevant areas that need attention and energy. Provide a common language that aids planning and decision making. Creating Contagious Commitment Andrea Shapiro, 2010 Models & theories

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Field Theory in Social Science Kurt Lewin , 1951 Kurt Lewin – change as a process All stakeholders understand: Drivers for change Why the current position is inadequate What the end state will be Consequences of not making the change Establishing new behaviours and attitudes needed for the new challenges Establishing the necessary infrastructure to support the new status quo

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Bridge’s Transition Model Beginning Neutral zone Ending Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change William Bridges, 1992

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Rogers’ theory: The Diffusion of Innovations Awareness Interest Evaluation Trial Adoption Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Communicability Delivers an advantage relative to the status quo Compatible with existing values, past experiences & needs, adaptable to local circumstances Relatively easy to understand and use Able to be tried without great cost or effort The outcomes can be clearly seen by othe rs Diffusion of Innovations Everett M. Rogers , 2003

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Managing at the speed of change Daryl Conner, 1992 Conner’s Four Roles in Implementing Change Only sponsor projects that you are prepared to see through to the end, as without adequate sponsorship initiatives are likely to fail. Be wary of when the Sponsor has not sanctioned the change, or lacks the resolve to see it through. Agents should never take on the role of the Sponsor or attempt to compensate for inadequate sponsorship. For Targets, clarity and ownership by the Sponsor is key. There is a clear distinction between ‘enthusiasm for change’ and ‘proper sponsorship’ – without which the change initiative will likely fail.

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Organizational Diagnosis Marvin Weisbord , 1978 Weisbord’s Six-Box Model Infrastructure & systems in place to achieve the goals Clarity about the goals of the organisation Basic processes that any organiasation must have to survive Central role: monitoring, co-ordinating , key to change Incentives & punishments Strong relationships between departments & people

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Leading Change John Kotter , 1997 John Kotter – the role of leadership in change Identifying problems with the status quo, & opportunities for change Creating a team that works together, & has enough power to guide the change effort, & is committed to its success A clear, well articulated picture of where the organisation is headed, & strategies for getting there Using every means available to communicate the vision & strategy, especially via the behaviours of the guiding coalition Look for obstacles to change, such as processes or structures, & remove them, encourage risk taking Create credibility for the change by planning & demonstrating improvements, & recognising & rewarding employees involved in early wins Use the credibility from initial short term wins to further systems, processes, structures, policies, or employees who embody the vision Draw out connections between the change & success, anchor the change using rewards & succession planning

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Change is a process – of unlocking, changing, stablising Different people are at different stages – recognise stages & support The pattern of change is predictable – though it takes time, & people move at different speeds – pacing change successfully is key Individuals subjective evaluation of… Relative advantage Compatibility Complexity Trialability Communicability …is key. Do we provide enough time for people to trial new things? People can play different roles to achieve change – Sponsors, Agents, Targets, Advocates - spot them & utilise them effectively (including you!) Effective leadership is central ( Weisbord , Kotter ) What can we learn from these models?

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Eight factors which decrease resistance to change Perceived personal benefit Involvement of leader / supervisor Provision of change information centred on own group / organisation Shared perception of need for change Participation & involvement creating a ‘we’ rather than ‘us & them’ feeling Group cohesiveness Targeting on ongoing work groups rather than temporary ‘training groups’ Open communications , sharing of information Peter Lumley, Realising Change Strategies

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Compliant Commitment Skills Training Values & Beliefs Drive Behaviour (remove) CAN CAN’T ABILITY WILL WON’T A T T I T UD E Peter Lumley, Realising Change Ability & Attitude

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Lead Change Plan Change Implement Change Leadership Communicating Decision making Motivating Delegating Negotiating Influencing Problem solving Valuing & supporting others Setting objectives Prioritising Communicating Decision making Negotiating Influencing Problem solving Planning Analysing Team building Obtaining feedback Monitoring Risk management Contingency planning Information management Communicating Decision making Delegating Negotiating Influencing Problem solving Valuing & supporting other Planning Monitoring Managing conflict Stress management Assessing Edexcel Level 4 NVQ in Management Skills

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Strategies – there are things we can do to create the conditions for change Abilities & attitudes – we need to be aware that people’s attitudes to change will affect their performance Skills – there are some specific skills people need to lead, plan for, & implement change Key messages

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H ow are you/will you plan for this change ? What will your headline strategies be? What do you need to get in place before you start? How will you engage and motivate people? And keep them engaged & motivated ? How will you overcome resistance to change? What skills do you need on your team to make this happen? What do you need from your leader(s) to make this happen? Are you a Sponsor an Agent a Target or an Advocate ? Create a simple strategy with 3-6 points Planning for change

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Creating Contagious Commitment: Applying the Tipping Point to Organizational Change , Andrea Shapiro, 2010 Diffusion of Innovations , Everett M. Rogers, Fifth Edition, 2003 Leading Change , John P Kotter , 1997 Managing at the Speed of Change , Daryl R Conner, 1992 Managing Transitions: Making the Most of Change , William Bridges, 1992 Organizational Diagnosis , Marvin Weisbord , 1978 Who Killed Change?: Solving the Mystery of Leading People Through Change , Ken Blanchard, John Britt, Judd Hoekstra and Pat Zigarmi , 2009 More information - reading

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Chartered Institute of Personnel & Development - http://www.cipd.co.uk/ Institute of Learning & Management - http://www.i-l-m.com/ Chartered Management Institute - http://www.managers.org.uk/ More information – web resources

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