PKY Biology Macromolecules

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Review Chemistry of Biology focusing on the four groups of macromolecules that make up living things.

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Presentation Transcript

How do the four major biological macromolecules' structure and function allow for the diversity of living things? : 

How do the four major biological macromolecules' structure and function allow for the diversity of living things? PKY Biology 2010-2011 Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

Table of Contents : 

Table of Contents Defining Macromolecule The Four Macromolecules How are they alike? How are they different? Elements Functions Monomers Examples Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

Defining Macromolecule : 

Defining Macromolecule Monomers – small organic molecules Mono means one Polymers – many monomers joined together Poly means many Macromolecule – giant organic molecules Macro means GIANT Monomer Polymer Macromolecule Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

The Four Macromolecules : 

The Four Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Nucleic Acids Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

How are macromolecules alike? : 

How are macromolecules alike? Organic - this means that the molecule is made with carbon Carbon – can make up to 4 covalent bonds with other elements Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

How are macromolecules different? : 

How are macromolecules different? Elements Monomers Functions Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

Carbohydrates : 

Carbohydrates Elements = C, H, O in a 1:2:1 ratio Monomer = monosaccharide Mono means one Saccharide means sugar Functions = immediate energy source for living things Structural component in plants Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011 C6H12O6 Glucose monomer

Lipids : 

Lipids Elements = C, H, O (mostly C and H) Monomer = glycerol and fatty acids Functions = Energy storage Structural component of cell membranes Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

Proteins : 

Proteins Elements = C, H, O, and N Monomer = amino acids Functions = Control rates (fast / slow) of chemical reactions Build bones and muscles Transport substances into and out of cells Fight diseases Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011 Amino Group = NH2 Amino Acid Structure Carboxyl Group =COOH R group = side chain that changes in each of 20 amino acids

Nucleic Acids : 

Nucleic Acids Elements = C, H, O, N and P Monomer = nucleotide Nucleotide components Phosphate group 5-carbon sugar Nitrogenous base Functions = Stores and transmits genetic information Master plan and blueprint for the building of proteins Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011 Nucleotide

Examples of Macromolecules : 

Examples of Macromolecules Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011 Carbohydrates Sugars (i.e. glucose, lactose, fructose) Cellulose Starch Lipids Fats Oil Waxes Proteins Enzymes Antibodies Hormones Nucleic Acids DNA RNA

Diversity of Living Things : 

Diversity of Living Things Mickey Macdonald, PK Yonge DRS, 2010-2011

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