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Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) Issues for Women: 

Medication Assisted Treatment (MAT) Issues for Women Susan F. Neshin, MD Medical Director JSAS Healthcare, Inc. Asbury Park, NJ E-mail: jsasmd@aol.com

What is MAT?: 

What is MAT? MAT=Medication Assisted Treatment EUPHEMISM for opioid maintenance therapy Methadone Buprenorphine Broaden definition Naltrexone Medication for other drug dependencies

Medications Development Division: 

Medications Development Division Branch of National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Developing new medications Addiction as a brain disease Drug craving as a physiologic phenomenon

Rationale for MAT/OMT For Chronic Opioid Dependence: 

Rationale for MAT/OMT For Chronic Opioid Dependence Dole’s concept of metabolic derangement Current concept of neuronal adaptations to repeated exposures of the drug Pre-existing vulnerability and/or consequence of opioid use Corrective, not curative

Slide5: 

On/Off - Non-Tolerant Drug States Mood/Effect Scale “ON” Drug Effect “OFF” No Drug Effect; “Normal” Overdose Intoxication Euphoria “Normophoria” Dysphoria Opioid Maintenance Pharmacotherapy - A Course for Clinicians 5

Slide6: 

Dose Response Time “Loaded” “High” Normal Range “Comfort Zone” “Sick” Heroin Simulated 24 Hr. Dose/Response With established heroin tolerance/dependence 0 hrs. 24 hrs. “Abnormal Normality” Subjective w/d Objective w/d Opioid Maintenance Pharmacotherapy - A Course for Clinicians 6

Slide7: 

Dose Response Time “Loaded” “High” Normal Range “Comfort Zone” “Sick” Methadone Simulated 24 Hr. Dose/Response At steady-state in tolerant patient 0 hrs. 24 hrs. “Abnormal Normality” Subjective w/d Objective w/d Opioid Maintenance Pharmacotherapy - A Course for Clinicians 7

Goals for Pharmacotherapy: 

Goals for Pharmacotherapy Prevention or reduction of withdrawal symptoms Prevention or reduction of drug craving Prevention of relapse to use of addictive drug Restoration to or toward normalcy of any physiological function disrupted by drug addiction

Importance of : 

Importance of Dose Adequacy!

Recent Heroin Use by Current Methadone Dose: 

Recent Heroin Use by Current Methadone Dose Current Methadone Dose mg/day % Heroin Use J. C. Ball, November 18, 1988

Retention in Treatment Relative to Dose: 

Retention in Treatment Relative to Dose 80 + mg 60-79 mg < 60 mg Adapted from Caplehorn & Bell - The Medical Journal of Australia

Impact of Maintenance Treatment: 

Impact of Maintenance Treatment Reduction death rates (Grondblah, ‘90) Reduction IVDU (Ball & Ross, ‘91) Reduction crime days (Ball & Ross) Reduction rate of HIV seroconversion (Bourne, ‘88; Novick ‘90,; Metzger ‘93) Reduction relapse to IVDU (Ball & Ross) Improved employment, health, & social function

DEATH RATES IN TREATED AND UNTREATED HEROIN ADDICTS : 

DEATH RATES IN TREATED AND UNTREATED HEROIN ADDICTS Slide data courtesy of Frank Vocci, MD, NIDA - Reference: Grondblah, L. et al. ACTA PSCHIATR SCAND, P. 223-227, 1990 % Annual Death Rates 13

Impact of MMT on IV Drug Use for 388 Male MMT Patients in 6 Programs: 

Impact of MMT on IV Drug Use for 388 Male MMT Patients in 6 Programs PERCENT IV USERS 0 100 LAST ADDICTION PERIOD ADMISSION 100% 81.4% Pre- | 1st Year | 2nd Year | 3rd Year | 4th Year Admission * * 63.3% 41.7% 28.9% Adapted from Ball & Ross - The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment, 1991

Crime among 491 patients before and during MMT at 6 programs: 

Crime among 491 patients before and during MMT at 6 programs Adapted from Ball & Ross - The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment, 1991 Crime Days Per Year

HIV CONVERSION IN TREATMENT: 

HIV CONVERSION IN TREATMENT 18 month HIV conversion by treatment retention Source: Metzger, D. et. al. J of AIDS 6:1993. p.1053

OMT as Treatment of Choice for Chronic Relapsing Opioid Addict: 

OMT as Treatment of Choice for Chronic Relapsing Opioid Addict Concept of “prolonged abstinence” Hyper-reactivity to stress Dysphoria/craving increase vulnerability to relapse

Relapse to IV drug use after MMT 105 male patients who left treatment: 

Relapse to IV drug use after MMT 105 male patients who left treatment Percent IV Users Treatment Months Since Stopping Treatment Adapted from Ball & Ross - The Effectiveness of Methadone Maintenance Treatment, 1991

The Medications: 

The Medications Methadone Long-acting full opioid agonist Orally effective Can be taken once a day Prescribed and dispensed at licensed OTPs

The Medications: 

The Medications Buprenorphine Approved by FDA in October, 2002 Result of DATA 2000 Long-acting partial opioid agonist Sublingually effective Can be taken once a day or less frequently Prescribed by private practitioner with waiver

The Medications: 

The Medications Naltrexone Long-acting opioid antagonist Orally effective Can be taken once a day or less frequently Benefits subgroups of opioid addicts

Addiction as a Biopsychosocial Disease: 

Addiction as a Biopsychosocial Disease OMT addresses the biological aspect Psychosocial aspects addressed Substance abuse counseling Mental health treatment Support and self-help groups Accreditation standards Should improve treatment Eliminate “gas and go” model

Women’s Issues: 

Women’s Issues Higher levels of dual diagnosis than men Childcare Transportation Domestic Violence Educational/Vocational Financial Pregnancy

How to Address Women’s Issues: 

How to Address Women’s Issues Accreditation standards Variable levels of resources Women’s Set-Aside funds One-stop shopping

Dual Diagnosis: 

Dual Diagnosis Depression/mood disorders Anxiety disorders/PTSD Eating disorders Symptoms Guilt and shame Low self esteem

Dual Diagnosis: 

Dual Diagnosis Train counseling staff Availability of therapist Availability of psychiatrist Staff with expertise in “survivor” issues Lifetime prevalence of drug abuse > 4 times greater in women who report history of sexual assault Support/therapy groups

Childcare Issues: 

Childcare Issues Most women in treatment are of childbearing age Children as barrier to treatment Services to address Children welcome On-site child care Parenting classes

Domestic Violence: 

Domestic Violence Train staff Facilitate referral to shelter when appropriate Support/therapy group

Educational/Vocational Issues: 

Educational/Vocational Issues Most women in treatment are “undereducated” and “underemployed” Services to address: Train staff about community resources/state-funded programs On-site vocational counselor Address “sex for drugs” issues

Financial Issues: 

Financial Issues Treatment is expensive Proprietary vs. publicly-funded non-profit programs Services to address patient issues Accept Medicaid as payment Allow for reduced fee/indigency Counsel on budgeting Counselor referrals to/interventions with local service agencies

Financial Issues: 

Financial Issues Program issues Fund raising Lobbying for higher state/federal funding

Pregnancy: 

Pregnancy Comprehensive OMT with adequate prenatal care can reduce the incidence of obstetrical and fetal complications, in utero growth retardation, and neonatal morbidity and mortality (Finnegan, 1991).

Model Perinatal Program: 

Model Perinatal Program On-site prenatal care On-site well-baby care On-site child care Educational groups Pregnancy/medical issues Methadone and pregnancy Effects of drugs of abuse, including alcohol and nicotine, on fetus

Model Perinatal Program: 

Model Perinatal Program Educational groups--continued Nutrition Baby care Parenting skills--include fathers Contraception/Family Planning Counseling on pregnancy termination

Perinatal Addiction: 

Perinatal Addiction Withdrawal? - Rarely appropriate during pregnancy (ASAM 1990) Same recidivism as non-pregnant opioid addicts (Finnegan, 1990) Slow withdrawal between 14 and 32 weeks (Kaltenbach, 1992) Dose of methadone should be individually determined and adequate to control craving and prevent withdrawal syndrome

Perinatal Addiction: 

Perinatal Addiction MMT patients who become pregnant should be continued at established dose. A mid-trimester reduction may be appropriate in anticipation of 3rd trimester dose increase. Altered pharmacokinetics during 3rd trimester often require dose increases and often a split dose to “flatten the curve” and improve maternal and fetal stability.

Perinatal Addiction : 

Perinatal Addiction There is no consistent correlation between maternal methadone dose and the severity of neonatal withdrawal syndrome (Stimmel et al., 1982). Protocols are available for scoring signs of opioid withdrawal to guide the appropriate use of medications to facilitate a safe and comfortable withdrawal of the passively addicted neonate (Finnegan, 1985).

Perinatal Addiction: 

Perinatal Addiction Breast-feeding may be encouraged during MMT - if not otherwise contraindicated (Kaltenbach, 1992). Multiple longitudinal studies find that methadone-exposed infants score well within the normal range of development (Kaltenbach, 1992).

Addressing Stigma: 

Addressing Stigma EDUCATE OURSELVES! “I don’t believe in methadone!” ASAM addressing physician bias Arizona study -- 96% refusal to treat or give pain meds Example of physician opioid addict

Addressing Stigma: 

Addressing Stigma EDUCATE OURSELVES!--continued Need to educate therapeutic communities, Minnesota model programs Need to educate Twelve Step community Methadone/buprenorphine as prescribed medications rather than drugs of abuse Patients on OMT can work a program of recovery

Addressing Stigma: 

Addressing Stigma Educate service agencies and the general public Arizona study -- 66% refused employment or lost job Educate patients about the chronic disease concept Methadone/buprenorphine as corrective, not curative Educate family members

Addressing Stigma: 

Addressing Stigma Publicly funded programs should be mandated to accept patients on OMT Private programs should be encouraged to accept patient on OMT Great need for residential treatment/halfway houses for women (pregnant or non-pregnant) and their children

Addressing Stigma: 

Addressing Stigma Patients should be encouraged to get involved in advocacy Patients need to risk divulging status to treatment providers with support from program staff

Transportation Issues: 

Transportation Issues Lack of transportation as barrier to treatment Clinics in “out of the way” areas Services to address Use of medical transportation for Medicaid patients Site program close to public transportation Give “take-homes” when earned Van service Home medication/family member pick-up for homebound patients

Perinatal Addiction -6: 

Perinatal Addiction -6 Obstacle and barriers to MMT must be removed for the pregnant patients. More research is needed on innovative models of treatment including medically supervised withdrawal during pregnancy with residential care, intensive relapse prevention and monitoring, high-risk prenatal care. When appropriate hospitals, clinics and individual obstetricians could provide methadone maintenance. Opioid Maintenance Pharmacotherapy - A Course for Clinicians

Withdrawal during Pregnancy: 

Withdrawal during Pregnancy The patient refuses to be placed on methadone maintenance. The patient lives in an area where methadone maintenance is not available. The patient has been stable during treatment & requests withdrawal prior to delivery. The patient has been so disruptive to the treatment setting that the treatment of other patients is jeopardized, necessitating the removal of the patient from the program. Opioid Maintenance Pharmacotherapy - A Course for Clinicians Jarvis & Schnoll,1994

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