Chapter 6 Notes: Chapter 6 Notes The American Revolution ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION Why were Americans divided over the question of independence from England? ANSWER:: ANSWER: One third of Americans were Patriots, one third were Loyalists, and the remaining one third of Americans wanted to be left alone. Slide4: Patriots were those who chose to fight for independence. They were angry because of unfair taxation and other alleged abuses, such as collective punishment. Slide5: The Loyalists were colonists who considered it their duty to stay loyal to Britain. They were also called Tories. Many were persecuted by Patriots, who forced them to flee for safety in Canada. They stayed loyal because of family ties and cultural heritage, and believed that British rule (ties to the British Empire) was best for the economy. Slide6: The last group wanted to be left alone and stayed out of political affairs because it would affect their businesses. The backcountry in South Carolina said that it was not their fight. They said that independence was a “Charleston Affair.” ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION What was the significance of the Declaration of Independence? ANSWER:: ANSWER: The primary author was Thomas Jefferson, and it was approved by the Continental Congress on July 4th, 1776. It dissolved all allegiance to the British Crown and created the United States of America. It defined what colonists believed to be their rights, spelled out their complaints against Britain, and declared the colonies free and independent. Slide9: It criticized King George III for depriving the colonists of trial by jury, imposing taxes with the colonists’ consent, dissolving colonial charters and legislatures, and committing two dozen other alleged crimes. It also said that the best governments respected the “natural rights” of individuals such as “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.”
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION What is the symbolism of the SC state flag? ANSWER:: ANSWER: Colonel Moultrie designed the original blue flag with a white crescent. South Carolina got the flag from the Battle of Moultrie outside of the Charleston Harbor when British warships tired to destroy the fort with cannon fire. Since South Carolinians had to hastily reinforce the walls with the surrounding Palmetto trees, they thought the walls would not last. Slide12: However, the spongy wood absorbed the cannonballs without shattering and sometimes bounced off the walls. Therefore, south Carolinian guns were able to continue firing on the British warships and inflict massive damage. The Palmetto tree has since been displayed on the South Carolina state flag, and South Carolina is known as the Palmetto State.
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION What were the major political, social, and economic events of the Revolution? ANSWER:: ANSWER: ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION How did specific individuals contribute to the victory in the American Revolution? ANSWER:: ANSWER: ESSENTIAL QUESTION: ESSENTIAL QUESTION What roles did partisans such as Francis Marion, Andrew Pickens, and Thomas Sumter play in the American Revolution? ANSWER:: ANSWER: First Continental Congress: First Continental Congress In 1774, colonial leaders met in the city of Philadelphia in Pennsylvania. This meeting became known as the ______. Minutemen: Minutemen Members of the militia were known as ______ because they could be ready at a minute’s notice. Redcoats: Redcoats The colonists called the British soldiers _____ because their uniforms were bright red. Wherever the British marched, they like to go in neat lines. (For example, on the way to Lexington and Concord.) Redcoats: Redcoats The British would fire several volleys (everyone shots at once like a giant machine gun) before they would fix bayonets for a charge on the enemies lines. Second Continental Congress: Second Continental Congress Tensions continued to grow, and in May 1775, colonial leaders organized the ______. Continental Army: Continental Army They decided to organize a ______ that could defend the colonies against the British if necessary. George Washington: George Washington The Congress also chose ______ to command this army. Olive Branch Petition: Olive Branch Petition The delegates then sent the ______ to the British king. This petition was the colonists’ last effort to make peace. Siege: Siege The colonial forces then held Boston under ______, which is a military blockade of a city or fort. Battle of Bunker Hill: Battle of Bunker Hill Soon after the British attacked the Minutemen on Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill, the colonial forces ran out of ammunition and had to retreat. However, the Minutemen did hurt the Redcoats at this battle, called the ______. Lexington: Lexington ______ was where the first fighting of the Revolutionary War took place. Dorchester Heights: Dorchester Heights ______ was a hill located south of Boston where a Patriot cannon attack forced the British to retreat from Boston by ship. Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who are the Redcoats?
What was the Continental Army?
Who were the Minutemen?
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
What was the importance of Dorchester Heights?
(Bonus) What is a siege? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz What was the Battle of Bunker Hill?
Who was George Washington?
What was the First Continental Congress?
What was the importance of Lexington?
What was the Second Continental Congress? Mini Question: Mini Question How did the First Continental Congress and the fighting at Lexington and Concord affect the colonies’ conflict with Britain? Mini Question: Mini Question What tasks did the Second Continental Congress accomplish? Mini Question: Mini Question How did geography influence the early battles of the war? Thomas Paine: Thomas Paine ______ wrote a 47 – page pamphlet, called Common Sense, that became popular throughout the colonies. Common Sense: Common Sense Thomas Paine wrote a 47 – page pamphlet , called ______ that became popular throughout the colonies. In this pamphlet Paine argued that countries should be ruled by laws created by elected leaders, not by kings. Declaration of Independence: Declaration of Independence If the people decided that their ruler or government was unfair, then they had a right to overthrow that government. These ideas became an important part of the document that the Congress signed on July 4, 1776. They called this document the ______. Thomas Jefferson: Thomas Jefferson ______ was the primary author of the Declaration of Independence.
Patriots: Patriots Colonists who supported the revolution called themselves ______. Loyalists: Loyalists Colonists who thought that it was their duty to stay loyal to Britain called themselves ______. Abigail Adams: Abigail Adams ______ thought that women should be included in the Declaration of Independence. Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was Thomas Jefferson?
What is the Declaration of Independence?
Who were the loyalists?
Who was Thomas Paine? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz What is Common Sense?
Who was Abigail Adams?
Who were the Patriots? Mini Question: Mini Question How did the pamphlet Common Sense influence the colonies? Mini Question: Mini Question In what way did the Enlightenment affect the Declaration of Independence? Mini Question: Mini Question What issues were not addressed in the Declaration of Independence? Mercenaries: Mercenaries Some were even ______, or soldiers hired from countries other than Britain. Peter Salem: Peter Salem ______ was an African American who fought in important battles for the Patriots.
Salem Poor: Salem Poor ______ was an African American who fought in important battles for the Patriots. Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation: Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation He changed his mind after the British issued ______. This announcement promised to give African American slaves their freedom if they fought for the British. Joseph Bryant: Joseph Bryant One of their (British) most important supporters was Mohawk leader Thayendanegea, or ______. Deborah Sampson: Deborah Sampson ______ disguised herself as a man to fight in the Revolutionary War. Molly Pitcher: Molly Pitcher ______ brought water to thirsty Patriot troops and took her wounded husband’s place loading cannons. William Howe: William Howe ______ was the British general who lost to Washington at Boston, but returned from Canada to beat Washington in New York City. Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was Salem Poor?
Who was Deborah Sampson?
What was Lord Dunmore’s Proclamation?
What are mercenaries? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was Molly Pitcher?
Who was Peter Salem?
Who was Thayendanegea?
Who was William Howe? Mini Question: Mini Question What were the Patriots’ advantages and disadvantages at the beginning of the war? Mini Question: Mini Question How did different groups contribute to the war effort? Mini Question: Mini Question How successful were the Patriots in Canada and New York? Battle of Trenton: Battle of Trenton During the Christmas season, General Washington and his soldiers launched a surprise attack against British mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey. This was called the ______. Battle of Princeton: Battle of Princeton The Patriot forces again surprised British troops and won the ______. (This was done by secretly leaving their campfires burning to surround and attack the nearby British.) John Burgoyne: John Burgoyne ______ was a British general in Canada who recaptured Fort Ticonderoga, but was slow in marching to New York City. Battle of Brandywine Creek: Battle of Brandywine Creek Other British forces fought with Patriot troops near Philadelphia at the ______. The Patriots lost badly. (This led to a British victory due to miscommunication among American troops, but Howe made the mistake of allowing the Continental Army to retreat.) Battle of Saratoga: Battle of Saratoga British general Burgoyne and his troops fought with the Patriots in the ______, in New York, and suffered a serious defeat. It was a major turning point that allowed the French to formally declare their support for the Patriots. Marquis de Lafayette: Marquis de Lafayette ______ was a 20-year-old who arrived from France to help the Americans. Bernardo de Galvez: Bernardo de Galvez ______ was the governor of Spanish Louisiana, who was helpful to the Patriots. Friedrich von Steuben: Friedrich von Steuben ______ was an experienced Prussian army officer, who started training the American troops on basic military drills. John Paul Jones: John Paul Jones The Patriot navy also benefited from the skills and bravery of sailor ______. He won a famous battle in 1779 when he managed to defeat the British warship Serapis. In the battle he said “I have not yet begun to fight!” Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was Friedrich von Steuben?
What was the Battle of Brandywine Creek?
What was the Battle of Trenton?
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
Who was John Paul Jones? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was John Burgoyne?
What was the Battle of Trenton?
Who was Bernardo de Galvez?
What was the Battle of Saratoga? Mini Question: Mini Question What was the Patriots’ strategy at Trenton and Princeton? Mini Question: Mini Question How did the Battle of Saratoga affect foreign aid to the Patriots? Mini Question: Mini Question How did the Americans carry out the naval war? George Rogers Clark: George Rogers Clark During the war, ______ organized many frontiersmen into a western force. Battle of Vincennes: Battle of Vincennes These western Patriots struggled with British forces for control o the town of Vincennes. Eventually the Patriots captured the town in the bloody ______. (This caused British control over the western frontier to be seriously weakened.) Horatio Gates: Horatio Gates ______ led one of the most serious Patriot loses at the Battle of Camden in South Carolina. Guerrilla Warfare: Guerrilla Warfare They switched to ______, which included swift, hit-and-run attacks on British supplies. Francis Marion: Francis Marion ______ was particularly skilled at this type of fighting. He organized Marion’s brigade, which severely damaged British communications and supply systems. Comte de Rochambeau: Comte de Rochambeau A large French force soon arrived to help Washington. These soldiers were led by the French general ______. (He helped to surround Cornwallis.) Battle of Yorktown: Battle of Yorktown The Patriots eventually won the ______, which marked the end of the war. Treaty of Paris of 1783: Treaty of Paris of 1783 The ______ gave official recognition to the new United States of America and defined its borders. Kaskaskia: Kaskaskia ______ was a former British trading village in southwestern Illinois along the Mississippi River and site of a Patriot victory in 1778 during the Revolutionary War. Cahokia: Cahokia ______was a settlement built by the Mississippian culture near present-day St. Louis that was captured by Patriot soldiers during the Revolutionary War. Camden: Camden ______ was a city in north-central South Carolina where the Patriots suffered a serious loss to the British during the Revolutionary War. Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz What was the Treaty of Paris of 1783?
What was the importance of Kaskaskia?
What was the Battle of Vincennes?
Who was Francis Marion? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz Who was George Rogers Clark?
Who was Comte de Rochambeau?
What was the importance of Camden?
What was the Battle of Yorktown? Pop Quiz: Pop Quiz What is guerrilla warfare?
What was the importance of Cahokia?
Who was Horatio Gates? Mini Question: Mini Question How did geography affect the Patriot’s strategy in the West? Mini Question: Mini Question How did the war progress in the southern colonies? Mini Question: Mini Question What events finally ended the war? Works Cited for Pictures Page 1: Works Cited for Pictures Page 1 www.usfca.edu/.../ revolution/congress.htm http://images.google.com/images?q=First+Continental+Congress&hl=en&btnG=Google+Search 8 Nov. 2004
www.concordmousetrap.com/. ../minutemen.jpg http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&lr=&q=Minutemen&btnG=Search 8 Nov. 2004
www.state.nj.us/state/ 225commission/links/ http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&lr=&q=Redcoats&btnG=Search 8 Nov. 2004
www.theenglandproject.net/.../ 2003_11.html http://images.google.com/images?hl=en&lr=&q=Redcoats&btnG=Search 8 Nov. 2004
Works Cited for Pictures Page 2: Works Cited for Pictures Page 2 Works Cited for Pictures Page 3: Works Cited for Pictures Page 3 Works Cited for Pictures Page 4: Works Cited for Pictures Page 4 Works Cited for Pictures Page 5: Works Cited for Pictures Page 5