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Ex. 14 Division Anthophyta:: 

Ex. 14 Division Anthophyta: Flowering Plants - The Flower

Introductory Notes: 

Introductory Notes Plants may reproduce asexually or sexually Sexual reproduction involves a flower Flowers come in many different styles and forms As a result of pollination and fertilization flowers produce fruits and seeds

Highlight or underline:: 

Highlight or underline: Flowering plants, often called angiosperms, represent the most advanced group of plants. … they are also the most abundant and familiar. The reproductive structure is…a flower

Floral Parts (External Morphology): 

Floral Parts (External Morphology) Highlight or underline: The basic features of a complete flower include four types of structures. Sepals (collectively the calyx) Petals (collectively the corolla) Stamens a male reproductive structure consists of 1. Filament 2. Anther – where pollen is produced

(External Morphology Cont.): 

(External Morphology Cont.) The female reproductive organs –the pistil or carpels consist of: 1. Ovary 2. Stigma 3. Style The ovary is where the ovules, which will develop into seeds, develop After pollination the ovary will develop into a fruit

(External Morphology Cont.): 

(External Morphology Cont.) The sepals and petals are know as accessory parts since they are not necessary for reproduction The anthers and pistils are called essential parts A complete flower is one that has all four floral parts An incomplete flower is one that lacks any one of these parts Perfect flowers are those with both male and female structures Imperfect flowers are unisexual

Floral Evolution: 

Floral Evolution Highlight or underline Previous exercises emphasized differences in monocots and dicots. These groups differ in flower structure also. Monocots typically have floral parts in 3’s usually 3 or 6. Dicots usually have their parts in multiples of 4 or 5.

Flower Structure: Tulip: 

Flower Structure: Tulip Answer questions 1 and 3 Answer # 2 - radial

Figure 14.2: 

Figure 14.2 Anther Filament

Answer question 4: 

Answer question 4 Skip #5

Figure 14.3 Gladiolus: 

Figure 14.3 Gladiolus Stigma Style Ovary Carpel Ovules Based on the number of flower parts - Answer question 6

Florist’s geranium: 

Florist’s geranium Answer question # 7 Sepals

Florist’s geranium: 

Florist’s geranium Answer questions # 8 and # 9

Figure 14.4: 

Figure 14.4 Draw and label

Figure 14.6: 

Figure 14.6 Hypanthium Stamen Pistils


Snapdragon answer as many of questions 14-20 as you can

Figure 14.7: 

Figure 14.7 Ovary Wall Ovules

Daisy, Chrysanthemum : 

Daisy, Chrysanthemum Ray Flower Disc Flower Highlight or underline: The daisy has two types of flowers, outer ray flowers and inner disc flowers. Figure 14.8


22. Epigynous 21. Asymmetrical


Dandelion Figure 14.9

Pollen Development : 

Pollen Development Highlight or underline: A young anther contains 4 microsporangia…each contains many microspore mother cells…each produce 4 microspores … each becomes a pollen grain

Pollen Development: 

Pollen Development Figure 14.10

Ovule Development: 

Ovule Development Highlight or underline: An ovule consists of a megasporangium …a single large megaspore mother cells develops in each…each of these make 4 megaspores 3 of which deteriorate. The surviving megaspore develops into the female gametophyte know as the embryo sac.

Ovule Development: 

Ovule Development Figure 14.14

Pollination and Fertilization: 

Pollination and Fertilization Highlight or underline: The culmination of the development of the gametophytes is the fertilization of the egg and the beginning of a new generation of plants. Pollination is simply the transfer of pollen from eh male reproductive structure to the female structure.

Pollination and Fertilization: 

Pollination and Fertilization When a pollen grain lands on the stigma of a receptive pistil it completes development. The tube nucleus penetrates through the tissue of the style. The pollen tube somehow locates the micropyle and discharges two sperm nuclei into the embryo sac. One of these fuses with the egg forming a zygote. The other joins with the polar nuclei forming (3n) endosperm. This is known as double fertilization.

Figure 14.19: 

Figure 14.19


Questions: 1. Flowers vs. cones 2. Sepals –protection …bud Petals – attract pollinators Stigma – capture pollen Ovary – contains ovules C. Essentially the same


Questions: 5. Ray - outside, disc- center; ray- pink, disc – yellow; ray – asymmetrical, disc radial 6. Flowers/cones 7. Conifers depend on wind 8. Pollination - transfer of pollen; fertilization – union of sperm and egg

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