ExecutiveSummary of PPAAUS

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Funding Partners            Prepared by Diagnostics Plus, State College, Pennsylvania February 2004   US Dept. of Justice Office of Justice Programs WORTHINGTON COMMUNITY EXECUTIVE SUMMARY OF PPAAUS 2003 RESULTS Primary Prevention Awareness, Attitude, and Use Survey Student Perspectives on the Use of Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drugs and Violence

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INTRODUCTION Research on the use of alcohol, tobacco and other drugs has consistently shown that the use of these substances by young people is correlated with a wide range of negative behaviors including low academic performance. Research data continues to show that for students who use alcohol, tobacco and/or drugs, it occurs in the community 95% of the time when there is little supervision. In 1988, the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Consortium, a program of the Educational Council, initiated a needs assessment of students in grades six through twelve. Every three years, this assessment is repeated; 2003 was the sixth occasion of the survey, and 4,772 students from Worthington City Schools were included in the Primary Prevention Awareness, Attitude, and Use Survey. In the metro area, 79,500 students took the survey. This summary contains highlights of the report. Executive Summary of the 2003 PPAAUS WORTHINGTON SCHOOLS

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to provide information that can be used to guide prevention and intervention programs to provide an overall evaluation of the effectiveness of these programs Many items and topics in PPAAUS have remained the same over the years to allow the Consortium to track trends in usage, behavior and attitudes. The analyses of PPAAUS results also identify the predictors of drug use which can then be used to provide direction to prevention efforts. PPAAUS data maintains a very good internal and external reliability with reliability coefficients of .7935. (Chronbach Alpha) Purpose of the PPAAUS Assessment:

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Alcohol Two percent of sixth graders, four percent of seventh and eighth graders, 23% of ninth and tenth graders, and 40% of eleventh and twelfth graders drank regularly (at least once a month). This compares to the greater metro area at 2%, 6%, 21% and 35% respectively. Less than one-half percent of sixth graders, one percent of seventh and eighth graders, eight percent of ninth and tenth graders, and 19% of juniors and seniors drank alcohol at least once a week. This compares to the greater metro area at .5%, 2%, 7% and 14% respectively. The average age of first use of alcohol for middle school students was 10.9 and for high school students, 13.9. This is comparable to metro data. 89% of sixth graders, 75% of seventh and eighth graders, 51% of ninth and tenth graders, and 32% of eleventh and twelfth graders had never drunk alcohol. Metro Trends – In the metro area, alcohol use declined over the past 6 years, bringing it to the lowest levels since 1988. SURVEY HIGHLIGHTS

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Regular Use of Alcohol Monthly or More Often Use

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Tobacco Less than one-half percent of sixth through eighth graders, four percent of ninth and tenth graders, and 10% of eleventh and twelfth graders reported smoking cigarettes daily. An additional one percent of middle school students and eight percent of high school students smoke at least once a month up to twice a week. The average age of first use for middle school students was 10.9 and for high school students, 13.7. Less than one-half percent of the sixth through eighth graders, two percent of ninth and tenth graders, and four percent of the juniors and seniors indicated regular use of chewing tobacco. 97% of sixth graders, 92% of seventh and eighth graders, 77% of ninth and tenth graders, and 62% of eleventh and twelfth graders had never smoked cigarettes. This compares to metro data of 91%, 82%, 70% and 62%. Metro Trends – After increases in cigarette use in 1994 and 1997, use in 2000 and 2003 continued a downward trend. Smokeless tobacco has been decreasing slightly since 1991.

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Regular Use of Cigarettes Monthly or More Often Use

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Marijuana None of the sixth graders, 3.2 percent of seventh and eighth graders, 12% of ninth and tenth graders, and 21% of eleventh and twelfth graders smoke marijuana once a month or more. This compares to metro data of 1%, 5%, 14% and 20% respectively. Average age of first use for middle school students was 11.7 and for high school students, 14.2. 99% of sixth graders, 95% of seventh and eighth graders, 78% of ninth and tenth graders, and 62% of eleventh and twelfth graders had never smoked marijuana. Metro Trends – After a large increase in use from 1991 to 1994 in all grades, marijuana use remained fairly stable to 1997. In 2000, decreases in use were seen in all grades and this trend continued in 2003.

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Regular Use of Marijuana Monthly or More Often Use

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Prescription Drugs With over 400 web sites available to buy prescription drugs, students were asked if they would be willing to use someone else’s prescription drugs to get high. The following percentages were reported that students would not use: 7th – 95.5% 10th – 84.8% 8th – 95.4% 11th – 79.1% 9th – 88.5% 12th – 78.9% Over the Counter Drugs 1% of middle school students reported using over the counter drugs to get high while 9% of high school students indicated their use.

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Designer or Club Drugs (ecstasy, XTC, special k, GHB) The following percentages of students reported they have never used club drugs: 7th – 99.7% 10th – 97.7% 8th – 99.2% 11th – 95.7% 9th – 98.1% 12th – 94.1% Cocaine or Crack (coke, snow, blow, dust) The following percentages of students reported they have never used cocaine: 7th – 99.2% 10th – 97.2% 8th – 99.3% 11th – 94.9% 9th – 97.7% 12th – 94.6% Hallucinogens (acid, trip, shrooms) The following percentages of students reported they have never used hallucinogens: 7th – 99.4% 10th – 95.2% 8th – 98.9% 11th – 92.1% 9th – 95.6% 12th – 89.4%

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Messages about Drinking Coaches, club advisors, teachers and parents were most successful at conveying "It's not OK to drink.“ An average of 89% of sixth through eighth graders and 74% of ninth through twelfth graders felt that teachers gave them the message that drinking is not acceptable. Metro data is comparable. 89% of middle school and 88% of high school students who had a coach thought they received a negative message about drinking from that person. Compared to metro data, this is 4% higher. 75% of middle school students and 59% of high school students thought that parents disapproved of drinking alcohol. This is slightly lower than metro data. 56% of sixth through eighth graders and 20% of ninth through twelfth graders indicated that the message from friends was “It’s Not OK to drink.” 28% of middle school students and 11% of high school students perceived a message of “It’s Not OK to drink” from the media. “Message” items were also included for tobacco and marijuana. The responses for these items produced similar patterns as messages about drinking. Work needs to be done to make parents, students and media aware of the messages they are sending about ATOD use.

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For club advisors and coaches, percentages are based on ONLY those students who participated in activities or sports. Messages About the Use of Alcohol

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Sources of Prevention Skills Students report that they are most influenced in their use of ATOD use, decision making and assertiveness by parents. They are much less likely to use ATOD when they have “strong family values against use.” I think how my family would be hurt or angry if I were caught using alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. I am influenced by strong family values against the use of alcohol, tobacco, or other drugs. Grade

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27% of sixth through eighth graders and 28% of ninth through twelfth graders had “pushed others around to get something you want” (4% had done this four or more times). This compares to metro data of 29% for all grades. Worthington’s 2000 data was 51.5% for grades 7-8 and 45.5% for grades 9-12. 12% of middle school students and 17% of high school students had pushed others around to make them afraid (3% more than three times). This compares to metro data of 21% for all grades. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 32.5% for grades 7-8 and 29.2% for grades 9-12. 18% of sixth through eighth graders and 25% of ninth through twelfth graders had threatened to beat up someone (5% four times or more). This compares to metro data of 33% for all grades. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 37% for grades 7-8 and 30% for grades 9-12. 15% of middle school students and 16% of high school students reported they had beat up someone (3% more than three times). This compares to metro data of 27% for all grades. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 36.5% for grades 7-8 and 34% for grades 9-12. Perpetrators

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Victims Ten percent of middle school students and six percent of high school students reported that they had been robbed (by force, weapons, or threats) at school within the past year (3% of all students reported they had been robbed more than one time). Metro data is comparable. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 5.5% for grades 7-8 and 4.5% for grades 9-12. 18% of middle school students and 12% of high school students said they had been physically attacked at school (5% of all students were attacked two times or more). Metro data is comparable. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 14.5% for grades 7-8 and 11.2% for grades 9-12. 46% of the sixth through eighth graders and 45% of the ninth through twelfth graders had been verbally attacked (11% four times or more). This compares to metro data of 40% and 41% respectively. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 45% for grades 7-8 and 39% for grades 9-12. 18% of middle school students and 17% of high school students had feared for their physical safety at school (3% more than three times). This compares to metro data of 22% and 17% respectively. Worthington’s data for 2000 was 9% for grades 7-8 and 6.75% for grades 9-12.

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 Problem Behaviors Nine percent of all students in grades six through eight and 28% in grades nine through twelve had skipped school at least once in the past year. This is two percentage points different from 2000 survey data with less cuts in grades 6-8 and more in high school. 34% of sixth through eighth graders and 46% of the ninth through twelfth graders had cheated on a class test at least once. This compares with 2000 survey data of 45% and 49% respectively, meaning a decrease in cheating. Two percent of middle school students and ten percent of high school students reported that they had sold drugs in the past year. This data is slightly lower compared to the 2000 survey. 16% of middle school students and 22% of high school students had vandalized property.

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Passenger and Driver Risk Behaviors Generally, at each grade level except seventh grade, students report a decrease in how often they have ridden in a car with a drinking driver or a pot-smoking driver. Ridden in a car with a drinking driver

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Passenger and Driver Risk Behaviors Ridden in a car with a pot-smoking driver

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Passenger and Driver Risk Behaviors Driven a car while or after drinking Driven a car while or after smoking pot Been a designated driver

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Did You Know. . . Close to 90% of our students have a computer at home with Internet access. 73% of our middle and high school students reported they were part of an after school team or activity. Lower levels of ATOD use are associated with participation in school activities. Close to 90% of students report that teachers set high expectations for their students and maintain an orderly environment for learning to take place. 82% of students report that they have a good relationship with an adult at school.

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Student Perceptions About School Learning Environment Strongly agree/Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

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Student Perceptions About School Learning Environment Strongly agree/Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

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Did You Know. . . Students report seeing slightly more respectful behavior than in 2000 as 84% report teachers treat students with respect and 75.5% believe students treat teachers with respect. Strongly agree/Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

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Did You Know. . . Strongly agree/Agree Disagree Strongly disagree

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Regular Use of Cigarettes Worthington City Schools 1988-03 Percent Who Use Cigarettes Monthly or More Often

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Regular Use of Marijuana Worthington City Schools 1988-03 Percent Who Use Marijuana Monthly or More Often

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Regular Use of Alcohol Worthington City Schools 1988-03 Percent Who Use Alcohol Monthly or More Often

Recommendations: 

Recommendations Support programs that help students to make good personal choices about their non-use Support a Safe Schools Core Team at the building level Review the Student Handbook and code of conduct policies at secondary schools Develop a Safe Schools Core Team Steering committee at district level Enhance student leadership Build parent awareness to this community problem

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