Interactive PowerPoint on Attachment

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Psychology and the Development of Attachment : 

Psychology and the Development of Attachment Interactive PowerPoint Project Faith Nusly Section 02 Exit

Home : 

Home What’s Attachment? Famous Researchers and Experiments Bowlby’s 4 Moments of Attachment: -Orientation without discrimination and Orientation with discrimination -Safe-Base and Goal-Corrected Harlow’s Rhesus Monkey Experiment Harlow’s Questions Ainesworth Typology of Attachment Secure -Resistant -Avoidant -Disorganized Strange Situation Experiment About the Author Resource List Email Me! Exit

What is Attachment? : 

What is Attachment? technical term = “Love” -An emotional tie/bond to a specific person, usually a caregiver, that lasts through time and space -Used as a protective factor Exit

Famous Researchers of Attachment : 

Famous Researchers of Attachment Bowlby Evolutionary/Nature perspective Harlow Experience/Nuture perspective Ainesworth Experience/Nuture perspective VS. Exit

Bowlby’s 4 Moments of Attachment : 

Bowlby’s 4 Moments of Attachment Orientation without Discrimination: (first 2 to 3 months after birth) child turns head when there’s a person or noise ***infants signal and respond to any available caring adult, not specific to one adult. e.g. smile, cry and call, grasp, suck, follow with their eyes 2. Orientation with Discrimination: (2 to 6 months) child turns head more when caregiver is there, there’s a preference to turn the head now ***show a decided preference for their primary caregivers Exit

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3. Safe-Base: (6 months to 3 years) stranger anxiety emerges, child knows who they always see and people they don’t know ***Caregiver = safe-base ***Infants and toddlers actively seek to be near their favored caregiver They follow them, cling to them, use them as a safe base to explore the environment become visibly distressed when separated from their attachment figures Fear of strangers emerges 4. Goal-Corrected: (3 years and up) understand the goals of others ***Two-Directional relationship now Child understands the feelings and the motives of their caregivers Child adjusts to needs/desires of caregiver now Exit

Harlow’s Rhesus Monkeys : 

Harlow’s Rhesus Monkeys Infant rhesus monkeys with surrogate mothers (1958) Monkey is with either a wire surrogate mother or a cloth surrogate mother Observe where the monkey prefers to be during certain situations…Which mother is a “safe-base?” ***This would be considered unethical today to conduct this experiment…WHY? Video: Exit

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Would infant monkeys form an attachment to either of these surrogate mothers? What cue would provide support: food or comfort? Exit

Ainesworth’s Types of Attachment : 

Ainesworth’s Types of Attachment Secure: (60 to 70%) Child explores, but uses parent as a safe base -Distressed at separation -Can be calmed by a stranger if crying but not completely happy at this time -Happy to see parents when they return to room -Cuddle when held by caregiver = Reactions to consistently warm and attentive caregiver environment Exit

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2. Resistant: Attachment (25%) -Child doesn’t explore clings to safe-base of caregiver -Very distressed at separation -When caregiver returns, child goes to them but is mad at them -doesn’t want to be comforted and resist it = reaction to inconsistent care giving emotionally unstable parenting, sometimes neglectful Exit

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3. Avoidant (25%) -Explore the room no matter what/caregiver is not safe-base -No distress at separation -Acts the same with parent or stranger -Unresponsive toward parents at reunion Reaction to insensitive parenting overprotective or under-stimulating Exit

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4. Disorganized: -Mixed reactions to parent -Approach while crying -Calm at reunion, but more flat than happy = Reaction to abusive parenting Exit

Ainesworth’s Strange Situation Experiment (1973) : 

Ainesworth’s Strange Situation Experiment (1973) It involved naturalistic observations of everyday infant-mother interactions in 28 homes Her conclusions: The extent to which an infant is able to use his or her primary caregiver as a secure base + How the infant reacts to brief separations and reunion with caregiver = indicators of the quality of the infant’s attachment to the caregiver It is based on the assumption that infants will seek to be near their attachment figure when they are distressed by an unfamiliar setting or an unfamiliar person Exit

About the Author : 

About the Author I am a senior at Grand Valley State University and will be graduating with a B.S. in Psychology in May. My primary focus area within psychology is industrial/organization psychology and life-span development psychology. I am curious about how individuals within workplace environments cope within their careers and how one could make the workplace a better place for employee productivity. I am also interested in the aging and developmental process from birth up to death as well as the mechanisms responsible for adjustment to life stressors experienced within a lifetime. Feel free to contact me by e-mail: Nuslyf@mail.gvsu.edu Exit Faith Nusly

Resource List : 

Resource List Content: Sigelman & Rider (2009). Life-Span Human Development (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning), Chapter 14, pgs. 406-425 YouTube video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KlfOecrr6kI All pictures taken from clip art provided by Microsoft PowerPoint program Exit

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