NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY

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NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY:

NON-CONVENTIONAL SOURCES OF ENERGY By Niraj 8-N

Power Resources:

Power Resources Energy is required for all activities- to cook, to provide heat and light, to drive vehicles and machinery in industries . Power resources can be classified as:

Solar Energy:

Solar Energy The sun has produced energy for billions of years.  Solar energy is the sun’s rays (solar radiation) that reach the Earth. This energy can be converted into other forms of energy such as heat and electricity. "Solar" is the Latin word for " sun“. Photovoltaic energy can convert sunlight directly into electricity. Solar cells are joined in solar panels to generate power for heating. Solar energy is also used in solar heaters, solar cookers, solar dyers and is used for community lighting and traffic signals. It is becoming popular in rural and remote areas. The largest solar plant in India is located near Bhuj in Gujarat where solar energy is used to sterilise milk cans.

Wind Energy:

Wind Energy Wind is caused by huge convection currents in the Earth's atmosphere, driven by heat energy from the Sun. This means as long as the sun shines, there will be wind . The moving air (wind) has huge amounts of kinetic energy, and this can be transferred into electrical energy using wind turbines. The wind turns the blades, which spin a shaft, which connects to a generator and makes electricity. The electricity is sent through transmission and distribution lines to a substation, then on to homes, business and schools. One wind turbine can produce enough electricity to power up to 300 homes . The largest wind farm in India is located in Tamil N adu, from Nagercoil to Madurai.

Biogas:

Biogas Shrubs, farm waste, animal and human waste are used to produce biogas for domestic consumption in rural areas. The organic waste is decomposed by bacteria in biogas digesters to emit biogas which is a mixture of methane and carbon dioxide. It produces huge amount of organic manure each year. Biogas is the efficient use of cattle dung. It prevents the loss of trees.

Geothermal Energy:

Deep down in the earth's crust, there is molten rock (magma). Molten rock is simply rocks that have melted into liquid form as a result of extreme heat under the earth. This can be found about 1800 miles deep below the surface, but closer to the surface, the rocks layers are hot enough to keep water and air spaces there at a temperature of about 50-60 degrees F (10-16 degrees C). Geothermal technology takes advantage of the hot close-to-earth-surface temperatures to generate power . In India, geothermal plants are located in Manikaran in Himachal Pradesh and Puga Valley In Ladakh. Geothermal Energy

Nuclear Power:

Nuclear Power Nuclear energy is created at power plants through a scientific process that involves splitting the nucleus of atoms, a process known as nuclear fission. When this happens an enormous amount of energy is released. This kind of energy is used to create electricity by boiling water to create steam that turns turbines inside the power plant. Around 6% of the world’s energy and 14% of the world’s electricity is produced by nuclear power. There are over 400 nuclear power reactors in use around the world . In India, nuclear plants are located in Rawatbhata in Rajasthan, Kalapakkam in Tamil Nadu, Kakrapara in Gujarat, Tarapur in Maharashtra, Kaiga in Karnataka and Naraura in Uttar Pradesh.

Tidal Energy:

Tidal Energy Tidal energy is produced by the surge of ocean waters during the rise and fall of tides. Tidal energy is a renewable source of energy. Floodgate dams are built across inlets. During the high tide water flows in to the inlet and gets trapped when the gate is closed. After the tide falls outside the floodgate, the water retained by the floodgate flows back to the sea through a pipe that carries it through a power generating turbine. Russia, France and Gulf of Kachchh in India have huge tidal mill farms.

Advantages and Disadvantages:

Advantages and Disadvantages Solar Energy Wind energy Advantages Disadvantages India has enormous possibilities of tapping solar energy. The use of solar energy will minimise the dependence of rural households on firewood or dung cakes. It is inexhaustible and non-polluting. It is expensive during initial stages of development. Larger parts of energy get wasted due to diffusion of sunlight. Advantages Disadvantages It is non-polluting and eco-friendly. It is safe and clean. Causes noise pollution. Harmful for birds. Disturbs air communication.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Biogas Geothermal Energy Advantages Disadvantages Biogas plants use shrubs, farm waste, animal waste and human waste to produce biogas in rural areas. The biogas plants provides energy and quality manure to the farmers. Biogas is an excellent fuel for cooking and lightning. It takes care of wastes and help environmental conservation. It causes greenhouse effect due to emission of gases. Advantages Disadvantages Geothermal energy is generated from the heat of the Earth’s interior and hot springs. It can be used to drive turbines and generate electricity. It is eco-friendly. It is found in some places. It is more localised. Large part gets wasted due to diffusion of energy.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Nuclear power Tidal Energy Advantages Disadvantages It emits a huge amount of energy which can be easily used. It generates radioactive waste. It is very expensive. Advantages Disadvantages It is non -polluting and inexhaustible It destroys wildlife and expensive to harness

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