Components of Food

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Components of Food :

Components of Food Niraj Nandish


Food We need food everyday. We need food to get energy, to grow and to stay healthy


Nutrients Our food contain various chemical substances required by our body. These chemical substances are called nutrients.

Nutrients found in Food:

Nutrients found in Food Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals Water Roughage


Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are organic compounds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The bulk of our food consists of carbohydrates. It is the main source of energy in the body. One gram of carbohydrates yield about 4 kilocalories of energy. Excess of carbohydrates in the body is converted into fat which is stored in the body. There are two major types of carbohydrates in food, they are; Sugar:-Sugars like glucose are the simplest of carbohydrates Starch:- Starch is a complex carbohydrate .


Fats Fat is composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Fat is made of fatty acids and glycerol. Fat is also a main source of energy. One gram of fat gives 9 kilocalories of energy. Fat can be stored in the body for subsequent use. Thus, fat serves as a store house of energy in the body. Fat protects our body against cold. We take more fat during winter. Fats are of two types, they are:- Animal fats:-Butter, ghee, milk, meat, fish etc. are examples of animal fats. They are more digestible than vegetable fats and contain Vitamins A and D in greater proportion. Vegetable fats:-Oils from groundnut, coconut, mustard etc. are examples of vegetable fat.


Proteins Proteins are made up of amino acids. Each unit of an amino acid contains carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen. Sulphur and phosphorus are also present in certain amino acids. Animal proteins are called first class proteins because they contain all the essential amino acids. Plant proteins are called second class proteins because they do not have all the essential amino acids. Peas, beans, milk, cheese etc are rich in proteins. Proteins are needed for growth and development of worn out tissues of our body. Protein foods are essential for growing children, pregnant woman and people recovering from injuries or sickness.

Macronutrients and micronutrients:

Macronutrients and micronutrients Types of Nutrients Composition Functions Sources Carbohydrates carbon, hydrogen, oxygen yielding energy fruits, cereals, tubers, sugar. Proteins carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorus building tissues milk, egg, fish, meat, nuts, beans, pulses, oils. Fats carbon, hydrogen, oxygen yielding energy Vegetable fats, animal fat

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Proteins, fats and carbohydrates are the nutrients which our body needs in a larger amount. These nutrients are called macronutrients. Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients because we need them only in traces.


Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds which are essential for the normal working of the body. These substances are required in small amounts. They keep us healthy and safe from diseases. Milk, egg, meat, fruits, vegetables and dry fruits are rich sources of vitamins. Vitamins are classified into two groups on the basis of their solubility in fats and water, they are: Fat-soluble vitamins: They are vitamin A, D, E and K. Water-soluble vitamins: They are vitamins B and C.

Sources of vitamins:

Sources of vitamins Vitamin A: Milk, fish, oil, papaya, radish. Vitamin C: Orange, guava, tomato, lemon, amla. Vitamin B: Liver, soyabean. Vitamin D: Milk, butter, egg, fish.

Functions of vitamins:

Functions of vitamins Vitamin A keeps our eyes and skin healthy. Vitamin C gives strength to the body to fight against infections and diseases. Vitamin D helps our body to use calcium for bones and teeth.


Minerals Minerals are necessary for the normal working of our body. About 4% weight of our body is made up of minerals. Roughly 16 minerals elements are known to be essential for our body. Calcium and phosphorus are essential for the proper formation of bones and teeth. Milk, cheese, egg, pulses etc are rich in calcium and phosphorus. Iron is necessary for the formation of haemoglobin -

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