Application of Biodegradable Polymer

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Application of Biodegradable polymer:

Application of Biodegradable polymer Prepared by : NILESH BHALALA P` Tech 1 st Shift Roll No : 04 Parul Institute Of Pharmacy

CONTENTS :

CONTENTS Introduction Classification Properties of ideal biodegradable polymer Degradation Scheme Applications References 2

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Biodegradable polymers Polymers : Macromolecule consisting of large number of monomers. Definition : Degradation of Polymer occurs in the biological environment. 3

Classification:

Classification 1) Natural Polymers Collagen Albumin Casein 2 ) Semi Synthetic Polymer Gelatin Fibrinogen Chitin and Chitogen Dextran Alginate 4

3) Synthetic Polymer :

3) Synthetic Polymer Polyesters : PLA, PGA Poly hydroxy butyrate (PHB), Poly-e- caprolactone(PCL), Polymalic acid, Polyanhydrides : Poly sebacic acid (PSBA), poly adipic acid (PAPA), Poly terphthalic acid (PTA) 5

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Polyamides: Poly imino carbonate (PIC), Poly amino acid (PAA) 4. Phosphorus Based : Polyphosphates, Polyphosphazene, 5. Others : Polycyanoacrylates (PCA), Polyurathanes, Polyorthoesters, Polyacetals. 6

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Some pharmaceutical & biological properties of ideal biodegradable polymer : Non immunogenic Non toxic Selective drug delivery High carrier capacity Controlled released of drug Low production cost Reproducibility properties 7

Degradation Scheme Chemical degradation :

Degradation Scheme Chemical degradation ● Chemical changes occurs in polymers which includes cleavage of covalent bonds, hydrolysis, ionization either along the back bone or side chains of polymers. ● Chemical degradation leads to the change in molecular weight or solubility of polymer. 8

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Physical Erosion Mechanism:

Physical Erosion Mechanism (A ) Bulk-eroding system ( PLA,PGA,PLGA, PCL ) Degradation takes place throughout the whole of the polymer matrix. Loss of physical integrity. Ingress of water is faster than the rate of degradation (B) Surface-eroding system ( poly( ortho )esters and polyanhydrides ) Eroded from the surface Physical integrity maintained Mass loss is faster than the ingress of water into the bulk 10

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Polymer Degradation by Erosion 3 11

Advantages of Biodegradable Polymers:

Advantages of Biodegradable Polymers Localized delivery of drug Sustain delivery of drug Stabilization of drug Decrease in dosing frequency Reduce side effects Improve patients compliance Controllable degradation rate 12

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APPLICATION 1) Natural Polymers - Collagen : ● Found from animal tissue. ● Used in absorbable sutures, ● sponge wound dressing, ● as drug delivery vehicles - Albumin : ● Obtained from the blood of the healthy donor. ● Used as carriers in nanocapsules & microspheres 13

2) Semi synthetic:

2) Semi synthetic Gelatin : ● A natural water soluble polymer. ● Used in capsule shells and also as coating material in microencapsulation Dextran : ● it is a polymer of glucose having glycoside linkage ● It can be suitably utilized for the colon target drug delivery system. 14

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Chitosan : Pharmacological properties like antacid and antiulcer activity. Favourable biodegradability, biocompatibility and non toxicity. Has gel forming ability at low pH. The chitosan matrix floats and gradually degrade in the acidic medium. 15

3) Synthetic polymer 1. Drug delivery application by poly lactide/glycolide polymer :

3) Synthetic polymer 1. Drug delivery application by poly lactide/ glycolide polymer Drug polymer Drug delivery device comments Haemoglobin PLA Nanocapsule Circulation time improved DNA PLA Nanoparticel Effective targeting achieved gentamycin PLG Implant Increased bacterial activity 16

2. Drug delivery application by polyphosphoester (PPE):

2 . Drug delivery application by polyphosphoester (PPE) Drug Drug delivery system Comment Lidocain Microspheres It slower the release kinetic Paclitaxel Microspheres High encapsulation efficiency Cisplatin Microspheres Burst release of drug Plasmid DNA Microspheres Low drug loading & low release rate 17

3. Application Of Poly-e- Caprolactone (PCL):

3. Application Of Poly-e- Caprolactone (PCL) Drug polymer Drug delivery device comments Cyclosporin PCL Nanoparticle None structural damages Ciprofloxacin PCL Dental implant Improvement in periodontics DNA Poly glycolic acid Self assembling polymer complex Controlled release of polymer 18

Applications in Conventional Dosage Forms:

Applications in Conventional Dosage Forms Tablets : - As binders - To mask unpleasant taste - For enteric coated tablets Liquids : - Viscosity enhancers - For controlling the flow Semisolids : - In the gel preparation 19

Medical Applications Of Biodegradable Polymers:

Medical Applications Of Biodegradable Polymers Wound managemet Sutures Surgical meshes Orthopedic devices Rods Screws Staples Adhesives Ligaments pins Dental applications Guided tissue regeneration Membrane Void filler following tooth extraction Cardiovascular applications Stents Drug delivery system 20

Other Application :

Other Application For specific site drug delivery- anti tumor agent Polymer system for gene therapy Bio degradable polymer for ocular, non- viral DNA , vascular, orthopedic, skin adhesive & surgical glues. Bio degradable drug system for therapeutic agents such as biomacromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids 21

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● Biodegradable polymer used in vaccine Vaccines polymers used Hepatitis B surface antigen PGA Tetanus toxoid PLA, PLGA Bovine serum albumin PLA ● Polymer use in Enteric coating Ethyl cellulose Cellulose Acetate Phthalate ( CAP ) Eudragit L 100 Eudragit S 100 22

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● Atrigel Implant System This is advance technique in which the biodegradable polymer is added in the liquid carrier and mixed with the API this formulation is when applied as liquid , it solidifies in body It gives the systematic release of drug in the body which is controlled over a time period. 23

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● Biodegradable polymer scaffold it used in implant CDDS Various kind of cells like, Chondrocytes , hepatocytes, enterocytes are mixed with the Biodegradable polymer scaffold and are allowed to regenerate as in the cell/ tissue culture technique. Incorporation of drug with polymer and to release it over a control period of time . Implant is use for this purpose. The scaffold is use to regenerate bone, intestine etc. 24

REFERENCES:

REFERENCES The Theory and Practice of industrial Pharmacy www.google.com N.K. Jain Advances in controlled and Novel Drug Delivery System. Bio–adhesive drug delivery system – Dekker 98 25

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Thank you 26