Libro de Gramática (New) Nico Cooke

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Nico Cooke


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Libro de Gramática:

Libro de Gramática Nicholas Cooke Período 6 2015

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Tabla de Contenidos Slide 1 Title Page 2 Table of Contents 3 Constructions of se 4 Adverbs 5 Preterite vs. Imperfect 6 Por vs. Para 7 Stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns 8 Commands 9 Object Pronoun Placement 10 Present Subjunctive 11 Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence 12 Preterite IYF 13 Imperfect IYF 14 Works Cited

Constructions with se:

Constructions with se Impersonal Passive “se” is used with third person singular verb to direct impersonal subjects (in English: one, you, they, people, person) Ex: ¿Se come bistec o fruta ? Subject of the action is not known Influence is placed on action (instead of actor) Ex: No se habla español en ese tienda.


Adverbs Usually formed by adding – mente (“- ly ” in English) to the feminine singular form of the adjective Ex: rápido -> rápida -> rápidamente Adjective have an accent? Adverb keeps it! Ex: difícil -> difícilmente Any other ways? Yes! Use “con” (preposition) followed by singular form of the noun Ex: con + perfecto = con perfección When using two adverbs only add – mente to the second adverb! Ex : … rápida y difícilmente Pero en Español

Preterite v. Imperfect:

Preterite v. Imperfect PRETERITE “Snapshot” of the past >actions viewed as single events >actions repeated a specific number of times >actions that occurred during a specific time period >part of a chain of events >state the beginning/end of an action IMPERFECT “Video” of the past without a specific beginning or stopping point >habitual actions >actions that “set the stage” for other past actions >time, date, weather, age, mental states >describing characteristics of people, things, or conditions Preterite é í aste iste ó ió amos imos asteis isteis aron ieron Imperfect - ar - ir /- er aba ábamos ía íamos abas abais ías íais aba aban ía ían Trigger Words Preterite : ayer , anoche , el otro día , entonces , esta mañana / tarde , la semana pasada , el año pasado Imperfect: a veces , cada día , cada semana / mes / año , muchas veces , nunca , mientras , siempre , todos los días

Por y Para :

Por y Para POR *express gratitude or apology: Gracias por la ayuda *“through”, “along”, “by”, “in the area of”: Andamos por el parque *exchange, including sales *“on behalf of”, “in favor of” *express length of time: Estudié por dos horas *“during” *communication, transportation: Viajo por tren y hablo por teléfono *express cause or reason *idiomatic expression: por ahora , por aquí , por ejemplo , por favor, por fin, por último PARA *destination: Ella salió para Atlanta *use or purpose: El tenedor es para comida *“in order to”, “for the purpose of” *recipient: Este carro es para ti *deadline or specific time

Stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns :

Stressed possessive adjectives and pronouns Adjectives 2 types: stressed (long forms) and unstressed (short forms) Used to empahsize or express ideas like, in english , mine, of his, of hers, of yours, etc. Used with un/ una ? Roughly equal to in English: of mine/yours, etc. Must agree in gender and number of the nouns they are paired with Stressed possessives go AFTER the noun they modify and unstressed go BEFORE Pronouns masculine feminine mío (s) mía (s) tuyo (s) tuya (s) suyo (s) suya (s) nuestro (s) nuestra (s) vuestro (s) vuestra (s) suyo (s) suya (s) Stressed Unstressed Mi (s) Tu (s) Su(s) Nuestro (a)(s) Vuestro (a)(s) Su(s) Used to replace a noun Same as stressed possessive and preceded by article (el tuyo ) Agree in gender and number with noun that they replace


Commands use when addressing someone you don’t know well or someone you show respect to (like a king, queen, Mrs. Linares, clerk, etc.) all usted and ustedes commands (formal commands)are formed the same as the present subjunctive!!! start with the yo form of the present tense drop the –o ending add the following endings: * hable , hablen *coma, coman * escriba , escriban **irregularity carries over from the yo form to command form > tenga , tengan > traiga , traigan > venga , vengan **stem-changing verbs transition the same as irregulars > cuente , cuenten > vuelva , vuelvan > pida , pidan *Affirmative & Negative commands use the same verb forms* - ar - er /- ir -e ( usted ), -a ( usted ), - en ( ustedes ) -an ( ustedes ) To form informal command : change to yo form , drop the “o”, add “a” To form nosotros commands : convert the verb to the subjunctive nosotros form ( except ir!, use indicative ). For negative , add negative word in front of verb .

Object Pronouns:

Object Pronouns direct object pronouns “receive” the action of the verb indirect object pronouns specify to whom or for whom an action is done direct/indirect object pronouns come before the conjugated verb Object pronouns can be attached to the infinitive, gerund, affirmative command, or placed before the conjugated verb!!! NOTE: “le” and “les” change to “se” when they exist with “lo”, “la”, “los”, or “ las ” Any accents? W hen object pronouns are added onto infinitives , participles, or commands, a written accent is usually MANDATORY to maintain the correct word stress or emphasis!!! Sentence negative? Place the negative word BEFORE the first pronoun Use “se” to indicate the subject by also using a prepositional phrase Ex: Él se lo dice a Javier.

PowerPoint Presentation:

Subjunctive Mood *attitudes *uncertainty *hypothetical Main clause + Connector ( que ) + subordinate clause - ar : e, es , e, emos , en - er /- ir : a, as, a, amos , an Irregulars dar ( dé ) estar ( esté ) ir ( vaya ) saber ( sepa ) haber ( haya ) ser (sea) W ishing/ W anting E motion D oubt D isbelief I mpersonal Expressions N egation G od/ G rief ** Subjunctive is SUBJECTIVE** T enga V enga D é / D iga I vaya S ea H aga / H aya E sté S epa Impersonal Expressions *Es bueno que *Es mejor que *Es malo que *Es necesario que *Es importante que *Es urgente que Expressions of Emotion * alegrarse (de): to be happy * esperar : to hope, to wish * sentir (e- ie ): to be sorry, to regret * sorprender : to surprise * temer : to be afraid, to fear * Es triste: It’s sad * Ojalá ( que ): I hope (that), I wish (that) Expressions of Doubt, Disbelief, & Denial * dudar : to doubt * negar (e- ie ): to deny * Es imposible : It’s impossible * Es improbable: It’s improbable *No es cierto : It’s not true *No es seguro : It’s not certain *No es verdad : It’s not true

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence :

Subjunctive with verbs of will and influence Used when one person INFLUENCES how another person acts or behaves Verbs of will and influence!!!! aconsojar to advise pedir ( e:i ) to ask (for) desear to wish; desire preferir ( e:ie ) to prefer importar to be important, to matter prohibir to prohibit insistir ( en ) to insist (on) querer ( e:ie ) to want mandar to order recomendar ( e:ie ) to recommend necesitar to need rogar ( o:ue ) to beg; to plead sugerir ( e:ie ) to suggest

PowerPoint Presentation:

past with with no definite beginning or end >actions that “set the stage” for other past actions >time, date, weather, age, mental states >habitual actions >describing characteristics of people, things, or conditions

Works Cited:

Works Cited / / / http:// http:// Also used several handouts that Mrs. Linares has given me throughout year.

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