Presentations sde small islands

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SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN SMALL ISLAND DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) Mohamed Ali Environment Research Centre Ministry of Home Affairs and Environment, Maldives

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Sustainable Development: 'safeguarding the reefs for; protection, fisheries, tourism and agriculture in the Maldives' 'Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own' 'wisdom to continue exploiting the available resources (environment) without upsetting the functioning and balance of the natural support systems'

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Specialness of the SIDS Lack of natural resources and skilled endogenous human resources. Remoteness Smallness Geographical dispersion Fragility of ecosystems Heavy dependence on imports

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The setting:

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The consequences: cost of distribution and services delivery multiplies loose competitive advantage forced to import almost all requirements; no food or energy security, products for export/ consumption obtained directly from the environment…

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Physical environmental changes - global warming, - climate change O3 depletion sea level rise Economic environmental changes - globalisation - economic restructuring - WTO - economic status Global environmental changes

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Physical environment

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Coral Reefs: The foundation, the strength, and the future of the Maldives

Fisheries: 

Fisheries Reef fish Bait fish Tuna fisheries Consumption Export

Aesthetics: 

Aesthetics

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Percentage Contribution to GDP by Tourism and Fishing from 1984 to 2000 Tourism

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Physical Protection Erosion Erosion

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Tradition andamp; Culture

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Island geography Gan Laamu 512.4 Hithadhoo Seenu 455.4 Fuahmulaku 411.5 Isdhoo Laamu 293.7 Kaashidhoo Kaafu 276.5 Gan Seenu 264.9 ------------------------------------- Male’ 177.3 1200 islands 200 inhabited

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height and shape ……

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Water Resource

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island dynamics Long term Short term Medium term

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Local stresses Dredging/Coral mining Sand mining from beach Harbour construction Reclamation Seawalls/groynes Island-based pollution

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global warming climate change frequent El Ninos coral bleaching O3 depletion sea level rise Global stresses

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Coral Bleaching after during.. before

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Reef Damage

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impact the economic and social performances threatening natural resources (reefs, biodiversity, tuna) affect water resources vulnerability to disasters reduce resilience of the islands Results

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eroding the market preferences and export benefits. Economic environment: trade blocs and regional associations are closing the doors for their few export products Sanitary and phytosanitary demands or ecolabelling requirements are hindering exports by SIDS. Economic status (LDC/SIDS…?) 'Yardstick issue' Tend to lose preferential borrowing rights and access to special funds.

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‘Compounding vulnerability’: Environmental vulnerability hastening economic vulnerability, combination of both are amplifying and escalating social vulnerability.

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Sustainable Development in SIDS: Case sensitive Narrow threshold Insecurity Vulnerable (internal and external shocks) Complex Pragmatic approach Unity and cooperation

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