LeonardosLaptop Feb2005

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Leonardo’s Laptop:Human Needs and the New Computing TechnologiesBen Shneiderman ben@cs.umd.eduFounding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction LabProfessor, Department of Computer ScienceMember, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies &Systems ResearchUniversity of MarylandCollege Park, MD 20742: 

Leonardo’s Laptop: Human Needs and the New Computing Technologies Ben Shneiderman ben@cs.umd.edu Founding Director (1983-2000), Human-Computer Interaction Lab Professor, Department of Computer Science Member, Institutes for Advanced Computer Studies andamp; Systems Research University of Maryland College Park, MD 20742

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Interdisciplinary research community - Computer Science andamp; Psychology - Information Studies andamp; Education (www.cs.umd.edu/hcil)

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly): 

Scientific Approach (beyond user friendly) Specify users and tasks Predict and measure time to learn speed of performance rate of human errors human retention over time Assess subjective satisfaction (Questionnaire for User Interface Satisfaction) Accommodate individual differences Consider social, organizational andamp; cultural context

Design Issues: 

Design Issues Input devices andamp; strategies Keyboards, pointing devices, voice Direct manipulation Menus, forms, commands Output devices andamp; formats Screens, windows, color, sound Text, tables, graphics Instructions, messages, help Collaboration andamp; communities Manuals, tutorials, training www.awl.com/DTUI hcibib.org useit.com

U.S. Library of Congress: 

U.S. Library of Congress Scholars, Journalists, Citizens Teachers, Students

Visible Human Explorer (NLM): 

Visible Human Explorer (NLM) Doctors Surgeons Researchers Students

NASA Environmental Data: 

NASA Environmental Data Scientists Farmers Land planners Students

Bureau of the Census: 

Bureau of the Census Economists, Policy makers, Journalists Teachers, Students

NSF Digital Government Initiative: 

NSF Digital Government Initiative Find what you need Understand what you Find www.ils.unc.edu/govstat/

International Children’s Digital Libary: 

International Children’s Digital Libary

Zooming User Interfaces: 

Zooming User Interfaces www.cs.umd.edu/jazz www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/datelens

Zooming User Interfaces: DateLens: 

Zooming User Interfaces: DateLens www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/datelens

Information Visualization: 

Information Visualization The eye… the window of the soul, is the principal means by which the central sense can most completely and abundantly appreciate the infinite works of nature. Leonardo da Vinci (1452 - 1519)

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Treemap: Stock market, industry clustered : 

Treemap: Stock market, industry clustered

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Treemap: Newsmap

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www.hivegroup.com Treemap: Product catalogs

Treemap: Gene Ontology: 

Treemap: Gene Ontology www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/treemap/

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LifeLines www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/lifelines/

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Leonardo’s Laptop The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing is about what people can do mitpress.mit.edu/leonardoslaptop www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/newcomputing

An Inspirational Muse: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

An Inspirational Muse: Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Renaissance Man Combined science andamp; art Integrated engineering andamp; esthetics Balanced technology advances andamp; human values Merged visionary andamp; practical

Goals for The New Computing: 

Goals for The New Computing 1) Usable: Reliable andamp; comprehensible 2) Universal: Diverse users andamp; varied equipment 3) Useful: In harmony with human needs

1) Usable: Ending User Frustration : 

1) Usable: Ending User Frustration Goal: make computer usage less frustrating Identify top ten frustrations Measure severity andamp; frequency in lost time Determine if the situation is improving

1) Time diary study: 

1) Time diary study Self reports andamp; observations (111 students) Pre-session survey: demographic information computer experience and attitudes level of computer anxiety, mood Users spend 2.5 hours (average) Report their frustrating experiences Post-session survey: assess mood after the session overall frustration level loss of time

1) Frequent Frustrations (out of 373): 

1) Frequent Frustrations (out of 373)

1) Minutes lost (111 subjects) – 46%: 

1) Minutes lost (111 subjects) – 46% Email OS Web browsing Other minutes lost Productive minutes Total minutes: 17,453 Minutes lost: 7902 2081 1196 1230 3395

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2) Universal: Digital Divide Remains Troubling   U.S. Department of Commerce www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/dn/ Percent of Internet Use by Educational Attainment

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User diversity: Accommodate users with different skills, knowledge, age, gender, disabilities, disabling conditions (mobility, injury, noise, sunlight), literacy, culture, income, etc. Technology variety: Support broad range of hardware, software, and network access Gaps in user knowledge: Bridge the gap between what users know and what they need to know Communications of the ACM, May 2000 2) Universal: Diverse Users andamp; Varied Equipment

2) Universal Usability in Practice: 

2) Universal Usability in Practice www.otal.umd.edu/uupractice/

3) Useful: Generative Theories: 

3) Useful: Generative Theories Beneficial theories: - Descriptive - Explanatory - Predictive - Prescriptive but the big step forward will be - Generative Theories to guide our invention of new technologies

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Jefferson: Life, Liberty andamp; the Pursuit of Happiness Roosevelt: Freedom of speech andamp; expression, religion, from want, from fear Maslow: Hierarchy of human needs Physiological Safety Love Esteem Self-Actualization Covey: Living, Loving, Learning andamp; Leaving a legacy 3) Theories of Human Needs

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Relationships Self: working on your own Family andamp; Friends: 2-50 close intimates Colleagues andamp; Neighbors: 50-5000 acquaintances Citizens andamp; Markets: 5000 and more   Human Needs for Relationships

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Activities Collect: Information Relate: Communication Create: Innovation Donate: Dissemination Human Needs for Activities

Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Relationships Self Family andamp; Friends   Colleagues andamp; Neighbors    Citizenry andamp; Markets   Activities Collect Relate Create Donate Skeptics corner - Are relationships more complex? - Are these useful activities?

Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Relationships Self Family andamp; Friends   Colleagues andamp; Neighbors    Citizenry andamp; Markets   Activities Collect Relate Create Donate

PhotoFinder: 

PhotoFinder www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photolib

PhotoMesa: 

PhotoMesa www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/photomesa

Activities and Relationship Table (ART): 

Activities and Relationship Table (ART) Activities Collect Relate Create Donate Relationships Self Family andamp; Friends   Colleagues andamp; Neighbors    Citizenry andamp; Markets  

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Future Directions E-learning: The new education E-business: The new commerce E-healthcare: The new medicine E-government: The new politics Mega-creativity Grander Goals andamp; The Next Leonardo www.cs.umd.edu/hcil/newcomputing

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519): 

Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) Three lessons 1) Usable: Reliable andamp; comprehensible 2) Universal: Diverse users andamp; varied equipment 3) Useful: In harmony with human needs

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Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory www.cs.umd.edu/hcil The old computing is about what computers can do, The New Computing is about what people can do

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Human-Computer Interaction Laboratory www.cs.umd.edu/hcil 22nd Annual Symposium June 2-3, 2005

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Action Items Developers: Apply usability guidelines andamp; testing methods Web producers: Develop UU statements Managers: Provide responsible leadership Journalists: Raise public expectations Policy makers: Raise andamp; clarify requirements Funders: Expand research on usability Educators: Disseminate scientific results Researchers: Explore bold new visions Getting to the Golden Age of Usability

ACM Code of Ethics: 

ACM Code of Ethics In a fair society, all individuals would have equal opportunity to participate in, or benefit from, the use of computer resources regardless of race, sex, religion, age, disability, national origin or other such similar factors.

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