models in geography

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Slide1: 

Types of knowledge –andgt; idiographic vs. nomothetic What is a model? Simplified structure Essential components Purposive Bridges theory and observation MODEL

Slide2: 

Characteristics of models: selective structured suggestive approximates reality reapplication (replication) to real world conditions.

Slide3: 

Types of models: Descriptive versus Normative Descriptive: static (equilibrium) dynamic (historical) classificatory (taxonomic) theoretical, symbolic, conceptual, or mental mathematical: deterministic v. stochastic

Slide4: 

Overview of geographic models locational relativity geometrical form 0th order: points 1st order: lines, networks 2nd order: areas, states 3rd order: surfaces, terrain. 4th order: space-time

Slide5: 

Three-Stage Model for the Analysis of Regional Systems (Chorely and Haggett, 1967) Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model {0,2} 0 1 3 4 0-4 Dimension Stage I. Identification III. Integration II. Form Differentiation Static Static Dynamic

Slide6: 

Terminology dependent – independent variables causality deterministic versus stochastic parameters, variables, parameter estimates macro-, micro-models

Slide7: 

MODEL The big picture….

Slide8: 

City (polar axis) City region (boundaries) System Identification {0,2} Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Numerical Taxonomy, Local residuals, Regional analogues Regional hierarchies Formal, functional regions Decision theory (Psychology), Taxonomy (Biology), Discriminant analysis (Statistics) STAGE I

Slide9: 

Cities, Settlements, Urban hierarchies System Identification, 0 Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Rank-size analysis, Nearest-neighbor analysis, Quadrat analysis Central-place theory, Gravity models, Weberian models, Economic base models Point set theory (Mathematics), Organization models (Management), Packing theory (Mathematics) STAGE I

Slide10: 

Cities, Settlements, Urban hierarchies Form Differentiation, 1 (Static) Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Rank-size analysis, Nearest-neighbor analysis, Quadrat analysis Central-place theory, Gravity models, Weberian models, Economic base models Point set theory (Mathematics), Organization models (Management), Packing theory (Mathematics) STAGE II

Slide11: 

Urban fields, Density gradients, Land-use intensity Form Differentiation, 3 (Static) Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Trend-surface analysis, Harmonic analysis, Fourier analysis Gravity models, Absorption models, Intervening-opportunity models, Von Thunen models, Potential models Least-effort models (Sociology), Minimum-energy andamp; Potential models (Phys.), Game theory (Psych.) STAGE II

Slide12: 

Innovation waves, Frontier movements, Sequent occupance, Colonization Form Differentiation, 4 (Dynamic) Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Physical simulation, Monte Carlo models, Markov-chain models, Cellular automata, Agent-based simulation Diffusion models, Migration models, Colonization models. Epidemic theory (Med.), Diffusion theory (Fluid dynamics), Colonization andamp; succession models (Bot.) STAGE II

Slide13: 

Regional systems, Internal feedback, Interregional systems, External feedbacks System Integration, 0-4 Geographical Form Spatial Model Analytical Techniques Heritage of Spatial Model Matrix analysis, factor analysis, input-output analysis, Interregional linear programming Regional climax models, Regional multipliers, Growth poles General systems theory, Ecosystems (Biology), Interregional trade theory andamp; multipliers (Econ.) STAGE III