RACE AND ETHNIC GROUP : RACE AND ETHNIC GROUP DEFINITION : DEFINITION Race: people sharing similar physical traits.
Ethnic group: shares similar cultural characteristics (common language, religion, national origin, dietary practices, etc.)
Minority group: people who lack power, privilege, and prestige in social, political or economic spheres. RACISM : RACISM Attitudes, beliefs or behaviors that favor one group over another
(ex: minority group might be seen as biologically inferior => practices involving their domination and exploitation are reasonable)
Race matter socially rather than biologically.
(Ex: Apartheid in South Africa) ORIGIN OF RACISM : ORIGIN OF RACISM Slave transfer
Colonization PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION : PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION Amalgamation model (melting pot theory): dominant culture as a conglomeration of all groups in society. PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION : PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION Assimilation: process of being absorbed into the mainstream of the dominate culture. The assimilation model demands that other groups conform to the dominant culture PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION : PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION Pluralism (salad bowl theory): unique group coexist side by side. The uniqueness of each group is considered a trait worth having in the dominant culture
Consequence: recognition and tolerance of cultural diversity. PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION : PATTERNS OF RACE AND ETHNIC RELATION Legal Protection of Minorities
Population Transfer (one group expels another group from a given territory)
Continued subjugation: majority group actively engages in the oppression of a minority group.
Extermination (Genocide): systematic annihilation of racial, ethnic or religious group. (Ex: Holocaust) Prejudice and Discrimination : Prejudice and Discrimination Prejudice: positive/negative attitude or belief directed toward certain people based on their membership
(Caused by stereotypes: generalizations made about a group of people that are usually based on inaccurate or incomplete information.
Discrimination: behavior/action, particularly with reference to unequal treatment of people because they are of a particular group whether it be racial, ethnic, religious or gender. Slide 13: This poem was nominated for the best poem of 2005, written by an African child:When I born, I black.When I grow up, I black.When I go in sun, I black.When I scared, I black.When I sick, I black and when I die, I still black.And you White people:When you born, you pink.When you grow up, you white.When you go in sun, you red.When you cold, you blue.When you scared, you yellow.When you sick, you green.When you die, you grey and you are calling me coloured!!! SEX AND GENDER : SEX AND GENDER Sex: one’s biological identity
Gender: social identity of men and women
(the way members of the two sexes are perceived, evaluated, and expected to behave.) => masculinity vs femininity MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY : MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY Arapesh: men and women were co-operative. Non-aggressive, and responsive to the needs of others MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY : MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY Mundugumor: both sexes were expected to be fierce, ruthless and aggressive MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY : MASCULINITY VS FEMININITY Tchambuli: women were dominant, impersonal partners who were aggressive food finders whereas males were occupied with art, and spent more time on their hairdos and gossiping about the opposite sex. Slide 18: THE CONCEPT OF MASCULINITY AND FEMININITY IS DIFFERENT AROUND THE WORLD GENDER ROLE : GENDER ROLE Example:
Men: engage in warfare, trap small animals, work with hard substances (wood, stone, clear land, build houses,etc.)
Women: tend crops, gather wild fruits and plants, prepare food, care fo, ar children, clean house, launder clothing, etc.)
What are the biological basis for gender roles?
Division of labour = result of constraints stemming from childbirth and infant care of from differences in strength? GENDER STRATIFICATION : GENDER STRATIFICATION Gender stratification exists to some degree in all societies.
Gender ideology: a system of thoughts and values that legitimize gender roles, statuses and customary behaviours. Example:
Male-left side/women-right side: purity/pollution, good/bad, authority/submission
Male-biased parental favouritism=> female infanticide) POSITION OF WOMEN : POSITION OF WOMEN Universal male dominance?
The roles played by women, the value society places on their contributions, their legal rights, whether and to what degree they are expected to be deferential to men, their economic independence and the degree to which they decide on major events of their lives such as marriage, profession and conception? THINGS TO PONDER : THINGS TO PONDER Occupational distribution
Gender at workplace segregation
(Examples from movies: Australia, Desperate Housewives, Sex and the City)