Materials and Environment

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Materials and the Environment (Most recent update January 7, 2006): 

Materials and the Environment (Most recent update January 7, 2006)

Slide2: 

Solving Environmental Problems General Global Trends Population Economy Raw Material Consumption Trends Wood Other Materials Options to Wood Use

Solving Complex Problems Requires a Combination of:: 

Solving Complex Problems Requires a Combination of: Rational thinking The use of realistic assumptions Global or systematic analysis

Environmental Problems: 

Environmental Problems Species loss Global warming Acid rain Ozone depletion Population growth Garbage/litter Desertification Tropical deforestation Urban sprawl Aquifer depletion Topsoil erosion Pollution of coastal waters Wetlands loss

Slide5: 

Population

World Population 1850-1950 : 

World Population 1850-1950 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2002

World Population 1850-1950 : 

World Population 1850-1950 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2002

World Population 1850-2005 : 

World Population 1850-2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2006.

World Population 1850-2005 : 

World Population 1850-2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2006.

World Population 1850-2050 (Medium Projection of Growth Assumed After 2000): 

World Population 1850-2050 (Medium Projection of Growth Assumed After 2000) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Programs Center, 2006.

Slide11: 

Number of years to add each billion (year) All of Human History (1800) 123 (1930) 33 (1960) 15 (1975) 12 (1987) 12 (1999) 13 (2012) 16 (2028) 26 (2054) Growth in Global Population Sources: First and second billion: Population Reference Bureau. Third through ninth billion: United Nations, World Population in 2300 (medium scenario), 2003. All of recorded history

Annual Increase in World Population, 1951-2005: 

Millions Annual Increase in World Population, 1951-2005 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision, 2003. Data for 1990 through 2005 from U.S. Census Bureau, International Division.

Slide13: 

Rates of birth, death, and natural increase per 1,000 population Natural Increase World Birth and Death Rates, 1936-2003 Source: United Nations, World Population Prospects: The 2002 Revision (medium scenario), 2003.

Rate of Population Increase - 2006: 

Rate of Population Increase - 2006 Time Unit Population Increase Year 74,281,173 Month 6,190,098 Week 1,428,484 Day 205,510 Hour 8,480 Minute 141 Second 2.4 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2006.

Average Annual Rate of Population Growth for the World, 1950 – 2020 – Continuing Decline Since 1970: 

Average Annual Rate of Population Growth for the World, 1950 – 2020 – Continuing Decline Since 1970 Percent Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2004.

Medium Projections of Population Growth (billions): 

Medium Projections of Population Growth (billions) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2006.

The world population will increase 60 to 90 percent within the lifetime of a child born today: 

The world population will increase 60 to 90 percent within the lifetime of a child born today

Growth of U.S. Population, 1776- 2005: 

Growth of U.S. Population, 1776- 2005 Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006.

Growth of U.S. Population, 1776- 2100: 

Growth of U.S. Population, 1776- 2100 History Projection

Medium Projections of Population Growth (world population in billions, U.S. population in millions): 

Medium Projections of Population Growth (world population in billions, U.S. population in millions) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2006.

Growth of Minnesota Population, 1950- 2005: 

Growth of Minnesota Population, 1950- 2005

Growth of Minnesota Population, 1850- 2100: 

Growth of Minnesota Population, 1850- 2100 History Projection Projection Source: U.S. Census Bureau, 2006.

Medium Projections of Population Growth (world population in billions, U.S. and Minnesota populations in millions): 

Medium Projections of Population Growth (world population in billions, U.S. and Minnesota populations in millions) Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Division, 2006.

World and U.S. populations will grow substantially within the lifetime of a child born today: 

World and U.S. populations will grow substantially within the lifetime of a child born today

No less significant, the world will be faced in the 21st century with the challenge of providing food, fuel, shelter, and clothing for a much larger population.: 

No less significant, the world will be faced in the 21st century with the challenge of providing food, fuel, shelter, and clothing for a much larger population.

Slide26: 

Economy

Gross Domestic Product:: 

Gross Domestic Product: The value of all goods and services produced within the borders of a nation

Gross World Product:: 

Gross World Product: The sum of all Gross Domestic Product values expressed in a common currency.

Gross World Product, 1970-2004: 

Gross World Product, 1970-2004 Trillions of 1990 U.S. dollars Source: United Nations Statistics Division, 2005. An increase of 174 percent. World population increased about 72 percent over the same period.

Annual Growth in Gross Domestic Product for Nations Classified by Average Incomes, 1980-1990 and 1990-1998 Income Category 1981-1990 1990-1998 Low income 6.6 7.3 Low income excl. China and India 4.1 3.6 Middle income 2.6 1.9 Lower middle income -- -1.3 Upper middle income 2.7 3.9 Low and middle income 3.5 3.3 East Asia and Pacific 8.0 8.1 Europe and Central Asia -- -4.3 Latin America and Caribbean 1.6 3.7 Middle East and N. Africa 2.0 3.0 South Asia 5.7 5.7 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.8 2.2 High income 3.1 2.1 World 3.2 2.4   : 

Annual Growth in Gross Domestic Product for Nations Classified by Average Incomes, 1980-1990 and 1990-1998 Income Category 1981-1990 1990-1998 Low income 6.6 7.3 Low income excl. China and India 4.1 3.6 Middle income 2.6 1.9 Lower middle income -- -1.3 Upper middle income 2.7 3.9 Low and middle income 3.5 3.3 East Asia and Pacific 8.0 8.1 Europe and Central Asia -- -4.3 Latin America and Caribbean 1.6 3.7 Middle East and N. Africa 2.0 3.0 South Asia 5.7 5.7 Sub-Saharan Africa 1.8 2.2 High income 3.1 2.1 World 3.2 2.4   Source: World Bank, 2001

China’s Gross Domestic Product (Exchange Rate Valuation): 

China’s Gross Domestic Product (Exchange Rate Valuation) Billions of 1987 U.S. Dollars Source: U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration, 2002.

It is a virtual certainty that consumption of raw materials globally will increase substantially in the future.: 

It is a virtual certainty that consumption of raw materials globally will increase substantially in the future.

Considering the combined effect of population growth and economic growth within developing nations, demand for new housing units globally over the next 50 years is likely to exceed one billion.: 

Considering the combined effect of population growth and economic growth within developing nations, demand for new housing units globally over the next 50 years is likely to exceed one billion.

How in the world is society going to be able to pull this off and wind up with an environment that most of us would: 

How in the world is society going to be able to pull this off and wind up with an environment that most of us would for our children and grand-children? agree is acceptable for our

Slide35: 

Raw Material Consumption Trends

U.S. Growth in Basic Raw Materials Consumption, 1970-2004 : 

U.S. Growth in Basic Raw Materials Consumption, 1970-2004 (Population growth during this period: 1.43x) Wood Steel Cement Aluminum Plastics Products 1.00x 1.80x 1.85x 5.28x 1.38x Source: Data for wood from USFS (2005); for cement, steel, and aluminum from the U.S. Geological Survey (2006); and for plastics from the National Commission on Materials Policy (1975) and the APC Plastics Industry Council (2006).

World Growth in Basic Raw Materials Consumption, 1970-2004 : 

World Growth in Basic Raw Materials Consumption, 1970-2004 (Population growth during this period: 1.72x) Steel Cement Aluminum Plastics Wood 1.60x 3.50x 3.00x 6.83x 1. 27x Source: Data for wood from FAO (2006); for cement, steel, and aluminum from the U.S. Geological Survey (2006); and for plastics from the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (2002) and from Plastics Today magazine (2005).

Slide38: 

Wood

Wood is a principal raw material in the world today.: 

Wood is a principal raw material in the world today.

Annual World Consumption of Various Raw Materials, 2004: 

Annual World Consumption of Various Raw Materials, 2004 Billion Metric tons Billion m3 Roundwood 1.679 3.4 Industrial roundwood 0.794 1.6 Cement 2.00 0 1.9 Steel 0.949 0.11 Plastics 0.205 0.18 Aluminum 0.02 9 0.01 Source: Data for wood from FAO (2006); for cement, aluminum, and steel from the U.S. Geological Survey (2006);and for plastics from the Association of Plastics Manufacturers in Europe (2002) and from Plastics Today magazine (2005).

Annual U.S. Consumption of Various Raw Materials, 2004: 

Annual U.S. Consumption of Various Raw Materials, 2004 Million Metric tons Million m3 Roundwood 301 556 Industrial roundwood 277 512 Forest products (wd only) 180 296 Cement 121 110 Steel 125 158 Plastics 39.1 34.5 Aluminum 6.3 2.2 Source: Data for wood from USFS (2005); for cement, steel, and aluminum from the U.S. Geological Survey (2006); and for plastics from the National Commission on Materials Policy (1975) and the APC Plastics Industry Council (2006).

U.S. Demand For Wood and Wood Products, 1800 - 2002 (Million Cubic Feet, Roundwood Equivalent): 

U.S. Demand For Wood and Wood Products, 1800 - 2002 (Million Cubic Feet, Roundwood Equivalent) Source: Howard, J. 2004. U.S.D.A.- Forest Service, USFPL.

Global Wood Harvest, 1950 to 2004, with Projection to 2010 : 

Global Wood Harvest, 1950 to 2004, with Projection to 2010 Million m3 Source: FAO (2005)

Global Wood Harvest, 1950 to 2004 : 

Global Wood Harvest, 1950 to 2004 Million m3 Source: FAO (2005)

Global Wood Harvest and Population, 1950 to 2004: 

Global Wood Harvest and Population, 1950 to 2004 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2004 Harvest (Million m3) Source: FAO (2005); U.S. Census Bureau, Int’l Division (2005) Population (Billions) 0 2 4 6 8

Slide46: 

The Amount of Biosphere Per Person Grows Smaller As The Population Grows . . .

The Same Is True of Forests: 

The Same Is True of Forests

Forests Then and Now - World: 

Forests Then and Now - World In 1800 World population was 1 billion There were about 11 acres of forests for each person in the world

Forests Then and Now - World: 

Forests Then and Now - World In 1800 World population was 1 billion There were about 11 acres (4.5 ha.) of forests for each person in the world Today World population is over 6 billion There are about 1.4 acres (0.6 ha.) of forest for each person in the world

Forests Then, Now, and Future - World: 

Forests Then, Now, and Future - World By the end of the next century World population is expected to reach 10 to 11 billion Even with zero loss of forests over the next 100 years, the amount of forest land for each person in the world will shrink to 0.7 to 0.8 acres (or about 0.3 ha.)

Forests Then and Now – U.S.: 

Forests Then and Now – U.S.

Forests Then, Now, and Future – U.S.: 

Forests Then, Now, and Future – U.S.

Forests Then, Now, and Future – Minnesota: 

Forests Then, Now, and Future – Minnesota

Sharp reductions in forest land/ capita virtually ensure escalating conflict over forest use, and raise the question of where needed wood supplies will come from in the future.: 

Sharp reductions in forest land/ capita virtually ensure escalating conflict over forest use, and raise the question of where needed wood supplies will come from in the future.

Slide55: 

U.S. Trends in Raw Material Procurement

The U.S. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle.: 

The U.S. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle.

The U.S. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle.: 

The U.S. is a net importer of most categories of raw materials used to support our economy and lifestyle. Most metals Portland and masonry cement Petroleum (the basis for plastics) Wood and wood products

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Columbium 100 Brazil, Canada, Estonia, Germany Mica (natural) 100 India, Belgium, China, Germany Manganese 100 S. Africa, Gabon, Australia, France Graphite 100 China, Mexico, Canada, Brazil Strontium 100 Mexico, Germany Bauxite/Alumina 100 Australia, Jamaica, Guinea, Suriname Fluorspar 100 China, S. Africa, Mexico Yttrium 100 China, Japan, Austria, Netherlands Thallium 100 Belgium, France, Russia, UK Rubidium 100 Canada

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Asbestos 100 Canada Quartz (crystal) 100 Brazil, Germany, Madagascar Arsenic (trioxide) 100 China, Chile, Morocco, Mexico Indium 100 China, Canada, Japan, France Rare earth metals 100 China, France, Japan, Estonia Rubidium 100 Canada Vanadium 100 Czech Rep., S. Africa, Canada, China Gemstones 99 Israel, India, Belgium Platinum Group 91 S. Africa, UK, Germany, Canada Bismuth 90 Belgium, Mexico, China, UK

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Tin 88 Peru, China, Bolivia, Brazil Stone (dimension) 85 Italy, Canada, India, Spain Diamond (indust) 85 Ireland, Switzerland, UK, Russia Titanium (sponge) 85 Kazakhstan, Japan, Russia Palladium 81 Russia, S. Africa, UK, Belgium Tantalum 80 Australia, Kazakhstan, Canada, China Barium (Barite) 79 China, India Rhenium 79 Chile, Kazakhstan, Mexico Cobalt 76 Finland, Norway, Russia, Canada Iodine 74 Chile, Japan, Russia

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Tungsten 73 China, Canada Chromium 72 S. Africa, Kazakhstan, Zimbabwe, Russia Potash 70 Canada, Belarus, Russia, Germany Magnesium Metal 68 Canada, China, Russia, Israel Titanium concentrates 65 S. Africa, Australia, Canada, Ukraine Petroleum 58 Canada, Saudi Arabia, Mexico, Venezuela, Nigeria Silicon 56 S. Africa, Norway, Brazil, Russia Zinc 56 Canada, Mexico, Peru

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Beryllium 55 Kazakhstan, Japan, Brazil, Spain Silver 54 Mexico, Canada, UK, Peru Lithium >50 Chile, Argentina Nickel 49 Canada, Russia, Norway, Australia Magnesium Cpds 48 China, Australia, Canada, Austria Copper 43 Canada, Chile, Peru, Mexico Aluminum 41 Canada, Russia, Venezuela, Mexico Diamond (dust, grit) 40 Ireland, China, Ukraine Nitrogen (fixed) 38 Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, Russia Lumber (softwood) 37 Canada, EU, Chile, N. Zealand, Mex.

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Mica 35 Canada, India, China, Finland Garnet (industrial) 34 Australia, India, China Pumice 26 Greece, Italy, Turkey Perlite 23 Greece Gypsum 26 Canada, Mexico, Spain Salt 20 Canada, Chile, Mexico, The Bahamas Cement (Port/msry) 23 Canada, Thailand, China, Venezuela Sulfur 20 Canada, Mexico, Venezuela Iron and steel 18 EEC, Canada, Mexico, S. Korea

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources: 

Net U.S. Imports of Selected Materials as a Percent of Apparent Consumption - 2004, and by Major Foreign Sources Material % Imported Principal Foreign Sources Wood/Wd. Prod. 12 Canada, China, Indonesia, Finland, N. Zealand, Chile, Brazil Iron ore 8 Canada, Brazil, Australia, Chile Phosphate rock 6 Morocco Iron and steel slag 5 Canada, France, Italy, Japan Talc 1 China, Canada, France, Japan Also significant import dependency for Arsenic, Cesium, Gallium, Germanium, Leather, Natural Rubber, Selenium, Wool, Zirconium. Source: US Geological Survey, 2004.

The United States is also a net importer of durable and non-durable goods of all kinds.: 

The United States is also a net importer of durable and non-durable goods of all kinds.

The United States has been a net importer of wood and wood products for over 35 years.: 

The United States has been a net importer of wood and wood products for over 35 years.

Is Minnesota a net importer or net exporter of wood and wood products?: 

Is Minnesota a net importer or net exporter of wood and wood products?

Slide68: 

Growing Stock Consumption Non-growing Stock Consumption 34 375 490 761 332 274 42 267 174 226 22 66 88 117 207 178 753 370 340 297 327 613 70 65 56 62 117 144 Source: Shifley and Sullivan, U.S.F.S. - North Central Experiment Station (2002). Timber Growth, Removals, and Consumption by State

Slide69: 

57 57 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 0 2 4 6 2 Northeast 0 2 4 6 2 Alaska Pacific Southwest Pacific Northwest Intermountain North Central South Central Southeast Growing Stock Consumption Non-growing Stock Consumption Source: Shifley and Sullivan, U.S.F.S. - North Central Experiment Station (2002). Timber Growth, Removals, and Consumption by Region

Minnesota is a net importer of wood. The 2002 harvest from Minnesota’s forests was 3.7 million cords - about 59 ft.3 of wood per capita. Annual U.S. consumption of wood is about 67 ft.3 per capita, giving an apparent net import figure of 13.5%. : 

Minnesota is a net importer of wood. The 2002 harvest from Minnesota’s forests was 3.7 million cords - about 59 ft.3 of wood per capita. Annual U.S. consumption of wood is about 67 ft.3 per capita, giving an apparent net import figure of 13.5%.

Slide71: 

Figure 15 Based on: 1) currently available estimates of net annual growing stock growth per county 2) 2000 population census 3) 73 ft3 per capita consumption 4) no consumption in outlying counties 0 2 0 0 4 0 0 M i l e s Minneapolis//St. Paul Chicago St. Louis Des Moines Forest Area Needed to Supply Wood Needs of Various Metropolitan Areas

Environmental Impacts of Materials Production: 

Environmental Impacts of Materials Production

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI): 

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Examination of all measurable: Raw material inputs Products and by-products Emissions Effluents Wastes

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI): 

Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) Typically involves all stages in production, use, and disposal, including: Extraction Transportation Primary processing Conversion to semi-finished products Incorporation into finished products Maintenance Disposal/reuse

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA): 

Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) Examines costs associated with specific environmental burdens: Cleanup costs Health impacts Landscape impacts Environmental impacts

Consider for a moment the environmental impacts of decisions regarding the construction of a residential home.: 

Consider for a moment the environmental impacts of decisions regarding the construction of a residential home.

Relative Energy Consumption to Produce a Ton of:: 

Relative Energy Consumption to Produce a Ton of: Material Energy Aluminum 70 Steel 17 Brick 3.1 Concrete Blocks 3.0 Dry Lumber 1.0 Source: CORRIM I, National Research Council, 1976.

Comparative Energy Consumed in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall (GJ): 

Comparative Energy Consumed in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall (GJ) Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993. Wood Stud Wall Steel Stud Wall Extraction 0.7 1.2 Manufacturing 2.1 9.7 Construction 0.6 0.6 Total 3.4 11.5

Comparative Energy Consumed in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall (GJ): 

Comparative Energy Consumed in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall (GJ) Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993. Wood Stud Wall Steel Stud Wall Extraction 0.7 1.2 Manufacturing 2.1 9.7 Construction 0.6 0.6 Total 3.4 11.5 3.4x

What about an exterior wall?: 

What about an exterior wall?

What if the steel has 50% recycled content?: 

What if the steel has 50% recycled content?

Net Carbon Emissions in Producing a Ton of:: 

Net Carbon Emissions in Producing a Ton of: Net Carbon Emissions Material (kg C/metric ton) Framing lumber -460 Concrete 45 Concrete block 49 Brick 148 Glass 630 Steel 1,090 Aluminum 2,400 Plastic 2,810 Source: Honey and Buchanan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ, 1992.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Components in a Typical House: 

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Components in a Typical House House Frame Floor Wall Net Carbon Emission (kg C) Source: Honey and Buchanan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ, 1992.

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Components in a Typical House: 

Carbon Dioxide Emissions of Various Components in a Typical House House Frame Floor Wall Net Carbon Emission (kg C) Source: Honey and Buchanan, Department of Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ, 1992.

Comparative Emissions in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall: 

Comparative Emissions in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent Wood Wall Steel Wall CO2 (kg) 305 965 CO (g) 2,450 11,800 SOX (g) 400 3,700 NOX (g) 1,150 1,800 Particulates (g) 100 335 VOCs (g) 390 1,800 Methane (g) 4 45 Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993.

Comparative Effluents in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall: 

Comparative Effluents in Manufacturing Wood vs. Steel-Framed Interior Wall Emission/Effluent Wood Wall Steel Wall Suspended solids (g) 12,180 495,640 Non-ferrous metals (mg) 62 2,532 Cyanide (mg) 99 4,051 Phenols (mg) 17,715 725,994 Ammonia (mg) 1,310 53,665 Halogenated organics (mg) 507 20,758 Oil and grease (mg) 1,421 58,222 Sulphides (mg) 13 507 Source: Athena Sustainable Materials Institute, 1993.

It all comes down to this: Although periodic harvesting of forests is viewed as environmentally undesirable in some circles, failure to responsibly harvest triggers a number of undesirable environmental impacts. These impacts are often quite substantial. : 

It all comes down to this: Although periodic harvesting of forests is viewed as environmentally undesirable in some circles, failure to responsibly harvest triggers a number of undesirable environmental impacts. These impacts are often quite substantial.

Options to Domestic Harvest of Timber: 

Options to Domestic Harvest of Timber Shift to use of raw materials other than wood. Use wood, but import needs. Reduce the rate of raw material consumption/recycle.

Shift to Non-Wood Raw Materials: 

Shift to Non-Wood Raw Materials A massive substitution would be necessary to significantly impact wood use. Needs are already largely imported. Gathering and processing of potential substitute materials is relatively energy intensive, with large environmental impacts.

Use Wood, But Import Needs: 

Use Wood, But Import Needs

Importing Raw Material Needs as a National Environmental Strategy . . .: 

Importing Raw Material Needs as a National Environmental Strategy . . . Is unethical Has adverse implications for Global environment Balance of trade Long term economic security

Reduce the Rate of Raw Material Consumption . . . Probably a good idea, at least in U.S., but . .: 

Reduce the Rate of Raw Material Consumption . . . Probably a good idea, at least in U.S., but . . World population is likely to double within the relatively near term Large segments of the world population are seeking to consume more, not less. Population gains in developing countries translate to relatively larger increases in demand for raw materials.

Summary: 

Summary

Summary: 

Summary Substantial increases in population are certain. Substantial increases in global raw material demand will occur. Competition for basic raw materials will continue to increase.

Summary: 

Summary Figuring out how to provide a billion new housing units for a growing population while also protecting the environment will a non-trivial undertaking.

Summary: 

Summary Wood will be clearly be an important part of the sustainability equation. In fact, for the sake of the environment, a strong case can be made that we should use as much wood as possible.

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