SusanKerr

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Susan Kerr WSU-Klickitat County Extension Educator: 

Susan Kerr WSU-Klickitat County Extension Educator Bachelor’s in Animal Science from Cornell University DVM from Cornell University Private practice for seven years PhD in Education from Kansas State University Employed with WSU-Klickitat County since 1995 1 of 23

West Nile Virus and Animals: 

Susan R. Kerr, DVM, PhD Klickitat County Extension Chair West Nile Virus and Animals 2 of 23

WNV: A Brief History: 

Virus first detected in Uganda in 1937 Many cases in Israel in the 1950s Cases in Egypt and France in the 1960s First detected in U.S. in 1999 Between Jan. 1, 2002 and Jan. 29, 2003, 4,007 human cases of West Nile virus-related illness have been reported to the CDC, including 263 fatalities WNV: A Brief History 3 of 23

U.S. WNV Case Summary, 1999-2002: 

U.S. WNV Case Summary, 1999-2002 *As of December 31, 2002 **As of December 1, 2002 4 of 23

Slide5: 

Map from Washington State Department of Health Web Site 5 of 23

How Did WNV Get Here? Some Theories...: 

How Did WNV Get Here? Some Theories... International travel (mosquito stowaways) Human-transported birds (legal or illegal) Tropical storms carry birds and mosquitoes hundreds of miles off course Global warming allowing infected birds to change migration patterns Intentional introduction (bioterrorism)--unlikely Infected human traveler--unlikely 6 of 23

History of WNV in Washington State: 

History of WNV in Washington State Dead raven in Pend Oreille County, WA tested positive in September 2002 Dead crow tested positive in Snohomish in October, 2002 Sick horse tested positive in Island Co., WA, Nov. 2002 Sick horse tested positive in Whatcom Co., WA, Dec. 2002 No cases of human illness originated in WA yet 7 of 23

Life Cycle of WNV: 

Life Cycle of WNV Birds are reservoirs of infection (over 130 species can be infected; corvids most frequently involved) Mosquitoes pick up virus from infected birds, potentiate it, and transmit to other birds, horses, or humans Horses and humans are “dead end” hosts (EXCEPTIONS: blood transfusions, organ donations, breast milk, trans-placental) The virus is amplified through birds and mosquitoes 8 of 23

Slide9: 

West Nile Virus Transmission Cycle 9 of 23

Species That Have Tested Positive for WNV: 

Species That Have Tested Positive for WNV Cats Cows Dogs Bats Chipmunks Skunks Squirrels Rabbits Alpacas Sheep Alligators 10 of 23

Key Points: 

Key Points Horses affected more than any other species of animal Human, equine, and avian illness is rare even in affected areas <1% of mosquitoes in affected areas carry the virus; <1% of humans bitten develop serious complications Many cases are subclinical or mild (flu-like) Illness most severe in elderly, ill, or immuno- compromised individuals Corvids are most likely to develop clinical signs 11 of 23

Date of Symptom Onset, West Nile Virus United States, 1999-2001: 

Date of Symptom Onset, West Nile Virus United States, 1999-2001 Summary: cases usually first appear in mid-to late summer. 12 of 23

WNV Symptoms in Humans: 

WNV Symptoms in Humans High Fever Headache and body aches Skin rash Swollen lymph glands Neck stiffness Disorientation Convulsions The incubation period for West Nile Virus is generally 3-14 days following a bite from an infected mosquito. 13 of 23

Signs of WNV in Horses: 

Signs of WNV in Horses Ataxia, difficulty walking, dragging a leg Stumbling, knuckling over, falling Head tilt, drooling Muscle tremors, weakness Down Depressed Poor appetite Fever Hypersensitivity Paralysis Convulsions WARNING! These signs are also typical of rabies! 14 of 23

Some Statistics:: 

Some Statistics: Humans: about 30% of those bitten by positive mosquitoes develop some signs of illness; about 1% develop serious signs or die About 33% of symptomatic horses die. Signs of illness in other species are rare. 15 of 23

Preventing WNV: 

Preventing WNV 1. Surveillance steps 2. Personal protection and education 3. Mosquito Control 4. Vaccinations 16 of 23

Surveillance Measures: 

Surveillance Measures Mosquito pool analysis for vector species Serology on horses and cattle Captive sentinels (chickens) Human surveillance Dead bird testing: “An increase in the number of dead crows is considered the best early indicator of WNV presence.” Call 360-236-3060 to report dead crows, jays, ravens, magpies, or raptors; form available on-line at WA State DOH Web site. Submit fresh, whole birds; handle with gloves 17 of 23

Estimated Sensitivity of WNV Surveillance Methods: 

Human cases Equine cases Mosquitoes Dead birds Time Disease Activity Sentinel hosts Estimated Sensitivity of WNV Surveillance Methods About 6 to 8 weeks between first dead bird and human cases... 18 of 23

Prevention and Personal Protection: 

Prevention and Personal Protection Use insect repellents containing DEET (humans) House horses in well-screened barns during prime mosquito-feeding hours (dawn, dusk, and evening)--HA! Eliminate mosquito breeding grounds Wear long sleeves and pants Limit outdoor activities at dawn and dusk Repair holes in door and window screens Encourage bat and insect-eating bird habitat Vaccinate horses (1 cc IM in two doses 3 to 6 weeks apart with annual booster in Spring, at least 5 weeks before start of mosquito season; killed vaccine; full licensure since Feb. 6, 2003; only available through veterinarians; not licensed for pregnant mares, but no ill effects noted) 19 of 23

Slide20: 

Mosquito Life Cycle Minimum of 7-10 days Eggs can survive for years Four stages of larval development Adults live a few weeks to several months Over-winter as eggs, larvae, adults WNV can be carried from + adult, through eggs, to next adult! ADULT EGGS LARVA PUPA 20 of 23

Mosquito Habitat Reduction: 

Mosquito Habitat Reduction Eliminate standing water (flower pots; tires; wheelbarrows; wading pools) Change the water in birdbaths and water troughs every 4 to 7 days, or use special larvicidal products Aerate and chlorinate swimming pools and hot tubs; cover if possible Consider mosquito-eating fish for ponds and troughs Keep gutters clean to prevent standing water Special license needed to apply insecticides to water Spread the word: educate your friends and neighbors 21 of 23

Resources: 

Resources www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dvbid/westnile westnilevirus.nbii.gov www.cfe.cornell.edu/erap/WNV/ www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/issues/wnv/wnv.html www.doh.wa.gov/ehp/ts/Zoo/WNV/WNV.html www.mosquito.org npic.orst.edu/wnv www.vetmed.wsu.edu/announcements/ westNile/info.html www.avma.org/communications/brochures/wnv/wnv_faq.asp www.wa.gov/agr/FoodAnimal/AnimalHealth/WNVdefault.htm 22 of 23

Cooperative Extension programs and policies are consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation. Evidence of noncompliance may be reported through your local Cooperative Extension office. : 

Cooperative Extension programs and policies are consistent with federal and state laws and regulations on nondiscrimination regarding race, color, gender, national origin, religion, age, disability, and sexual orientation. Evidence of noncompliance may be reported through your local Cooperative Extension office. 23 of 23

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