umicore efra presentation end of life workshop

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What are processing alternatives and market opportunities for mixed plastic fractions?: 

What are processing alternatives and market opportunities for mixed plastic fractions? L.Tange (Eurobrom DSBG) D.Drohmann (GLCC) Representing European Flame Retardant Association (EFRA) Presentation to workshop Where are “WEEE”going? October 2004 Antwerp

Slide2: 

EFRA Aims and Objectives EFRA is a Sector Group within CEFIC which: represents all the major manufacturers of FRs covers all flame retardant chemistries promotes the safe use of FRs to achieve fire safety recognises the perceived environmental issues and encourages debate on a scientific basis FR Industry sponsors studies into key issues Tests in support of EU Risk Assessments Life Cycle Assessments Consumer exposure End of Life studies, incineration and recycling Monitoring of certain FRs in the environment

Slide3: 

EFRA Members 2004 Full Members Akzo Nobel, Albemarle, Bayer, Borax, Budenheim, Ciba, Clariant, DSBG/Eurobrom, DSM, Ferro, Great Lakes, Italmatch, Joseph Storey, Nabaltec, Rhodia Associate Members Noveon, Tegewa, Schill & Seilacher Observers Plastics Europe, CIA, FRCA, FRCJ, GTFI

Slide4: 

Operation and Cooperation Between FR Industry Groups Representing the unified Flame Retardants industry in Europe - The ‘One Stop Shop’ for the outside world Funding research and international coordination of product related issues Dealing with product related issues in Europe

PLASTIC WASTE FROM E & E EQUIPMENT Plastic content waste in total E & E (West Europe, 2000): 

PLASTIC WASTE FROM E & E EQUIPMENT Plastic content waste in total E & E (West Europe, 2000) Total waste (all materials): 4,395,000 tonnes Source: TN SOFRES Consulting 82.3% : other waste : ferrous metals non-ferrous metals wood glass elastomers concrete oil optic fibres ... Plastic waste : 17.7%

PLASTIC WASTE FROM E & E EQUIPMENT Total plastic consumption compared with total plastic waste, by sub-sector (Western Europe, 2000): 

PLASTIC WASTE FROM E & E EQUIPMENT Total plastic consumption compared with total plastic waste, by sub-sector (Western Europe, 2000) Plastic consumption in 2000: 1,483,000 tonnes Source: TN SOFRES Consulting, based on data provided by plastic and product manufacturers Plastic waste generated in 2000: 777,000 tonnes Automatic dispensers: 1% E & E tools: 1% Medical equipment: 0.5% Toys: 0.5% Lighting equipment: 0% Monitoring and control instruments: 0%

Variety of Flame Retardants use of FRs, worldwide, of total tonnage (1.2 mill/tons/y) source SRI Consulting http://www.sriconsulting.com : 

Variety of Flame Retardants use of FRs, worldwide, of total tonnage (1.2 mill/tons/y) source SRI Consulting http://www.sriconsulting.com In many cases, several different types of flame retardants are combined to achieve optimal material performance and product safety (synergy)

Use of flame retarded plastics in E&E equipment – 2000 data: 

Use of flame retarded plastics in E&E equipment – 2000 data

EU Directives: Restrictions on Marketing & Use: 

EU Directives: Restrictions on Marketing & Use Directive 2003/11/EC amending for the 24th time Council Directive 76/769/EEC relating to restrictions on the marketing and use of certain dangerous substances and preparations PentaBDE and OctaBDE may not be placed on the market or used as a substance or as a constituent of substances or of preparations in concentrations higher than 0.1% by mass. Articles may not be placed on the market if they, or FR-parts thereof, contain these substances in concentrations higher than 0.1% by mass. Ban to be effective from 15.08.2004

EU Directives: RoHS - 2002/95/EC: 

EU Directives: RoHS - 2002/95/EC The European Commission launched a Stakeholder Consultation in May 2004 to evaluate exemption for DecaBDE 90 inputs from stakeholders (not only for DecaBDE but also for other applications included in the consultation) 20th July: first evaluation of the European Commission & Member States on input August / September: proposal from Commission 22 October: “vote” by Member States

WEEE EU Directive consequences for FRs: 

WEEE EU Directive consequences for FRs As a minimum, plastics containing brominated flame retardants, printed circuit boards (greater than 10 cm2), and other components have to be removed from any separately collected WEEE. WEEE plastics containing BFRs need to be separately treated like: e.q. directly in a smelter or via co-combustion into incineration or cement kilns Within the WEEE directive there are NO restrictions related to other FRs

Slide12: 

Available technical solutions for WEEE Plastics

Mechanical Recycling and Separation: 

Mechanical Recycling and Separation On the ladder of Lansing the most preferred solution is re-use in same application The issues are mostly related to the quality of aged plastics, variety of and changes in additive contents, and economy of scale Mechanical recycling requires separation Evolution of separation techniques & equipment is crucial Existing methods for sorting are ;density difference (wet floating system), dry (windsifting), tribo-electric, heated drum method and jigging system

Mechanical Recycling : 

Mechanical Recycling FR plastics recycling is happening (including for closed loop) resulting in valuable types of recyclate (e.g. Ricoh and Fuji Xerox) Examples of mechanical recycling are possible once the plastics can be seperated: Polyamides (PA6) using Exolit OP 1312 (tested by Clariant) HIPS with DecaBDE (tested by GFA-EBFRIP) HIPS with EBP and EBTBP (tested by Albemarle) PC/ABS containing PFRs (BPADP is tested by Albemarle) ABS with BEOs (tested by Technopolymer Japan)

FRs and Mechanical Recycling: 

FRs and Mechanical Recycling Main conclusion of all these extrusion and injection molding test: Majority of the mechanical properties were maintained during 3 or 5 recycle steps and also full filling the German chemical banning ordinance These plastics can be recycled for same applications due to maintenance of physical properties of polymer and flame retardant Recyclate maintains flame retardancy to levels in excess of UL tests V-0 and 5VB Main issue is historical plastics containing Penta- and OctaBDE plus PBBs which needs to be sorted out. Also for these old plastics the issue of dioxin/furans related to the German chemical banning ordinance can be difficult to meet

Management of E&E plastic waste (current trends and possible options): 

Management of E&E plastic waste (current trends and possible options) Beside Mechanical Recycling: Metal smelters (mainly PWBoards) Incineration co-combustion: Tamara and Norway study Landfill Cement kilns – fuel replacement New possible options Feedstock recycling : Haloclean etc Dehalogination with blast furnaces Creosolv, solvolysis, super critical CO2 extraction Smelter (copper and precious) as reducing agent as during the Umicore trial with 250 ton WEEE plastic

Metal smelter recycling in Europe: 

Metal smelter recycling in Europe

Slide18: 

Energy & Material Recovery by Co-combustion of WEEE and MSW by APME-FZK-EBFRIP J. Vehlow, B. Bergfeldt, H. Hunsinger, K. Jay, H. Seifert Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe Institut für Technische Chemie / Bereich Thermische Abfallbehandlung

WEEE materials in the program: 

WEEE materials in the program constant heating value of 10 MJ/kg

German Pilot Plant FZK Tamara Co-combustion trials together with APM E : 

German Pilot Plant FZK Tamara Co-combustion trials together with APM E A pilot plant as copy of a modern MSW incinerator Trial in cooperation with APME and FZK Capacity 250 kg/h containing 50 kg WEEE plastics Bromine content up to 10 g/kg MSW After combustion the HBr is transferred into the flue gas The HBr is absorbed in a scrubber with water or NaOH Samples were collected & tested by Bromine producers

Mixed halogenated dioxins and furans vs. Br2: 

Mixed halogenated dioxins and furans vs. Br2

Slide22: 

rotary drum 450 °C HBr/Br2 gas (process energy) oil (chemical industry) Haloclean Process

Future Trends for thermal processes: 

Future Trends for thermal processes Main criteria: Political acceptance Economical solution (eco-efficiency) “Zero” emission (eco-efficiency) Outlet for the produced products!! By these criteria it is most likely that feed stock recyling will become a favourite solution but only if the economics improve Metal smelters and “clean” processes like Haloclean are able to play an important role ! For metal smelters a “full scale trial” has run with positive results

Overall conclusion (1): 

Overall conclusion (1) Flame retardants are needed in a world with plastics. If plastics with FR’s are produced we need to deal with these products during their whole life cycle including all End of Life options For new plastics with FR’s produced today mechanical recycling can be an option Historical WEEE plastics do have several issues for direct mechanical recycling. Today thermal processes do have the advantage of large scale of economy plus are able to handle the different FRs

Overall conclusions (2): 

Overall conclusions (2) Energy recovery and feedstock recycling can play an important role in a waste management Up to to 3 % plastics from WEEE can be mixed and co-fired with Municipal Solid Waste Incineration without increasing PBDD/F formation Smelters are able to use large amount of plastics as reducing agent. Depending of the definition of recycling it can be part of this quota or could count as energy recovery

For Further Information:: 

For Further Information:

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