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Religious Wars of Europe: 

Religious Wars of Europe 1560 to 1648

Background Theories: 

Background Theories Religious wars broke out in Europe for well over a century. Marx and Weber theses: Marx: capitalism (work ethic) led to Protestantism – favored by middle class Weber: capitalism furthered Protestantism but did not cause it.

French Civil Wars (at least 9 in last half of 16th c.): 

French Civil Wars (at least 9 in last half of 16th c.) Concordat of Bologna, 1516: French monarchy now controlled Gallican Church Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis, 1559: ends Habsburg Valois Wars (last purely dynastic wars) France kept Holy Roman Empire from gaining hegemony in Germany, inadvertently helping Lutheranism to spread Edict of Fontainebleau: French subjected the Protestant to the Inquisition Edict of Chateaubriand: French monarchy staunch foe of Protestants War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Huguenot faction Henry Valois (King, and Moderate Catholic) Henry Guise– Catholic League (radical) Henry of Navarre (Bourbon family) (Protestant) Catharine de’ Medici: (a Valois) opposed to Huguenots and Catholic Guise family Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye: end religious civil war (3 parts) acknowledge power of Huguenots and religious freedoms with their territories and allowed to fortified their cities. St. Bartholomew Day Massacre: Huguenots massacred at Catherine’s order Henry of Navarre (Henry IV) (1553-1610): first Bourbon king Edict of Nantes, 1598: granted religious toleration to Huguenots politiques: monarchs who favor practical solutions (rather than ideological)


Spain Spain Catholic Crusade Philip II (1556-98): fanatically seeks to re-impose Catholicism in Europe Subjugated the peasantry, new wealth and organized lesser nobility into a loyal and efficient national bureaucracy Escorial: new royal palace (and monastery and mausoleum) in shape of grill Holy League: May 1571, Spain, Venice and Papal States look to check Turkish influence in the Mediterranean Sea Battle of Lepanto: Spain defeated Turkish navy off coast of Greece (reminiscent of earlier Christian Crusades) by Don John (Philip’s half brother) Spain annexed Portugal in 1580


Netherlands Netherlands: richest area in Philip’s kingdom and of Europe Cardinal Granvelle (Antoine Perrenot): Picked by Philip to break the Protestant advancement Break the local autonomy of 17 provinces in stages and place a centralized royal government that is directed by Madrid William I (William of Orange) (1533-1584), led 17 provinces against Inquisition and Spanish rule He got Dutch nobility to remove Granvelle from office in 1564 Philip decreed the Council of Trent to be enforced throughout the Netherlands Compromise: a national covenant to resist the decrees of Trent and the Inquisition Duke of Alba: Council of Troubles (Council of Blood) thousands suspected of heresy were executed during his reign of terror, then he taxed the Dutch for this suppression William was the Stadholder (Governor) of Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht Pacification of Ghent: 17 provinces united northern and southern Internal regional sovereignty in matters of religion Political cooperation Union of Brussels 1577: united all provinences Spanish Netherlands (modern-day Belgium) Union of Arras: southern provinces break the union of Brussels and made peace with Spain closing of the Scheldt River: demise of Antwerp and rise of Amsterdam


Netherlands United Provinces of the Netherlands,1581 (Dutch Republic) Union of Utrecht united the northern provinces William’s speech Apology: denounced Philip as a heathen tyrant whom the Netherlands need no longer obey July 22, 1581: Formally declared Philip no longer their ruler 1596: France and England formally recognized the independence of the Netherlands Spain recognizes northern provinces independence in 1609 with the Twelve Years’ Truce Full recognition comes in the Peace of Westphalia in 1648

Mary Tudor (1553-1558): 

Mary Tudor (1553-1558) Lady Jane Grey: Queen of England for 9 days. Protestant faction that push the young lady on the throne to stop the Catholic Mary England still a majority Catholic, uprisings in London remove Lady Jane and have her behead Married Philip Habsburg of Spain (Philip II) Cost her the city of Calais Symbol of militant Catholicism Parliament repealed all of Edward’s Protestant statues and reverted to Catholic practices of her father Henry VIII Major Protestant leaders executed: Hugh Latimer and Thomas Cranmer and others for heresy

Elizabeth I (1558-1603): 

Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Queen Elizabeth I reverses Mary’s edict Centralized Episcopal system and broadly defined Protestant doctrine and traditional Catholic ritual Act of Supremacy 1559: Queen’s right as “Supreme governor” as both spiritual and temporal affairs Act of Uniformity: revised Book of Common Prayer Thirty-Nine Articles: made a moderate Protestantism the official religion within the Church of England Puritans: Wanted to purify the Church of England Retention of Catholic ceremony Continuation of the Episcopal system Extreme Puritans wanted every congregation to be autonomous: Congregationalists Conventicle Act of 1593: gave separatists the option of either conforming to the practices of Church of England or face exile/death Factors that caused relations to deteriorate with Spain 1. Duke of Alba march into the Netherlands 2. Pope Pius V excommunicated Elizabeth for heresy in 1570 3. English Pirates John Hawkins and Sir Francis Drake 4. Treaty of Nonsuch: military aid to the Netherlands 5. Support of Henry of Navarre in France Spanish Armada, 1588: Spring 1587: Sir Francis Drake: puts heavy damage to Spanish ships in the port city of Cadiz and the Portugal coast May 30, 1588: Spanish fleet under Duke of Medina-Sidonia is defeat by English and Dutch fleets under Drake At Elizabeth’s death: Left England a strong nation poised to expand into a global empire

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots: 

Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots Daughter of King James V and Mary Guise Raised as a French Catholic Married to Francis II of France Returns to Scotland after husbands death Assumes throne after the death of her father John Knox watches Queen very closely and hates that she has private masses because it is against Scottish law Queen Elizabeth personally despised Knox for the First Blast of the Trumpet against the Terrible Regiment of Women Public scandal cause Mary to abdicate throne in 1568 Her lover earl of Bothwell suspected killing her husband Lord Darnley Married Bothwell after acquittal Son James VI became King of England Exile in England and under House arrest for 19 years 1586 Babington Plot: Anthony Babington seeking Spanish support for an attempt on Queen Elizabeth and there is uncontestable proof of Mary’s involvement Mary executed on February 18,1587

Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) – most important war of the 17th century: 

Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) – most important war of the 17th century Failure of Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Four phases of the war: Bohemian: Elector of Palatine: Frederick III and IV vs. Ferdinand of Austria and Bohemia Defenestration of Prague: triggers war in Bohemia Protestant forces eventually defeated; Protestantism eliminated in Bohemia Battle of White Mountain 1620 Count Tilly defeats Frederick V Danish: height of Catholic forces during the war Maximilian defeats Danish King Christian IV to gain land and power Albrecht von Wallenstein (1583-1634): paid by emperor to fight for HRE Edict of Restitution (1629): emperor declared all church territories secularized since 1552 automatically restored to Catholic Church Swedish: Protestants liberate territory lost in previous phase Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden: pushed back Catholic forces back to Bohemia Battle of Breitenfeld, 1630, Battle of Lutzen 1632: Death of Adolphus by Wallenstein’s forces Emperor annuls Edict of Restitution: Peace of Prague, Wallenstein is assassinated French: “International Phase” Cardinal Richelieu allied with Protestants (like in earlier Hapsburg-Valois Wars)

Treaty of Westphalia (1648):: 

Treaty of Westphalia (1648): Treaty: Ended Catholic Reformation in Germany Renewal of Peace of Augsburg (but added Calvinism as accepted faith) Dissolution of Holy Roman Empire confirmed Dutch and Swiss independence 300+ German states became sovereign Results of 30 Years’ War Germany physically devastated (as much as 1/3 of pop. in certain areas perished) End to wars of religion Beginning of rise of France as dominant European power; also Britain & Netherlands

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