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Slide1: 

VOLPE CENTER TURBULENCE ACTIVITIES

Slide2: 

INDEX WAKE TURBULENCE Vortex Motion Sensor Development Test Programs

Slide3: 

Wake Turbulence

Slide4: 

Vortex Motion

Slide5: 

Wake Vortex Behavior in Ground Effect Case 1 - Zero Wind

Slide6: 

Wake Vortex Behavior in Ground Effect Case 2 - Cross Wind

Slide7: 

Wake Vortex Behavior in Ground Effect Case 3 - Stalled Vortex

Slide8: 

Wake Vortex Behavior in Ground Effect Case 4 - Parallel Runways

Slide9: 

Sensor Development

Slide10: 

Sensors Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS) Anemometer Windline SOCRATES Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS)

Slide11: 

Principle of Operation Laser Doppler Velocimeter(LDV) Laser beam interaction with the wake vortex causes some of the Characteristics The CW system can provide a detailed cross section of the vortex structure since the backscattered light is Doppler shifted by the particulate velocities Characteristics A continuous wave (CW) laser has an effective range of approximately 200 m with some tracking capability Measurement Both CW and Pulsed systems provide a measure of vortex position and strength laser light to be backscattered from the particulates trapped in the vortex A Pulsed laser has an effective range of 2 km but provides a less detailed vortex profile than the CW laser A Pulsed laser system can also track vortices

Slide12: 

Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV)

Slide13: 

Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS) Principle of Operation Characteristics Measurement MAVSS unit comprises a pair of acoustic antennas (transmitter and receiver ) Each transmitter generates an acoustic pulse, which , when interacting with a vortex backscatters some doppler shifted acoustic energy from the density variations in the vortex to the receiver Linear array of antenna pairs is spaced along a path perpendicular to the expected vortex path Adjacent antenna pairs use different frequencies to avoid cross talk The effective vertical range of the MAVSS is up to 200 ft MAVSS provides a measure of vortex lateral position and strength MAVSS is generally deployed near the middle marker area of the runway approach path, however, its low height (4 ft) allows for installation even closer to the runway threshold

Slide14: 

Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS)

Slide15: 

Principle of Operation Characteristics Measurements A linear array of fiberglass poles, each up to 30 ft high, on which are mounted propeller anemometer pairs for measuring vertical and cross wind As vortices descend into ground effect, the anemometers are driven with a speed and direction dictated by the portion of the wake vortex encountered The array is located perpendicular to the expected path of the wake vortices The Anemometer Windline is generally deployed near the middle marker area of the runway approach path because of the pole height This system provides a good estimate of vortex lateral position Anemometer Windline

Slide16: 

Anemometer Windline

Slide17: 

SOCRATES Principle of Operation Characteristics Laser beams are used as virtual microphones for detecting, locally, acoustic signals generated by remote sources such as wake turbulence This concept is currently being explored in an extensive test program

Slide18: 

SOCRATES

Slide19: 

Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) Principle of Operation Measurement The basic element of this concept is a radar acoustic sounding system, or RASS, modified for this application The rf signals are also refracted when a vortex is encountered, which itself causes changes to the index of refraction of the air This system is still in the early development stage Provides a measure of vortex position and strength An acoustic signal is generated along a path perpendicular to the approach flight path An rf signal, generated along the same path is refracted back from the condensations and rarefactions generated by the acoustic signal

Slide20: 

Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS)

Slide21: 

Test Programs

Slide22: 

Idaho Falls 1990 Participating Organizations Purpose A cooperative wake turbulence research effort involving the Volpe Center, the William J. Hughes Technical Center, and the National Oceanic and Atmosphere Administration’s Environmental Research Laboratory The tests were conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) site located about 45 miles from Idaho Falls Using the 200-ft instrumented tower located at the INEL site during the 6 week test program, three aircraft: a Boeing 727, Boeing 757, and a Boeing 767, each under a controlled variety of flight configurations, made multiple low altitude passes upwind of the tower to ensure that wake vortice generated by the aircraft would pass through the tower Vortex velocity profiles generated under a variety of meteorlogical conditions were obtained

Slide23: 

Idaho Falls 1990 Site Description The Volpe Center participated by deploying its Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) and a line of Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS) antenna pairs The LDV was located near the 200-foot tower to correlate vortex position and strength measures with the tower instrumentation The eight MAVSS antennas pairs, spaced 250 feet apart, were in a line starting at the tower and extending 1750 feet downwind

Slide24: 

Idaho Falls 1990 - Wake Vortex Test Site Photo of test site

Slide25: 

Participating Organizations Purpose This was a test program conducted by the Volpe Center cooperatively with Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1990 The purpose was to obtain wake vortex measurements of position and strength at two points along the flight path for each landing aircraft

Slide26: 

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1990 Aerial View Aerial photo of dfw

Slide27: 

Site Description Two test sites were established: Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1990 The Monostatic Acoustic Vortex Sensing System (MAVSS) site was also located under the approach path to RWY 17L approximately 2400 ft from the runway end The Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) site was located under the approach path to RWY 17L approximately 6500 ft from the runway end Nine MAVSS antenna pairs were spaced 100 ft apart and deployed in a line perpendicular to and starting on the extended centerline of RWY 17L and running east 800 ft

Slide28: 

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1990 LDV Test Site

Slide29: 

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1990 MAVSS Test Site

Slide30: 

Participating Organizations Purpose This was a test program conducted by the Volpe Center cooperatively with the Port Authority of NY & NJ The original purpose of the Anemometer Windline installation was to serve as ground truth for evaluation of the Radar Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) as a vortex detector The site, except for some brief periods since its installation, has provided and continues to provide a wealth of vortex track data for a large population of heavy aircraft that regularly fly into JFK In October 1996, May 1997, and November 1998, the JFK test site was used to support a vortex sensor evaluation program conducted by NASA Langley Research Center In May 1998, the JFK test site was used to support the initial evaluation effort of the SOCRATES vortex sensor Current plans call for extending the Anemometer Windline on the northeast end an additional 800 ft in order to track vortices and make vortex strength measurements for application to airports with closely spaced parallel runways Kennedy International Airport 1994

Slide31: 

Kennedy International Airport 1994 Aerial View Test Site Aerial photo of JFK

Slide32: 

Site Description This test site is located approximately 2100 ft from RWY 31R threshold The primary vortex sensor is an Anemometer Windline that comprises fifteen 30-ft fiberglass poles Each pole is equipped with vertical wind and crosswind anemometers The poles are 50 feet apart and deployed in a line centered on and perpendicular to the extended RWY 31R centerline The site is configured to operate unattended and acquire vortex track data automatically Kennedy International Airport 1994

Slide33: 

Kennedy International Airport 1994 Wake Vortex Test Site Photo of WV test site

Slide34: 

Memphis International Airport 1996 Participating Organizations A cooperative wake turbulence research effort involving the Volpe Center, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC), and Memphis International Airport (MEM) Purpose This site was established to provide NASA LaRC with vortex tracking data to support the early stages of development of NASA LaRC’s Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) engineering model

Slide35: 

Memphis International Airport 1996 Graphic Aerial View

Slide36: 

Memphis International Airport 1996 Site Description This test site was located approximately 2100 ft from RWY 27 threshold The primary vortex sensor was an Anemometer Windline that comprises twenty-four 30-ft fiberglass poles Each pole was equipped with vertical wind and crosswind anemometers The poles were 50 ft apart and deployed in a line centered on an perpendicular to the extended RWY 27 centerline

Slide37: 

Memphis International Airport 1996 Wake Vortex Test Site

Slide38: 

Participating Organizations This was a test program conducted by the Volpe Center, cooperatively with NASA Langley Research Center and Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) Purpose This site was established to provide NASA LaRC with vortex tracking data to support the development of NASA LaRC’s Aircraft Vortex Spacing System (AVOSS) engineering model Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1997 This site has provided and continues to provide a wealth of vortex track data for the population of aircraft that fly into DFW

Slide39: 

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1997 Aerial View

Slide40: 

Site Description This test site is located approximately 3200 ft from RWY 17C threshold The primary vortex sensor is an Anemometer Windline that comprises eighteen 30-ft fiberglass poles Each pole is equipped with vertical wind and crosswind anemometers The poles are 50 ft apart and deployed in a line perpendicular to the extended RWY 17C centerline with ten poles west of the extended runway centerline and seven poles east of the runway extended centerline Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1997 The site operates unattended and automatically collects vortex data

Slide41: 

Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) 1997 Wake Vortex Test Site

Slide42: 

Participating Organizations This is a test program that will be conducted by the Volpe Center, cooperatively with San Francisco International Airport (SFO) Purpose SFO has closely spaced parallel runways 750 ft apart The Anemometer Windline will be used to detect wake vortices generated by aircraft at altitudes of 50 ft (AGL) and less and track the movement of the wake vortices between the runways San Francisco International Airport - 1999 An approach procedure called Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approach (SOIA) is being proposed to increase airport capacity

Slide43: 

San Francisco International Airport - 1999 Aerial View

Slide44: 

San Francisco International Airport - 1999

Slide45: 

San Francisco International Airport - 1999 Test Site

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