World War II : World War II 1938-1945 Foreign Policy In Place : Foreign Policy In Place U.S. – Neutral – Not interested in another European War
Kellog-Briand Pact 1928 – No force for aggression
Treaty of Versailles (Not holding Up)
Japan Invades Manchuria violating Open Door Policy & Kellog-Briand
Under Hoover – Stimpson Doctrine U.S. refuses to recognize Japanese ill-gotten gains in territory
FDR’s Foreign Policy: Latin America: FDR’s Foreign Policy: Latin America FDR’s Foreign Policy:: FDR’s Foreign Policy: FDR grants U.S. recognition of Soviet Union in 1933 – “Good for Business” & hopes it will keep Japanese expansion in check.
FDR is given power to lower tariffs by up to 50% to other nations that “reciprocate”
Philippines – Tydings-McDuff Act pledges Filipino independence by 1946
Nye Investigation into WWI causes : Nye Investigation into WWI causes Led by Sen. Gerald Nye of North Dakota
U.S. involvement was due to conspiracy by war & banking to drag us into war for profiteering.
Mandatory Arms Embargo would prevent it from happening again
Prompts Congress to pass “Neutrality Act 1935” forbid sale of arms to nations at war.
When Italy invaded Ethiopia & Spain’s civil war, the embargos only aided the aggressor Neutrality Act 1937: Neutrality Act 1937 Continued Embargo on Arms & Loans
Sold goods to nation on “Cash & Carry” basis.
Allowed U.S. to stay out of foreign wars yet still profit from them. The Rise of Dictators: The Rise of Dictators And the Causes of World War II. Failure of the Treaty of Versailles:: Failure of the Treaty of Versailles: Germany was left without an army or navy to defend itself.
Nations slipped into serious depressions (especially Germany due to the war reparations).
Territories were divided and new nations were created without consideration of the people.
Germans were resentful for losing the war, war guilt clause Four Faces of Aggression:: Four Faces of Aggression: FASCIST ITALY:MUSSOLINI: FASCIST ITALY: MUSSOLINI Extreme nationalism
Militaristic expansion to restore Roman Empire
Belief in private property with strong government control
Installed in 1922 NAZI GERMANY:HITLER: NAZI GERMANY: HITLER Extreme nationalism and racism
Charismatic leader/ played on fears and pride
Belief in private property with strong government control
Gained power in 1933 JAPAN: TOJO AND HIROHITO: JAPAN: TOJO AND HIROHITO Tojo became militaristic Prime Minister for Emperor Hirohito
Militarism, Nationalism and Racism
Sought Asian empire for imperialist efforts Prime Minister Hideki Tojo (above) and Emperor Hirohito (below) COMMUNIST SOVIET UNION:STALIN: COMMUNIST SOVIET UNION: STALIN Worldwide spread of Communism
Revolution by workers of the world
Government owns property
Eventual rule by working class
Distrust of democracy and west Common Themes Totalitarianism:: Common Themes Totalitarianism: Hold power by force and fear
Pass laws to forbid political competition
Appeal to people’s prejudices
All suffering from hard economic times Early Aggressions:: Early Aggressions: 1931: Japan takes Manchuria
1935: Mussolini invades Ethiopia
1935: Hitler begins to rebuild army
1936: Germany occupies Rhineland
1937: Japan invades China
1938: Germany annexes Austria and is given Czechoslovakia (Munich Pact)
1939: Germany invades Poland to begin World War II Holocaust: Holocaust Holocaust: Holocaust Genocide: the systematic and purposeful destruction of a racial, political, religious, or cultural group.
Victims: Jews, Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, Undesirables (homosexuals, mentally ill, political dissidents, handicap)
Hitler’s Final Solution – extermination of all Jews.
Nuremburg Trials – After the war emphasized individual responsibility for actions regardless of orders.
Trials led to increased demand for Jewish homeland. 11 million were killed
6 million were Jews Isolationism: Isolationism Attempts at Neutrality as militarism sweeps Europe:: Attempts at Neutrality as militarism sweeps Europe: Congress passed Neutrality Acts in 1935, ’36 &’37
“America First” was the catch-phrase of isolationism! Slide26: “The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact The War Begins!: The War Begins! WW II began with Hitler’s invasion of Poland in 1939.
Soviet Union invaded Poland from the east.
Hitler’s and Stalin’s Non-Aggression Pact kept them from fighting each other.
France and Britain enter to defend Poland “The Appeaser”: makes reference to Munich Pact America still debated isolationism:: America still debated isolationism: U.S. Stayed Neutral during Blitzkrieg: U.S. Stayed Neutral during Blitzkrieg Germany defeated Poland in 6 weeks.
Germany then attacked France, which fell within a week. (June, 1940)
Germany pounded Britain by air, which was called the “Battle of Britain”-- Britain held on… (1940-1941)
In mid-1941, Hitler invaded the Soviet Union. What is Blitzkrieg?: What is Blitzkrieg? Germany’s Takeover of Europe! Slide32: Updated 2007 America increased involvement:: America increased involvement: “Cash and Carry Plan” was replaced by the Lend-Lease Act
It gave Britain war supplies and old navy ships in return for Caribbean navy bases.
*FDR compared it to lending a neighbor a garden hose if his house was on fire FDR moves U.S. to war : FDR moves U.S. to war Selective Service Act (1940) – Drafting of 1.2 million troops for compulsory service
Four Freedoms – (1/6/41) FDR addresses Congress that U.S. should aid Britain – U.S. should stand behind nations committed to freedom.
Atlantic Charter – signed with Britain’s Churchill agreeing that the principles of war would be peace with self-determination for all, no territorial expansion and guarantee free trade. U.S. Response to Japan: U.S. Response to Japan U.S. takes economic action against Japan following alliance with Axis Powers & invasion of China & Indochina:
FDR cuts of oil & gas sales & scrap metal sales to Japan
Freezes Japanese assets in U.S.
Negotiations between Japan & U.S. – neither side budged
U.S.: delay long enough to become stronger
Japan: Strike now before oil supply runs out. Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 2,400 Americans killed when Japanese war planes bomb Pacific Fleet to take out battleships and carriers
20 Warships sunk & 150 planes destroyed
Japan also struck American bases in Pacific
FDR asks Congress for declaration of war - “Day of Infamy” - the next day
Germany & Italy declared war on U.S. U.S. counter attack TokyoApril 1942 –Doolittle’s Raiders: U.S. counter attack Tokyo April 1942 –Doolittle’s Raiders American Home Front: American Home Front America’s goal: Defeat Hitler First!
U.S. fights a two front war
War in European Theater & Pacific Theater of operations
Key Allies: U.S., Britain & Soviet Union
American Home Front: Industry: American Home Front: Industry 1942 – War Production Board (WPB) – manages war industry
Office of War Mobilization
Govt. used a cost-plus system (plus = small profit)
Business was good for war industries: Auto industry made bombers and tanks. Ships were produced in 14 days.
By 1944 unemployment disappeared.
U.S. Output was twice that of the Axis powers Home Front: Home Front Wages, Pricing & Rationing
Prices, wages and rents were frozen
Rationing: Sugar, Meat, Gasoline, Tires
Income Tax increased & most paid
Taxes were automatically withheld from paychecks
War Bonds ($135 billion) Home Front Society: Home Front Society Mexican Americans: Mexican Americans 300,000 Mexican Americans served in white units during the war
More worked in War Industry
1942 deal with Mexico allowed farm workers to cross the boarder during harvest season (braceros)
Caused white resentment (Zoot Suit Riots in Los Angeles summer of 1943 Native Americans: Native Americans 25,000 served in military
Navajo Indian language used as a code against Japanese (spoken-not written)
Thousands Native Americans worked in war industry
More than half never returned to reservations African Americans : African Americans One Million served in segregated units
Tuskegee Airmen – first black flying unit
African Americans served in support roles
1.5 million left South to find work out West
NAACP membership increased
Smith v. Allwright (1944) SCOTUS ruled unconstitutional to deny blacks party membership to exclude them from primaries Japanese Americans: Japanese Americans Guilt by association racism against Japanese Americans
20,000 served in U.S. military (Nesei Regiments)
100,000 Japanese Americans were suspected of being potential spies. Rounded up and put in Internment Camps. (Fear & Racism)
Korematsu v. U.S. in 1944 SCOTUS upholds internment during war.
U.S. apologizes & pays compensation in 1988 to those (still living) who were victimized. Axis Strategy: Axis Strategy Defeat Russia quickly, gain control of Soviet oil fields, force Britain out of war through air bombing & sub warfare.
Japan hoped by invading Asia & taking U.S. Pacific fleet out of the war, America would then accept Japanese predominance in Southeast Asia and Pacific rather than conduct a bloody, costly war to reverse Japanese gains. Allied Strategy: Allied Strategy Pacific – Island Hopping Campaign, seizing islands closer & closer to Japan to use as bases for air attack & cut off Japanese supply lines
Europe: Defeat Hitler First! Strategy – most American resources target Europe. Bomb German war infrastructure & build up invasion force to liberate Europe. Battles - Europe: Battles - Europe North Africa Italy – Allies drive out Germans from North Africa to use as base for invasion & liberation of Italy.
Battle of El-Alamein – defeat for Hitler in N. Africa prevented Axis from gaining oil supplies in Middle East
Stalingrad – Germans surrender to Soviets after long siege. (
Normandy (D-Day) June 6, 1944
Battle of the Bulge – December 1944
Fall of Berlin – Hitler commits suicide (April 30, 1945)
VE Day (May 7, 1945)
Slide60: World War II in Europe and Africa Updated 2/26/07 Battles - Pacific: Battles - Pacific Japanese troops occupied Korea, E. China, Philippines, Burma & Malaysia, French Indochina, Indonesia & Pacific Islands west of Midway.
Naval battles: Battle of Coral Sea (May 1942) & Battle of Midway (June, 1942) were turning points in the war. U.S. was able to destroy most of Japanese fleet & planes
Adm. Chester Nimitz bypassed Japanese strongholds & isolated them. Gen. Douglas MacArthur liberated Philippines.
Iwo Jima & Okinawa – cost thousands of American lives, brought U.S. closer to Japan. Slide62: World War II in the Pacific Updated 2/26/07 Hiroshima & Nagassaki: Hiroshima & Nagassaki Atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima (August 6, 1945) & Nagassaki (August 9, 1945)
250,000 Japanese citizens were killed
Japan surrenders one week later
V-J Day (September 2, 1945) when surrender is signed on battleship Missouri in Tokyo harbor.
The Enola Gay: The Enola Gay B-17 over Europe: B-17 over Europe Effects of Atomic Bomb: Effects of Atomic Bomb Wartime Conferences: Wartime Conferences The “Big Three” Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin meet three times during the war to plan strategy for war & peace.
Casablanca – Churchill & Roosevelt (Jan. 1943) Agree to invade Sicily & demand unconditional surrender of Axis.
Tehran – Big Three in Iran (Nov.1943) Agree British & American invasion of Europe in Spring 1944. Soviets would invade Germany & enter Pacific war.
Yalta – would decide the peace Yalta Conference: Yalta Conference (Feb. 1945) Big Three decide:
Germany to be divided into occupation zones
Free elections in liberated areas of Eastern Europe (Soviet controlled zone)
Soviets would enter war against Japan (8/8/45) before Japan surrendered.
Soviet would control southern half of Sakhalin island and Kurile Is. & special concession in Manchuria
U.N. would be formed
FDR Dies April 12, 1945: FDR Dies April 12, 1945 Vice President Harry Truman becomes president
Decides to use the bomb against Japan
Ultimatum for unconditional surrender of Japan
Holds war crime trials of Nazi leaders
Potsdam Conference The Geneva Convention andthe Treatment of Prisoners:: The Geneva Convention and the Treatment of Prisoners: VUS.10d
Key Understanding:: Key Understanding: The conduct of war often reflects social and moral codes of a nation.
The treatment of prisoners of war often reflects the savage nature of conflict and the cultural norms of the nations. Geneva Convention:: Geneva Convention: This was a meeting by major powers
Attempt to ensure the humane treatment of prisoners of war by establishing rules to be followed by all nations. In 1929 the Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War was signed by 47 governments. Prisoners in the Pacific:: Prisoners in the Pacific: The Bataan Death March; American POW’s suffered brutal treatment by Japanese after the surrender of the Philippines.
Japanese soldiers often committed suicide rather than surrender. Nearly 70,000 American and Filipino soldiers were forced to surrender to the Japanese at Bataan in 1942. These troops were then marched through intense heat to a camp over 60 miles away. Somewhere between 5,000 and 11,000 soldiers died due to the lack of food and water. Comparing the Fronts:: Comparing the Fronts: Treatment of prisoners in the Pacific Theater often reflected the savagery of the fighting there.
The treatment of the prisoners in Europe more closely followed the ideas of the Geneva Convention Effects on U.S.: Effects on U.S. U.S. economy booms (ends Depression)
300,000 American deaths
Cost: $320 billion (10x greater than WWI)
National Debt $250 billion