TGchapter1 Methods

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THE GEOGRAPHY OF TRANSPORT SYSTEMS Chapter 1 – Transportation and Geography METHODS Copyright © 1999-2007, Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dept. of Economics & Geography, Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY, 11549 USA. Jean-paul.Rodrigue@hofstra.edu You may use the figures within for educational purposes only. No modification or redistribution permitted. For more information: http://people.hofstra.edu/geotrans

Method 1: 

Method 1 An Overview of Methods in Transport Geography

Models in Transport Geography: 

Models in Transport Geography Distance (Impedance) Accessibility Spatial Interactions / Routing Transportation / Land Use Models Complexity Data Requirements

Method 2: 

Method 2 The Notion of Accessibility

Relationship between Distance and Opportunities: 

Relationship between Distance and Opportunities Distance Opportunities Low density Medium density High density

Topological and Contiguous Accessibility: 

a b d c f g e Topological and Contiguous Accessibility Least Most Topological Contiguous

Accessibility and Spatial Structure: 

Accessibility and Spatial Structure 1 2 2 1 Distance # of locations 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 A B C

Connectivity Matrix: 

Connectivity Matrix A B D C E Network Connectivity Matrix

Connectivity Matrix - 2: 

Connectivity Matrix - 2 Network Connectivity Matrix A B D C G E F

Total Accessibility Matrix (T-Matrix): 

Total Accessibility Matrix (T-Matrix) T = C1 C1 X C2 C1 + = C2

Shimbel Distance (D-Matrix): 

Shimbel Distance (D-Matrix) Network C1 D1 C2 D2 D =1 =2

Valued Graph (L-Matrix): 

Valued Graph (L-Matrix) Network L1 L1 L1 L2 5 7 10 7 11 12 = +

Geographic Accessibility: 

Geographic Accessibility A B C E D L 5 6 4 7 8 A(G)

GIS Generated Distance Grid From Center B : 

GIS Generated Distance Grid From Center B

GIS Generated Shimbel Index Grid : 

GIS Generated Shimbel Index Grid

Potential Accessibility: 

Potential Accessibility A B C E D L 5 6 4 7 8 P(G) P 1200 900 1500 600 800

GIS Generated Potential Accessibility Grid : 

GIS Generated Potential Accessibility Grid

Method 3: 

Method 3 The Route Selection Process

The Traveling Salesperson Problem: 

The Traveling Salesperson Problem 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 15 km 10 km 8 km 15 km 9 km 5 km Total = 62 km 8 km 9 km 5 km 10 km 8 km 8 km Total = 48 km

Cost Minimization and Efficiency Maximization: 

Cost Minimization and Efficiency Maximization Low High Costs Efficiency Low High Compromise

Effect of Transport Costs on Route Selection: 

Sea Land a b p1 a b p1 p4 1 2 a b p2 3 R {C(sea) = C(land)} R1 {C(sea) > C(land)} R2 {C(sea) < C(land)} Effect of Transport Costs on Route Selection p2 p3 p4 R (sea) R (land) R (sea) R (land) R2 (sea) R1 (sea) R1 (land) R2 (land) R {C(land) > C(sea)}

Effect of Topography on Route Selection: 

1 3 a b Effect of Topography on Route Selection Low elevation Medium elevation High elevation 2 c

Method 4: 

Method 4 Geographic Information Systems for Transportation (GIS-T)

Geographic Information Systems and Transportation: 

Geographic Information Systems and Transportation Encoding Representation model (space and data) Management Spatial – Thematic - Temporal Analysis Query – Operations - Modeling Reporting Visualization and Cartography Real World User Transportation Network Flows Land Use Layers

GIS Data Models: 

GIS Data Models Real World Raster Vector

GIS in the Value Chain: 

GIS in the Value Chain

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