Lifelong Learning Workshop : Lifelong Learning Workshop Sponsored by the World Bank and the Slovak Governance Institute
9 December 2003, Bratislava
Lifelong Learning – What Lessons from Experience in the OECD?
Gregory Wurzburg Education Directorate
email@example.com Main points: Main points Why does lifelong learning matter?
How are other countries doing with respect to implementation of lifelong learning ?
A strategy for leap-frogging
Added perspective of international comparisons: Added perspective of international comparisons Evaluating progress vs.adequacy
A different view of trade-offs
Less pain, more gain: ideas for improving the learning curve for public policy making Why does lifelong learning matter?: Why does lifelong learning matter? Because human capital matters for the economic and social fate of individual, enterprises, and countries
Because skill requirements in everyday life are changing more quickly
Because ageing societies depend more on older workers as a source of new skills and know-how
Let’s start with consequences for growth Slide5: Estimated effect of changes in explanatory variables on changes in output per capita growth rates over the 1980s – 1990s
(figures for 1970s – 1980s, and for 1980s – 1990s)
Source: Bassanini, A. and Stefano Scarpetta (2001), “The driving forces of economic growth: panel data evidence for the OECD countries”, in OECD Economic Studies, Outlook No. 68 – December, No. 33, 2001/2. Unemployment by education level25-64 year olds data for 2001: Unemployment by education level 25-64 year olds data for 2001 Source: OECD – EAG 2003 Relative Earnings by Education Upper secondary = 100 OECD country average Data for 2001: Relative Earnings by Education Upper secondary = 100 OECD country average Data for 2001 Source: OECD EAG 2003 There’s a political mandate for it: There’s a political mandate for it OECD Education Ministers established a mandate in 1996
First endorsed by finance ministers, labour ministers in 1997
OECD Education Ministers met in 2001 to review progress and advance the agenda How well are countries implementing lifelong learning?: How well are countries implementing lifelong learning?
OECD Secretariat took stock of recent experience Education Policy Analysis 2001
Difficult because LLL is elastic concept
Focused on preparation of individuals for learning
With some attention to working-age adults
Slide10: Participation net rate (%) Participation in pre-primary education for children aged 3, 1998 Source: OECD, Education at a glance 2000, Paris.
G.Wurzburg, OECD -
. Slide11: Progress towards completing upper secondary 1998 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % upper secondary education Source: OECD Labour Force Survey Database 2000.
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slovakia - 94 % of age 25-34; 66% age 55-64 (2001) Slide12: Literacy levels and underachievement rates of persons aged 16-25 completing upper secondary education, 1994-1998 Source: OECD and Statistics Canada, International Adult Literacy Survey, 2000.
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slide13: Progress towards increasing tertiary qualifications, 1998
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slovakia - 11% age 25-34; 9 % age 55-64 (2001) Slide14: Adult share of total enrolments in formal education, by level of education, 1998
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slide15:
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slide16: 0 5 10 15 20 25 % Learning by older adults after formal education, 1994-98 Percent of 46-65 year-olds with only upper secondary performing at literacy level 3 or above (document scale) Source: OECD and Statistics Canada, International Adult Literacy Survey.
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Financing and cost indicators showed…: Financing and cost indicators showed… For period covered by EPA 2001 analysis
Unit cost declining in tertiary education
Private share in finance increasing faster than public share
Public share shifting from institutions, towards learners
For period 1995 to 2000
total outlays for tertiary declined in 13 of 22 countries Slide18:
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Secretariat calculations using published data Slide19: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 Composite index on LLL Public expenditure as a % of GDP Lifelong learning value for money Source: OECD Education Database.
G.Wurzburg, OECD - Secretariat calculations using published data Comparative analysis emphasised the formal part of the LLL spectrum: Comparative analysis emphasised the formal part of the LLL spectrum Most easily observed
Comparable data readily available
Formal sector has powerful influence over down-stream learning
But as goes the formal sector, so goes LLL How best to foster a systemic approach to lifelong learning?: How best to foster a systemic approach to lifelong learning? That depends on…
what features define lifelong learning
how they relate to pre-existing policy and institutional arrangements What are the key features (and are they compatible with the formal system)?: What are the key features (and are they compatible with the formal system)? (Sound foundation – initial education)
Focus on individual learner
With good knowledge of learning opportunities -functional learning markets
Able to connect learning that occurs in different ways in different places
With the financial means to exercise choice National authorities are in the best position to evaluate : National authorities are in the best position to evaluate Whether these features are compatible with initial education and training
How best to enable lifelong learning
But the criteria for judging effectiveness will be to a large extent externally imposed: where you stand internationally
A word about tertiary education Slide24: Thank you for your attention!