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Gregory Wurzburg Education Directorate OECD Paris email@example.comMain points: Main points Why does lifelong learning matter? How are other countries doing with respect to implementation of lifelong learning ? A strategy for leap-frogging Added perspective of international comparisons: Added perspective of international comparisons Evaluating progress vs.adequacy A different view of trade-offs Less pain, more gain: ideas for improving the learning curve for public policy makingWhy does lifelong learning matter?: Why does lifelong learning matter? Because human capital matters for the economic and social fate of individual, enterprises, and countries Because skill requirements in everyday life are changing more quickly Because ageing societies depend more on older workers as a source of new skills and know-how Let’s start with consequences for growthSlide5: Estimated effect of changes in explanatory variables on changes in output per capita growth rates over the 1980s – 1990s (figures for 1970s – 1980s, and for 1980s – 1990s) Source: Bassanini, A. and Stefano Scarpetta (2001), “The driving forces of economic growth: panel data evidence for the OECD countries”, in OECD Economic Studies, Outlook No. 68 – December, No. 33, 2001/2. Unemployment by education level25-64 year olds data for 2001: Unemployment by education level 25-64 year olds data for 2001 Source: OECD – EAG 2003Relative Earnings by Education Upper secondary = 100 OECD country average Data for 2001: Relative Earnings by Education Upper secondary = 100 OECD country average Data for 2001 Source: OECD EAG 2003There’s a political mandate for it: There’s a political mandate for it OECD Education Ministers established a mandate in 1996 First endorsed by finance ministers, labour ministers in 1997 OECD Education Ministers met in 2001 to review progress and advance the agendaHow well are countries implementing lifelong learning?: How well are countries implementing lifelong learning? OECD Secretariat took stock of recent experience Education Policy Analysis 2001 Difficult because LLL is elastic concept Focused on preparation of individuals for learning With some attention to working-age adults Slide10: Participation net rate (%) Participation in pre-primary education for children aged 3, 1998 Source: OECD, Education at a glance 2000, Paris. G.Wurzburg, OECD - .Slide11: Progress towards completing upper secondary 1998 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 % upper secondary education Source: OECD Labour Force Survey Database 2000. G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slovakia - 94 % of age 25-34; 66% age 55-64 (2001)Slide12: Literacy levels and underachievement rates of persons aged 16-25 completing upper secondary education, 1994-1998 Source: OECD and Statistics Canada, International Adult Literacy Survey, 2000. G.Wurzburg, OECD -Slide13: Progress towards increasing tertiary qualifications, 1998 G.Wurzburg, OECD - Slovakia - 11% age 25-34; 9 % age 55-64 (2001)Slide14: Adult share of total enrolments in formal education, by level of education, 1998 G.Wurzburg, OECD -Slide15: G.Wurzburg, OECD -Slide16: 0 5 10 15 20 25 % Learning by older adults after formal education, 1994-98 Percent of 46-65 year-olds with only upper secondary performing at literacy level 3 or above (document scale) Source: OECD and Statistics Canada, International Adult Literacy Survey. G.Wurzburg, OECD - Financing and cost indicators showed…: Financing and cost indicators showed… For period covered by EPA 2001 analysis Unit cost declining in tertiary education Private share in finance increasing faster than public share Public share shifting from institutions, towards learners For period 1995 to 2000 total outlays for tertiary declined in 13 of 22 countries Slide18: G.Wurzburg, OECD - Secretariat calculations using published dataSlide19: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 Composite index on LLL Public expenditure as a % of GDP Lifelong learning value for money Source: OECD Education Database. G.Wurzburg, OECD - Secretariat calculations using published dataComparative analysis emphasised the formal part of the LLL spectrum: Comparative analysis emphasised the formal part of the LLL spectrum Most easily observed Comparable data readily available Formal sector has powerful influence over down-stream learning But as goes the formal sector, so goes LLLHow best to foster a systemic approach to lifelong learning?: How best to foster a systemic approach to lifelong learning? That depends on… what features define lifelong learning how they relate to pre-existing policy and institutional arrangementsWhat are the key features (and are they compatible with the formal system)?: What are the key features (and are they compatible with the formal system)? (Sound foundation – initial education) Focus on individual learner With good knowledge of learning opportunities -functional learning markets Able to connect learning that occurs in different ways in different places With the financial means to exercise choice National authorities are in the best position to evaluate : National authorities are in the best position to evaluate Whether these features are compatible with initial education and training How best to enable lifelong learning But the criteria for judging effectiveness will be to a large extent externally imposed: where you stand internationally A word about tertiary educationSlide24: Thank you for your attention! You do not have the permission to view this presentation. In order to view it, please contact the author of the presentation.