Lakes North Sea Peters

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North Sea Applications S.W.M. Peters (Institute for Environmental Studies at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam) & Water Insight: Presented i.a. by A.G. Dekker (with contributions from R. Pasterkamp, H. van der Woerd, & the REVAMP Project Team (Regional Validation MERIS Products – a 6th Framework EU R&D Project) Including some short comments on inland waters remote sensing


Contents of this presentation 1: Why satellite remote sensing of the North Sea 2: The IVM Hydropt algorithm: synthetic Specific Inherent Optical Properties (SIOP’s) 3: Some results of the REVAMP project for chlorophyll assessments for the North Sea 4: Some considerations for further development of inland and near coastal water remote sensing


Providing policy support: Eutrophication problem areas are at the moment defined (or not) by the presence (absence) of monitoring networks Satellite results Monitoring network result


The Hydropt algorithm matches reflectance spectra generated by optical model”Hydrolight” and observed spectra (LUT approach) (Pasterkamp & Van de Woerd; accepted by RSE)


Using the REVAMP optical model (median value of all measured SIOP’s): results are reasonable - ! !but can be improved by optimising the SIOPs! Chl a, R2=0.95, RMS=58% TSM, R2=0.84, RMS=86%


Recalibration of the HYDROPT algorithm by adjusting the synthetic SIOPs for the MERIS processor brings the synthetic value of a*(phy) close to the observed value (REVAMP North Sea mean)!!


Chl a, R2=0.97, RMS=15% TSM, R2=0.885, RMS=38% OPTIMIZED optical model (yearly mean CHL from MERIS fitted to observations at monitoring stations) Using synthetic SIOPs: improves the correlations significantly ( but reduces the area of applicability).


OPTIMIZING the SIOPs can only be done in areas with many regular observations (or from results of extensive campaigns The results provide new insights into the general performance of the atmospheric correction and the sensor(i.c the difference between the non-optimised and the optimised spectra) The results may also provide insights in the inherent quality of the measurements (in-situ - Lab) of SIOPs


Data can be requested at: An updated synthesis was made between COLORS, CoastLOOC, MERIS and SEAWiFS protocols REVAMP final Atlas & protocols can be requested through:


Some general considerations for case 2 water remote sensing (concerning MERIS) Improving the MERIS atmospheric correction above coastal waters has low priority for ESA (Marcoast validation meeting 22-3-2007) There is interest (from ESA) in validating new algorithms for adjacency correction MODIS-MERIS comparisons show that in turbid waters MODIS algorithms are prone to overestimating CHL-a in TSM rich waters MERIS FR L2 data (300 m resolution) is urgently requested by all North Sea users (MARCOAST) An open software to play around with MERIS (MERDAS version of SEADAS) would help to understand problems and pitfalls Confidence products were developed by REVAMP and are well received by end-users End-users request verified and validated products and services and product specifications. Work is in progress towards certification (MARCOAST) but will not reach the end-point before the end of the project… Continuity through the ESA Sentinel-3 series will help to keep users interested


My suggestion to ESA: Get the blue better but get the red right first!!


Some considerations for inland water remote sensing: an official WHO recommendation: Integral optical remote sensing approaches Can lead to new applications: e.g. a cyanobacterial warning system


Some further considerations for inland water remote sensing: Adjacency effects (and general inland water Atmospheric Correction) should be dealt with with HIGH PRIORITY Small remote sensors with bands around : 550, 625, 665, 705 750 may be sufficient to monitor eutrophic inland lakes (TSM, CHL-a and PC) Adjusted and separate protocols are needed for the validation of oligotrophic and eutrophic lakes (e.g. because of varying HPLC settings) Phycocyanin could be a new SENTINEL-3 standard product (SIMIS et al., 2005,2006) CDOM validation would benefit from the use of a PSICAM instead of cuvette measurements (Laanen, to be published) This group could negotiate the cheap availability of HYDROLIGHT to large groups of students and other users (price now 10 kU$ or when 10 are bought in one go 7 kU$)

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