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International marketing and student recruitment: trends and issues: 

International marketing and student recruitment: trends and issues Suzanne Alexander Director, International Office UKCOSA Conference Manchester, 2 July 2007

Aims of the workshop : 

Aims of the workshop To gain an understanding of patterns of global student mobility, the current market and future projections for international education, and national strategies to attract international students To examine factors influencing international students’ decision-making and the importance of the student experience To share experience and ideas about the role and contribution of international student advisers to marketing and recruitment

Why recruit international students?: 

Why recruit international students? Value to institutions Value to the UK Value to students

Why recruit international students?: 

Why recruit international students? Value to institutions: - Enrichment of education experience/ contribution to institutional (campus) life - “Internationalisation at home” - Enhancement of international profile/reputation - Financial benefits (financial imperative?) Value to the UK: - Economic, cultural, diplomatic and trade benefits Value to students: - Employability and professional development - Prestige, differentiation - Personal enrichment, an internatonal perspective

International students in the UK: 

International students in the UK How many? Where are they from? What are they studying? How might this change?

How many international students?: 

How many international students? Each year there are: >300,000 on HE programmes in UK institutions >90,000 on FE programmes in UK institutions >600,000 studying on English language programmes >180,000 on UK HE programmes delivered outside the UK >250,000 on other programmes delivered outside the UK >3million UK examinations taken outside the UK >250,000 on other programmes in the UK

How many students? Total international student numbers on HE programmes in the UK: 

How many students? Total international student numbers on HE programmes in the UK Year Non-EU EU Total 1996/97 110000 88000 198000 1997/98 114000 94000 208000 1998/99 114000 99000 213000 1999/2000 120000 99000 219000 2000/01 128000 98000 226000 2001/02 142000 93000 235000 2002/03* 175000(191000) 95000(107000) 270000(298000) 2003/04* 213000 104000 317000 2004/05* 218000 100000 318000 2005/06* 224000 106000 330000 Source: HESA; Note: figures in italics reflect the new HESA methodology introduced wef 2002/03

How many students? Total international student numbers on FE programmes in the UK: 

How many students? Total international student numbers on FE programmes in the UK Year Non-EU EU Total 2004/05 46000 42000 88000 Source: Learning and Skills Council

Countries of origin of students in UK higher education : 

Countries of origin of students in UK higher education 2003/04 2004/05 (% change) 2005/06 (% change) China China (+10) China (-4) Greece Greece (-14) India (+15) Ireland India (+14) Greece (-10) India Ireland (+11) Ireland (+3) USA USA (+8) USA (+3) Germany Germany (+4) Germany (+6) Malaysia France (+3) France (+7) France Malaysia (-3) Malaysia (-) Hong Kong Hong Kong (+2) Nigeria (+18) Japan Nigeria (+37) Hong Kong (-12) Source: HESA

Countries of origin of students in UK further education: 

Countries of origin of students in UK further education 2002/03 China 7450 Spain 5133 France 3168 Italy 2970 Germany 2784 India 2710 Ireland 2675 Czech Republic 2410 Japan 2395 Slovakia 1455 Turkey 1440 Pakistan 1405 Iran 1335 Jamaica 1305 2004/05 Poland 8925 Spain 5235 Ireland 5160 China 5080 India 3815 France 3180 Italy 3080 Germany 2785 Slovakia 2615 Czech Republic 2455 Pakistan 1735 Portugal 1645 Japan 1630 Iran 1445 Source: Learning and Skills Council

Comparison of top source countries for international HE students: 

Comparison of top source countries for international HE students UK US Australia China 15.4% India 14.2% China 24.4% USA 6.2% China 11.1% India 13.6% Greece 5.8% Korea 9.4% Malaysia 9.4% India 4.9% Japan 7.5% Hong Kong 6.5% Ireland 4.8% Canada 5.0% Indonesia 5.8% France 4.6% Taiwan 4.6% Singapore 5.1% Germany 4.6% Mexico 2.3% Korea 3.3% Malaysia 3.3% Turkey 2.2% Thailand 3.2% Hong Kong 3.2% Germany 1.5% Taiwan 2.4% Spain 2.5% Thailand 1.5% Bangladesh2.2% Total: 344335 Total: 565039 Total: 160000 Source: Atlas of International Student Mobility

What are they studying?: 

What are they studying? Subject of study International students Number % Business & administrative studies 78270 26 Engineering & technology 40275 29 Social studies 28790 15 Computer science 23000 18 Languages 20465 15 Subjects allied to Medicine 17435 6 Creative arts & design 16195 11 Law 15110 17 Biological sciences 13540 9 Education 12705 6 Source: HESA, 2004-05 statistics

The international environment: context and implications: 

The international environment: context and implications Growing global demand for study opportunities A climate of uncertainty: economic, political, etc Increasingly competitive environment The power and influence of information and communications technologies So much choice!

Growth in global demand: 

Growth in global demand Global demand forecast to grow enormously: from 1.8 million international students in HE in 2000 to 7.2 million in 2025 Asia will dominate (estimated 70% of global demand, with China and India generating more than 50%) Significant growth in “offshore” delivery or transnational education (TNE) predicted Consequences? (Source: IDP Education Australia, September 2002)

Global demand for UK higher education: 

Global demand for UK higher education

Patterns of student mobility: 

Patterns of student mobility Complexity of patterns of mobility: multiple factors at work In 2000, the 10 leading source countries accounted for 40% of all internationally mobile students In 2000, the 5 leading host countries accounted for over three- quarters of all international students (the top two for over half) “Traditional” mobility pattern: from developing world to Western Europe and the United States Growth in intra-regional mobility eg Asia, South America Little mobility in South and Central America, Sub-Saharan Africa and much of the Islamic world Singapore’s student mobility (c20000 from 4 million population) exceeds that of Brazil (c18000 from 184 million population)

Consequences and implications: 

Consequences and implications Dominance of business-related subjects in projected growth (50% of total) UK’s global selling-points: quality and employability in both UK and overseas-delivered programmes; student experience (?) Growth in competition - new and traditional - focussing on key markets, targeting niche areas Diversification of student source countries Diversification of subject range and differentiation Differentiation through student experience, employment/career outcomes Largest growth predicted in TNE - issues of quality assurance and partners

Education as a global business: the competitive environment: 

Education as a global business: the competitive environment The MESDCs The Europeans: Germany, France, Netherlands …. The Asians: Singapore, Malaysia, Thailand, Japan ... Staying at home: domestic expansion Staying at home: foreign providers The “virtual” campus

National strategies and activity: Australia: 

National strategies and activity: Australia Education is Australia’s third largest service export - bigger than wool and close to wheat! (AUS$5 billion annually) 14% of total aid budget spend on education 2002: 385,000 international students (approx 96,000 “offshore”) Ministerial statement (October 2003) announced AUS$113million to be invested to support the international education sector over the next four years Funding to be raised through increased student visa fees

“Engaging the world through Education”: 

“Engaging the world through Education” Growing and diversifying engagement: including better information on access/admission; modifying visa processes; more “offshore” delivery; scholarships; exchanges Ensuring quality and integrity: quality assurance to be strengthened, both for offshore and onshore delivery; accreditation and benchmarking Raising Australia’s profile: “a concerted national effort will lift Australia’s profile” - the Study in Australia brand and website Working together: partnership between co-ordinated government and the education sector Establishment of international network of AEI representatives : 19 locations in 14 countries

National strategies and activity: USA: 

National strategies and activity: USA “An international education does not just open eyes and broaden perspectives. In an increasingly interdependent world it is essential to fostering the global and cross-cultural knowledge and understanding necessary for effective US leadership, competitiveness and security” Source: NAFSA website International students and families are estimated to contribute around $13 billion to the US economy annually The US is the number one destination for international students: c30% of global market share Post-9/11 witnessed the first decline in student numbers in 30 years Lack of national priorities and strategies to address this downturn Strategic task force reports on International Student Access and Education Abroad

“Securing America’s Future: Global Education for a Global Age”: 

“Securing America’s Future: Global Education for a Global Age” “We must continue to nurture our greatest foreign policy asset: the friendship of those who know our country because we have welcomed them as students” but also ”We strongly believe that the events of September 11 2001 constituted a wake-up call - a warning that America’s ignorance of the world is now a national liability. Americans in vastly greater numbers must devote a substantive portion of their education to gaining an understanding of other countries, regions, languages and cultures, through direct personal experience”. Report of the Strategic Task Force on Education Abroad (November 2003)

Other national strategies : 

Other national strategies France: establishment of EduFrance (1998); re-launched in 2007 as CampusFrance: scholarships, overseas offices, website Germany: DAAD sets up international marketing office, the higher education consortium GATE-Germany (2001); German industry and education join forces in global campaign Hi! Potentials: International Careers made in Germany The European Higher Education Area: a brand for Europe And not forgetting …. Netherlands, Singapore, Malaysia, Japan, New Zealand, Sweden, Canada, Ireland …….

International strategies and approaches: shared characteristics and objectives: 

International strategies and approaches: shared characteristics and objectives Recognition of the importance of international students for economic, trade, cultural and political reasons Increasing international student numbers A co-ordinated, national approach Investment to attract international students: from branded marketing campaigns and exhibitions to scholarships, quality assurance and accessibility eg visa processes Physical and virtual outreach: overseas office networks and websites

What about the UK?: 

What about the UK? “Wherever I travel, I meet international leaders who have studied in Britain. Dynamic, intelligent people who chose Britain because we offer high quality further and higher education. This is good news for the UK. People who are educated here have a lasting tie to our country. They promote Britain around the world, helping our trade and our diplomacy ... Today we are launching a long-term strategy to reinforce the United Kingdom as a first choice for the quality of study and the quality of our welcome to international students”. Tony Blair, PMI launch speech, London School of Economics, January 1999

The Prime Minister’s Initiative (PMI): initiatives and targets: 

The Prime Minister’s Initiative (PMI): initiatives and targets “We will offer to international students a new welcome and more open doors” 5-year initiative managed and co-ordinated by the British Council; co-funded by range of government stakeholders (c£11million) An increase in international student numbers from 1996-97 to 2004-05 of - 50,000 in Higher Education - 25,000 in Further Education Improvements in visa processing (efficiency/user-friendliness) Increase in Chevening scholarships Relaxation of employment legislation: students’ right to work

Impact and benefits: 

Impact and benefits Launch of Education UK brand and website Improved market intelligence and knowledge resource Diversification of products and markets Significant increases in the number of international students Generating £10 billion to the UK economy Greater awareness and recognition within government of benefits to the UK of international students

Understanding students’ needs and expectations: 

Understanding students’ needs and expectations Sophisticated and demanding customers with high - and varied - expectations, both of their studies and the outcomes from their studies Access to a wide variety of information resources, especially the Internet, but still very much influenced by “word of mouth” Importance of supporting students to make the transition from one educational, social, cultural and political system to another

International student decision-making: reasons for studying overseas: 

International student decision-making: reasons for studying overseas

International student decision-making: reasons for choosing the UK: 

International student decision-making: reasons for choosing the UK

Information gaps: 

Information gaps Students would like to know more about: Practicalities of daily life eg living costs; bank accounts and transfers; credit cards; insurance; food; transport; obtaining a driving licence Accommodation eg what is available; advance information on quality of institutional accommodation; costs and strategies for finding alternative accommodation Preparing for, and adapting to, UK life eg climate; regional features; common expressions; opportunities to mix with UK people and not just other international students

International students’ experience in the UK: surveys and initiatives: 

International students’ experience in the UK: surveys and initiatives UKCOSA research: Broadening our horizons: international students in UK colleges and universities (2004) New horizons: the experiences of international students in UK further education colleges (2006) International Student Barometer (ISB) www.i-graduate.org The Prime Minister’s Initiative (PMI): improving the experience of international students in the UK (and increasing the UK’s attractiveness to international students) The National Student Survey www.tqi.ac.uk Many smaller research studies on social integration, learning and teaching styles etc

International Student Barometer (ISB): 

International Student Barometer (ISB) Benchmarking process established in 2005 by a founding group of 14 UK universities - more than 50 now subscribe More than 48,000 responses in 2005/06; expected to exceed 100,000 responses in 2006/07 Surveys international students at all levels of study at three points in the year covering 66 dimensions of the student experience Extensions of the ISB will cover: - International student experience in other “host” countries - Expectations and perceptions of prospective students in major “source” countries” - Perceptions of “home” students

Student satisfaction: top 10 factors: 

Student satisfaction: top 10 factors Good academic content of my course Good technology Good library facilities Feeling safe and secure Good internet access Lecturers are good teachers Fair and transparent assessment of my work Lecturers are expert in their subject Learning that will help me to get a good job Good value accommodation Source: i-graduate, ISB 2005

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