Flood Managment of Wainganga River Basin


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INTRODUCTION Floods are the most common natural disasters . “Flooding is a general temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry areas from overflow of tidal waters or from unusual and rapid accumulation or runoff” All through history it is evident that man has constructed his settlement along the streams, rivers or coasts. Stream or river water has been a source for consumption, agriculture or industry. Small settlements are converted into big cities as population is fast increasing and at the same time constructions are also increasing which has reduced the percentage of available land. This has increased the tendency of encroachment in river flood plain areas . Countries having high population density are more sensitive to floods because of lack of flood control, lack of emergency response infrastructure and early warning systems . “Flood is a state of high water level along a river channel or on coast that leads to inundation of land which is normally submerged.”


Flooding is a result of heavy or continuous rainfall exceeding the absorptive capacity of soil and the flow capacity of rivers, streams, and coastal areas. This causes a watercourse to overflow its banks on to adjacent lands . Flooding in the Wainganga sub basin has been a major problem in the past. As agriculture is not grooming‐up in the area, the farmers’ suicides have been on rise in Vidarbha region. Agriculture and economy needs a boost through Integrated River Basin Management Plan (IRBMP). Untreated waste water from Seoni , Bhalaghat , Chindwada , Bhandara , Nagpur and Gondia city is released in the Wainganga River and its tributaries resulting pollution of surface water and groundwater . Most of the basin receives a rainfall of about 150 cm during the monsoon months. Despite this fact, there are very few water conservation structures on the mainstream of the river, and hence there are only few irrigation schemes . Flood is an important component of hydrological cycle of a drainage basin. Floods occur in the event of excessive rainfall. Flood is a natural hazard which occurs in response to heavy rainfall and it becomes a disaster when it impacts on the loss of human lives and physical properties.


IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY AREA Floods are one of the most widespread and destructive natural disasters. It is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. Floods are caused by weather phenomena and events that deliver more precipitation to a drainage basin than can be readily absorbed or stored within the basin. Floods can be caused by natural, ecological or anthropogenic factors. There are several causes of floods and differ from region to region. Some of the major causes of floods are: 1. Heavy rainfall 2 . Heavy siltation of the river bed reduces the water carrying capacity of the river /stream. 3 . Blockage in the drains leads to flooding of the area. 4 . Landslides blocking the flow of the stream. 5 . Construction of dams and reservoirs. 6 . In areas prone to cyclone, strong winds accompanied by heavy down pour along w ith storm surge leads to flooding.


SELECTION OF STUDY REGION Wainganga is one of the major rivers flowing in that area. Like as a drought when a summer season. The flood in this area may occur due to manmade activities, improper construction of roads and buildings, insufficient storm water drainage system, high intensity rainfall and many more reasons. The result due to flood is very much known; it affects the daily life and the economic activities. It is essential to plan for flood situation in the area. It also becomes essential to find out its causes and the measures to mitigate the flood situation in any given condition . This problem is more acute in the areas under strong monsoon regime where 80 percent of the total rainfall is received in just three months. It is evident that the problem of river flooding is getting more and more acute due to human intervention in the flood plain at an ever increasing scale.


HYPOTHESIS The hypothesis of the present study are: Identifying and marking of flood lines in high flood prone rivers helps to reduce the effects of flood hazard in adjoining village or settlement.

Aims and Objectives of the Present Study:

Aims and Objectives of the Present Study The main aims of proposed research are : To analyze the flood geomorphology of the river Wainganga in Maharashtra. To understand Morphological behavior of the river i.e . long term changes of river plan form and bed levels. To study hydraulic characteristic of Wainganga basin. To calculate surface runoff and delineate flood sensitive areas. To identify the spatial and temporal changes of hydrometeorology in the Wainganga River basin. To demarcate flood lines in Wainganga River. To analyze flood discharges and water levels for long period. To prepare overall flood map and risk base zone mapping


Methodology Data Collection Spatial Data Non Spatial Data Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Field Survey GPS Reading Toposheet Tehsil Cadastral Map SRTM Data Contour Map Drainage Map TIN DEM Slope Aspect Water Res. Report Soil Report Climatic Report Thematic Layer Analysis Statistical Analysis Demarcation of Flood Line Interpretation of all the outputs Flood Map


STUDY AREA Introduction:- The Wainganga River is one of the major tributaries of the Godavari River. The Wainganga River rises at El 640.0 m near village Partabpur (21°57’N & 79°34’E) about 20 Km from the town of Satapura plateau and flows in a wide half circle, bending and winding among the spurs of the hills from the west to the east of the Seoni District of Madhya Pradesh. The total river basin area- 49949.48 sq. km . Out of which in Maharashtra having 26347.47 sq.km. area to study of flood analysis. Latitude extension- 19°30’N to 22°30 N’ Longitude extension- 79°00’E to 80°30 E ’ It is joined by the Wardha River at a place called Gundapet (Choprala) flowing from the west, draining the major portion of the Maharashtra Plateau. There after the river is known as Pranhita River .


Physiographic Region Sr. No. Physical Regions Area in Sq.Km. Area in % 1 Plain Region [Below 169m] 11229.92 42.62 2 Plateau Region [196 to 280m] 11159.60 42.36 3 Mountain Region [Above 280m] 3956.90 15.02 Total 26346.47 100


Climate Temperature The Wainganga river basin has a dense network of 29 meteorological stations and 64 Grid zone Within the Maharashtra. Mean daily maximum temperature varies from 26 o -30 o c in July to 32 o -33 o c in October and show a general increase from north to south and from coast to up country in the west. The minimum daily temperatures varies month wise viz. 10° to 15°c in January, 22° to 26°c in August, 23° to 25°c in July and 18° to 22°c in October.


Rainfall Most of the rainfall occurs between June to October. The remaining months are usually dry. The annual mean rainfall ranges from a maximum of 1830.50 mm at Shivani to a minimum of 1000.07 mm at Sitekasa . Soil Different types of soil can be found in the Wainganga river basin, which directly influence the kind of agricultural practices. the soils of the Wainganga sub-basin may broadly be divided into three main categories namely (i) black soil, (ii) red soil, and (iii) mixed black and red soil. Sub type of soil 45 dominate as the principal soil types of the study region.


Distribution of Soil Map


LAND USE & LAND COVER MAP LU/LC Area in sq.km. Total Geographical Area (%) Rocky land / Open space 495.49 1.88 Dense Forest 3960.89 15.03 Water bodies 558.21 2.11 Agriculture 3735.03 14.17 Sparse vegetation 6063.82 23.01 Fallow land 1101.28 4.19 Open Scrub 7299.50 27.71 Barren land 2497.43 9.48 Settlement 497.46 1.89 Gravel land 137.90 0.52 Total 26347.47 100%


Slope Slope of a land is one of the important physiographic aspects that influence the agricultural land use of an area. The direction of the slope of this study region is from north-west to south-east. Very Steep Slopes The Balaghat Range has bare slopes and gullied topography. The very strongly and steeply sloping zones are found in northern part of Wainganga basin. The steep slope area i.e. 5.66% is the limitation for the agricultural land use. Moderately Steep Slopes Along the bank of Wainganga River, the eastern and northern part of the Bhandara , Gondia and Nagpur district has moderate slope. The unit appears to have maximum proportion of waste land, rocky barren and fallow land.


This unit comprises of very high area of the study area (55.53%). These slopes are observed in the western, southern part of the Wainganga basin, the piedmont plain is formed by alluvium transported from the upslope region on the confluence of Wainganga and Wardha River near Ashthi village. Slope in Study area Sr. No . Slope Class Area Sq.Km. Area (%) 1 Gentle 14630.09 55.53 2 Moderate 7172.93 27.23 3 Stiff 2650.56 10.06 4 Steep 1491.74 5.66 5 Very Steep 367.58 1.40 6 Extra Steep 26.70 0.10 7 Precipitous 7.22 0.03 Total 26346.8 100 Gentle Slopes


DRAINAGE The Wainganga River originates at Partabpur (21 0 56'32.05"N, 79 0 33'29.18"E) in Seoni District of Madhya Pradesh from the foot of Ambagad range, an outlier of the Satpura Mountains, at an altitude of 1350 m above MSL. In the upstream regions, the river sometimes becomes wide and shallow at places, while at some it becomes narrow and deep. After it enters the comparatively plain and slightly undulating lands of Maharashtra, and flows through Gondia, Bhandara , Nagpur, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli . The total length of the Wainganga River is 638.91 km, of which 270.2 km lie in Madhya Pradesh. It then travels 32 km along the border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra and the rest of 368.7 km lie in Maharashtra. The Wainganga has 24 tributaries. Twelve of them lie on its left bank, and other 12 are on the right bank. This rivers such as Halon , Sagar , Hiri and Nahar join the Wainganga in Madhya Pradesh across Seoni and Balaghat districts. However Bagh (at Birsola , 283m above MSL), Chandan and Bawanthadi (at Bapera , 275 m above MSL) join the Wainganga on the borders of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. And finally 17 rivers, namely, Sur, Gaimukh ( Nala ), Ambagad ( Nala ), Bodalkasa , Chulband , Maru , Pohar ( Nala ), Kanhan , Gadhvi , Khobragadi , Andhari , Kathani , Mandoli ( Nala ), Satti / Wainlochana ( Nala ), Dina, Ambi , and Mul join the Wainganga River in Maharashtra.


Geology In the Wainganga valley, some of the earliest known rocks of the earth are exposed. The schistose gneisses of the archaean with island of archaean granite flanked by Dharwarian schists are the principal formations in the area of study. The Wainganga river basin area falls in the Northern Deccan Plateau, and the north eastern metamorphic belt of Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. The oldest metamorphic rocks of Archaean age occur in the southern and North-West part of the basin. It is overlain by sedimentary rocks of the Gondwana , followed by layers of lava flows of the Deccan trap. It is then covered by the recent layers of local alluvium.


Sr. No. Lithology Details of Lithology Area in sq.km. 1 Pt3pg Painganga Group Gondwana Supergroup 1269.94 2 C?P1gt Kamthi and Talchir Formation Gondwana Supergroup 420.05 3 Agn Gneissic Complex Archaean 13381.84 4 Pt1s Sakoli Group Palaeo Proterozoic 2509.14 5 Q Alluvium Quaternary 577.57 6 PTgk Maleri Formation Gondwana Supergroup 423.72 7 Czl Laterite Cainozoic 89.44 8 ßK3Pgd Deccan Trap Cainozoic 1059.18 9 ßKPgd Deccan Trap Uppar Cretaceous to Palaeogene 20.82 10 ?Pt1n Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 406.54 11 aPt1n Rhyolite Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 274.68 12 ?Pt1d Dongargarh Granite Palaeo Proterozoic 3531.37 13 KI Lameta Group Cretaceous 24.92 14 Pt12k Khairagarh Group Palaeo Meso Proterozoic 1075.85 15 Pt1sa Sausar Group Palaeo Proterozoic 1061.98 16 Pt12c Chilpi Group Palaeo Meso Proterozoic 219.46 Total 26347.01


Hydrometeorology OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN “Hydrology is the science that the water of the Earth their occurrence circulation and distribution, chemical and physical properties and their reaction with the environment, including the relation to living things. The hydrological characteristics of a basin include infiltration, runoff, rainfall, discharge characteristics of the main river and its tributaries. Rainfall Characteristics of the Wainganga River Basin Gridded rainfall data of 0.25° ×0.25 ° resolution was analyzed to study long term temporal and spatial trends on annual and seasonal scales in Wainganga river basin located in Maharashtra during 1961- 2014. The annual minimum and maximum rainfall of 64 grid zone observation in study region. The evaluation of the average level annual rainfall for 29 meteorological stations located at Bhandara , Gondia, Nagpur, Chandrapur and Brahmapuri from 1961 to 2014. Spatial Distribution This variation found in Grid 20.25 0 to 80.25 0 have highest rainfall 1059.38 mm and in the 20.00 0 to 80.25 0 lowest rainfall is 640.57 mm in the year of 1961 to 1970. Temporal Distribution Decreasing Trend Rainfall- 1972, 1974, 1984, 1987, 1991, 1996 and 2004 Increasing rainfall trend in the basin during the period of 1961, 1975, 1978,1990,1992,1994,2001,2005,2007 and 2013.


Average Annual Rainfall in the Wainganga Sub-basin ( 1961 - 2014)


Decadal Rainfall at Various Grid Zone in the Study area (1961 - 2014)


Year 1961 - 70 1971 - 80 1981 - 90 1991 - 2014 Sum 85349.32 83804.64 86370.71 86289.71 Average 853.49 838.05 863.71 862.90 Minimum 640.57 610.46 615.90 616.56 Maximum 1159.38 1001.31 1097.10 1248.46 Std. Deviation 102.23 92.79 130.25 129.67 Rainfall Statistics of Wainganga Basin for different Gird Zone The evaluation of the average total annual rainfall of 64 grid zone from 1961 to 2014 for Wainganga basin shows that the average total rainfall received was above the average rainfall of 853.49 mm in 1961 to 1970 followed by 838.05 mm in 1971 to 1980, 863.71mm in 1981 to 1990 and 862.90 mm in 1991 to 2014.


Mean Monsoon rainfall in the Catchment It is observed that years 1961, 1967, 1970, 1973, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1990,1992, 1994, 2001, 2003, 2005, 2010 and 2013 show excess rainfall years, while the years 1962, 1965, 1972, 1974, 1982, 1984, 1987, 1996, 2004 and 2009 are found as deficit rainfall years . Standard deviation of mean annual rainfall for the Wainganga basin was 102.23, 92.79, 130.25 and 129.67 in the year of 1961 to 1970, 1971 to 1980, 1981 to 1990 and 1991 to 2014 respectively. It can be seen that S.D. of rainfall at all the station appears to be greater than that for the entire catchment.


MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN Morphological Studies of rivers are very important to study the behavior of a river, its aggradations or degradation, shifting of the river course, erosion of river bank etc. and to plan remedial measure for erosion and other related problems . River Morphometric study is refers as the quantitative evaluation of form characteristics of the earth surface and any landform unit. The basin morphometry includes the characteristics if linear, areal and relief aspects of fluvially originated drainage basins.


Sr. No. River Basin Area sq.km Sr. No. River Basin Area sq.km 1 Ambi 854.95 12 Maru 706.51 2 Andhari 1202.43 13 Pal 254.87 3 Bagh 1840.24 14 Pathari 492.93 4 Bawanthadi 920.56 15 Pench 557.31 5 Chulbund 2515.86 16 Phuar 408.55 6 Gadhavi 1535.87 17 Pohar 853.14 7 Haman 2056.89 18 Satti 809.49 8 Kanhan 3287.26 19 Sur 982.88 9 Kathani 808.55 20 Tipagsrhi 752.33 10 Khobragarhi 179.16 21 Wainganga 5208.39 11 Mal 119.03 Total 26347.47 Wainganga River Basin Watershed Area


Linear Aspects of the Basin or Network Analysis Linear aspects of the basins are related to the channel patterns of drainage network. T he linear aspect includes the discussion and analysis of stream order (µ), stream number (N), bifurcation ratio (Rb), stream lengths (L), length ratio (RL), length of overland flow (Lg), sinuosity indices etc. Strahler's scheme of Stream Ordering Wainganga watershed is of 7 th order. Total length of streams in stream order 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 were 10258.29, 3094, 1505.43, 815.72, 614.25, 201.7 and 145.12 km respectively. Sr. No. Stream Order Total Stream 1 1 st 3318 2 2 nd 1117 3 3 rd 331 4 4 th 88 5 5 th 11 6 6 th 4 7 7 th 1 Total 4870


Strahler’s Scheme of Stream Order


Bifurcation Ratio ( R b ) Bifurcation ratio ( Rb ) is related to the branching pattern of the drainage network. It is defined as a ratio of the number of streams of a given order (N) to the number of streams of the next higher order (N ). Bifurcation values are ranging from 2.97 to 8.00. The higher values of 4 th ( Rb - 8.00) and 5 th ( Rb - 2.75) order streams indicate well developed stream network. The Wainganga River basin total means Bifurcation Ratio is 3.55, that it is a natural river system where uniformity is seen with respect to climate, rock type and stage of development .


Length Ratio and Law of Stream Length The proportion of increase of mean length of stream segments of two successive basin orders is defined as length ratio (R L ). The average length of stream of a given order in a drainage basin increases systematically with increasing stream order. Stream Order Number of Streams (Nu) Total Stream Lengths (km) Mean Streams Lengths (km) 1 st 3318 10258.29 3.09 2 nd 1117 3094.00 2.77 3 rd 331 1505.43 4.55 4 th 88 815.72 9.27 5 th 11 614.25 55.84 6 th 4 201.7 50.42 7 th 1 145.12 145.12 Total 4870 16634.51 271.06 Stream Length (km)

Sinuosity Indices:

Sinuosity Indices For single-thread stream channels, the sinuosity index is calculated for each reach using its two endpoints (Upstream point A, Downstream point B ). In the Wainganga River having sinuosity index more than 1.41 is defined as meandering .


areal ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN The areal aspects of the drainage basin include the study of basin perimeter, geometry of closed links i.e. basin shape, law of basin area, law of algometric growth, stream frequency, drainage density, drainage texture etc. AREA RATIO (Ra) Area ratio denotes proportion of increase of mean basin areas between two successive orders. Sr. No. Stream Order Number of Streams Area in km 2 Mean Area Area Ratio 1 1 st 3318 11547.85 3.48 0.44 2 2 nd 1117 4383.57 3.92 0.17 3 3 rd 331 2794.99 8.44 0.11 4 4 th 88 2105.29 23.92 0.08 5 5 th 11 2103.82 191.26 0.08 6 6 th 4 1460.36 365.09 0.05 7 7 th 1 1951.60 1951.60 0.07 Total 4870 26347.47 5.41 1.00 Table : Area Ratio


Geometry of Basin Shape The geometry of basin shape is of paramount significance as it helps in the description and comparison of different forms of the drainage basins. Horton's form factor (F) (1932) where, F = form factor indicating elongation of the basin shape A = basin areas L = basin length For the Wainganga river basin, F = 26347.47 Sq. km. / 368.7² = 0.19 The value of F indicates that basin is not elongated . The basin shape is largely controlled by geological structure and is important geometrical form of the stream work .


Stoddart's (1965) Elipticity Index (E) Where, E = elipticity index π = 3.14 A = basin area L = basin length E = 3.14 X 368.7 2 / 4 X 26347.47 E = 407819.07/ 105389.88 E = 3.87 The value of 'E' varies from 1 to 0. It is apparent from these two equations that 'E' is inversely proportional to 'F'. Basin Circularity ( Rc ) = Au/Ac Where Au= 4 x 3.14 x A Ac = square of perimeter For Wainganga River, Rc = 4 x 3.14 x 26347.47/ (965.25)² = 330924.22 / 931707.56 = 0.35


STREAM FREQUENCY Stream Frequency or drainage frequency is the measure of number of streams per unit area. Stream Frequency Sr. No. Stream Order Number of Streams Area in km 2 Stream Frequency 1 1 st 3318 11547.85 0.29 2 2 nd 1117 4383.57 0.25 3 3 rd 331 2794.99 0.19 4 4 th 88 2105.29 0.04 5 5 th 11 2103.82 0.005 6 6 th 4 1460.36 0.003 7 7 th 1 1951.60 0.0005 Total 4870 26347.47 0.18 F = ΣN/A = 4870/26347.47 km² = 0.18 streams/km²

DRAINAGE DENSITY Drainage density refers to total stream lengths per unit area. :

DRAINAGE DENSITY Drainage density refers to total stream lengths per unit area. Sr. No. Stream Order Area (km²) Number of Streams (Nu) Drainage Density 1 1 st 11547.85 3318 0.29 2 2 nd 4383.57 1117 0.25 3 3 rd 2794.99 331 0.12 4 4 th 2105.29 88 0.04 5 5 th 2103.82 11 0.005 6 6 th 1460.36 4 0.002 7 7 th 1951.60 1 0.0005 Total 26347.47 4870 0.70 The Wainganga River sub-basin drainage density is Coarse (drainage density 0.63) on account of such as basalt, hilly relief, hard rock which tends to give low drainage density.


Drainage Density Map Map shows that North and south part have been the high drainage density but in the middle part of the basin very low dense.


RELIEF ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN The relief aspects of the drainage basins are related to the study of three dimensional features of the basins involving area, volume and altitude of vertical dimension of landforms. Absolute Relief Absolute Relief is the difference between original upland surface and the bottom of the graded valley or mean sea level. The area height break-up indicates that a large proportion (46.62%) of the total area falls in altitudinal zone of below 280 meters followed by 281-480 meters (28.51%). Sr. No. Height Group (meters) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Below- 180 8302.23 31.51 2 180 – 280 14438.81 54.80 3 280 – 380 3062.53 11.62 4 380 - 480 513.48 1.95 5 Above 480 29.95 0.11 Total 26347.01 100 Area-Height Break Up


The absolute relief of the Wainganga Basin may categorically be grouped into below (<180m), low (180 – 280m), moderate (280 – 380 m) and moderately high (380 – 480 m) and high (480m). The spatial pattern of low absolute relief (<180m) covers an area of about 31.51 percent equivalent to 8302.23 km 2 . Again, the low absolute relief group (180 – 280m) is estimated at 54.80 percent or 14438.81 km 2 of the basin. The moderate absolute relief covers a spatial extent of 11.62% of basin’s total area equivalent to 3062.53 km 2 . The spatial coverage of moderately high absolute relief (380 – 480 m) goes to about 513.48 km 2 and 1.95 percent. The spatial pattern of the high absolute relief (480m) covers an area of about 29.95% equivalent to 0.11 percent.


Contour Map Average Slope Map


Hypsometric Curve Hypsometric curve is generally used to show the proportion of area of the surface at various elevations above or below a datum. Sr. No. Height in (meters) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) Frequency Cumulative (more than) 01 Below – 180 8302.23 31.51 100 02 180 - 280 14438.81 54.80 68.48 03 280 - 380 3062.53 11.62 13.68 04 380 - 480 513.48 1.95 2.06 05 Above 480 29.95 0.11 0.11 Total 26347.01 100   Hypsometric curve


Relative Relief Relative relief is difference between summit level, the highest altitude for a given area, and base level, lowest altitude for a given area. Relative relief can be used as an index of the relative velocity of vertical tectonic movements. Relative relief is applied to study reveal active tectonic structures, to recognize palaeo surfaces, to estimate seismic activity, and to study the interaction between endo genetic and exogen et ic processes of orogenesis. Sr. No. Class Category Area (ha.) Area (sq. km) Area in % 1 0-15 Extremely low relative relief ----- ----- ----- 2 15-30 Moderately low relative relief ---- ---- ---- 3 30-60 Low relative relief 3737.26 37.37 14.18 4 60-120 Moderately relative relief 8422.87 84.22 31.97 5 120-240 Moderately high relative relief 12327.26 123.27 46.79 6 Above 240 High relative relief 1860.00 18.60 7.06 Total 26347.38 263.46 100


Total basin relief = H= ZH – ZL = Height of highest point – height of basin mouth = 648 m – 73 m Total basin relief = 575 m Relief ratio = R = H/ Lb = Total basin relief/ Length of basin = 575 m /229 km = 2.51 The elevation of the Wainganga basin above msl varies from source to mouth. The spatial pattern of relative relief of the basin indicates that about 37.37 km 2 , equivalent to 14.81 percent of the total basin area accounts for low relative relief. While moderate and moderate high relative relief groups cover about 31.97% or 84.22 km 2 and 46.79% or 123.27 km 2 respectively. Spatial coverage of very high relative relief is represented by 7.06% of the area equivalent to 18.60 Km 2 .


Relief Map


Longitudinal Profile of the Wainganga River Basin The longitudinal profile is drawn for the three course of the river as is covered by survey of India toposheet number 55K, 55O, 55P, 56M, 64C, 64D, 65A . An early stage where the gradient is steep, and where erosion by the river prevails over its depositional powers. An intermediate stage, where the river begins to erode laterally, widening its channel and at the same time depositing material, thus maintaining some kind of equilibrium between erosion and deposition. A late stage close to the river's mouth, where the gradient becomes shallow, and the river loses its energy, thus depositing most or its entire load.

Flood Analysis of Wainganga River basin:

Flood Analysis of Wainganga River basin The Wainganga sub-basin is naturally prone to flooding, with floods being recorded every 5-7 years. Recently the Wainganga basin has experienced floods in 1994, 1998, 2001, 2004, 2007 and 2014. In many cases the floods have been a result of continuous heavy rainfall in upstream areas or throughout the basin. Sr. No. District No. of Village Affected Years of Major Flood Area km 2 1 Nagpur 148 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 322.13 2 Bhandara 188   1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 336.35 3 Gondia 35 1994, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 53.09 4 Chandrapur 102 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 225.98 5 Gadchiroli 147 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 254.11 TOTAL 620   1191.66 Number of Villages affected and Area by floods in the Wainganga River and its Tributary (1961 - 2014)


The two basic factors responsible for the occurrence of floods Increased run-off in the catchment area R eduction in the carrying capacity of the channel as a consequence of accumulation of sediments or the obstructions built on water channels . Increased velocity leads to increased erosion of soil which causes heavy sedimentation in the stream bed down the slope. But in areas under vegetal cover, the rate of soil erosion is reduced. Heavy deforestation in the upper reaches is the most important factor as far as human activities are concerned. Forests also provide leaf cover which breaks the impact of falling rain and reduces intensity of erosion. Roots of plants create conditions in the soil texture which are conducive to percolation. Therefore, in areas under vegetal cover, soil erosion is reduced and low floods are moderated . The rivers flowing down the Balaghat ranges receive heavy rainfall in their upper reaches. It was previously covered with dense forest and so, a considerable amount of precipitation was absorbed and runoff was reduced and also delayed to some extent. Human activities have increased the problem of floods by constructing roads, railways, bunds and huge buildings either across or along the natural flow, which greatly obstruct the smooth flow of rivers.


Rainfall Runoff Relationship The total rainfall generated the main stream of the watershed is the function of total precipitation received on the watershed. However all the precipitation received is not converted into surface runoff. Some of the precipitation is lost temporally or permanently as the precipitation reaches the surface. This term as hydrological losses. Run-off from the sub-basin of Wainganga varied due to factors like distribution of rainfall, slope, forest cover or land use, number of reservoirs / tanks etc. The annual average run-off of found that the 1225.73 and the annual average of the Wainganga river is 0.45 MCM / sq.km. The annual water availability is estimated to be 6227.71 MCM. Interception by vegetation, temporary storages in ponds and lakes, infiltrations and evapo -transpiration are principle losses.


Sr. No. Name of the Site Name of the River Catchment Area sq. km. Run Off (Cu. Km.) June-Nov 1 Satrapur Kanhan 11100 1.98 2 Rajagaon Bagh 5380 2.30 3 Keolari Wainganga 29600.97 0.87 4 Rajoli Mul 1900 0.40 5 Wairagarh Khobragarthi 2600 0.55 6 Ramkona Kanhan 2500 1.02 7 Kumhari Wainganga 8070 3.18 8 Salebardi Chulband 1800 0.54 9 Pauni Wainganga 35520 9.53 Average Observed (Monsoon) Run off At CWC Sites in the Wainganga Rivers sub-basin. (1996 - 2001) The  inflow of a body of water is the source of the water in the body of water. It can also refer to the average volume of incoming water in unit time. It is contrasted with outflow. Outflow is the amount of water that leaves the country. Inflow is mostly used when referring to rivers, and the amount of water in units that enters the country. In Keolari site in Wainganga River area is more but comparatively run-off is very less (0.87) but in the same river at Pauni site area is 35520 and outflow is 9.53 than the other river.


Runoff Density Map Marginal runoff area having 21167.48 km 2 and it’s found all over the study region. Maximum runoff are found sub basin of Khobragadi , Gadhavi , Satti , Kathani and Tipagsrhi as an area about covered with 428.69 km 2 . Moderate runoffs are mostly found in West part and North side on the study region because of entire area has been very low rainfall.


Cross Section Study of Wainganga River Basin The cross profiles contribute in throwing light upon the geomorphic history of the region as well as indicate the influence of local geologic and climatic controls. The v-shaped cross profiles, which are typical of the youthful stage near highlands, have deep valleys and greater width when measured at the top. Down cutting of valleys is more important than valley widening through lateral erosion.


Middle stage cross section Map


Old stage cross section Map


From the Village between Khara and Khatta middle stage of the basin increase in the length of the rivers and sub tributaries are less in this region. Also the contour height of this area is almost 450m. but slope very steep in right bank & the left bank slope are gentle. So, the development of river valleys is a slow and gradual process and this characterized by rectilinear slope of valley sides are the result of lateral erosion. Lowest part of the South of the Bhandara district having plain region. The valley of characterized by flat shape and concave but very gentle valley side slope. Old stage of the cross section of the basin is characterized by further decrease in channel gradient, almost total absence of valley deepening, decrease in the number of tributary stream and flattening of the valleys. These valleys become broad and flat characterized by concave slopes of bank sides. Down cutting of valleys is absent. Transporting capacity of the river becomes minimum because of very low channel gradient the level of gentle slope (2 0 – 4 0 ). The absolute height is also very less (300 m) the concave and rectilinear section this valley.


Flood Demarcation Monsoon Rainfall and Flood Variation of Mean Monsoonal flow The mean monsoonal flow for the period of record is 1184.15,1162.62, 971.22, 981.24 and 1217.80 cusecs in Bhandara , Gondia, Nagpur, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli district respectively from 1961 to 2014 there is mean variation in mean annual flow from the mean flow for the period of record. It is observed that for the first year 14.54, 13.49, 8.80, 5.06 and 10.95 and there are suddenly changes to decreases in -15.07 in the Bhandara district annual average from the mean flow of the period of record. However for the following two consecutive year of 1961 and 1962. There is a continuous decrease of 1993 but is an increment of 14.64, 13.72, 7.89, 5.12 and 12.78. We can conclude that river had very less discharge in 1969, 1973, 1993 and 2011in the study region. Looking at the percentage decrease from the mean flow for the period of record. There is an increment year of 1975, 1978, 2007 and 2013. Followed by continuous decrease between 1995 to 1999. The percentage decrease of annual average ranges from 1999 and 2006. Secondly the annual averages are ranked according to the water year to show the highest and the lowest averages during the period of record. The highest annual average was attained in the year 2013 with average monsoon discharge of 1805.76, 1627.90, 1399.77, 1596.6, and 1789.91. Similarly, lowest annual average was recorded to the year of 1972 with the average annual discharge of -6.96,-5.41,-6.07, -7.98 and -6.83.


Variation in Maximum Annual flow Based on the criteria the peak discharge of River Wainganga is analyzed for the period of 1961 to 2014. The mean monsoonal peak discharge for Wainganga calculated 297919.79 cusecs. The peak annual discharge for the years 1961, 1970, 1975, 1978, 1981, 1983, 1986, 1994, 2005, 2007, 2010 and 2013 are above the mean annual peak discharge. Therefore the discharges in these years are the moderate flows of River Wainganga. The record is seen in the year 2007 and 2010. Slope and Flood The length and the steepness of the topographic slope affect the flow and inundation of the particular area. For example, flat and low topography decreases the runoff, causing high infiltration within the area thereby resulting in water logging condition.


Sr. No. Slope Class Area ha. Area Sq. Km Area % 1 Gentle 1463008.80 14630.09 55.53 2 Moderate 717292.50 7172.93 27.23 3 Stiff 265055.62 2650.56 10.06 4 Steep 149173.90 1491.74 5.66 5 Very Steep 36758.14 367.58 1.40 6 Extra Steep 2670.17 26.70 0.10 7 Precipitous 722.07 7.22 0.03 Total 2634681 26346.8 100 Slope & Flood Distribution in the Study Region The slope map has been classified into seven major classes. The study area is mostly dominated by the flat topography with a slope varying from 0 to 0.30 degree whereas high slopes (> 10 degree) are noted in the hilly terrain or precipitous is only 0.03% . A large part of the fan surface area is dominated by slope values of < 1 degree. Areas with slope less than 0.3 degree show the water logging condition and moist area with patches of water bodies. Since the general trend of the slope is from northwest to southeast. The slope governs the geomorphology of that area as the high angle of slope or steepness decides that terrain geomorphology comprises of hard rocks, the piedmont zone comprises of moderate slope i.e. 27.23% as it lies close to the mountain front, the fan area has low angle of slope, hence the different slope angles decides the river behaviour along with the geomorphology and directly contribute to the flood hazard.


Flood Situation in Wainganga River in Various districts Map shows that pink color line indicates that demarcation of flood line away from main channel 300 m. and it may be this area called as prohibitive zone as well as 600 m flood line away from main channel area shows that white color as a caution zone. During the flood event 1992 , 1994, 2001,2005,2007,2014 observed of flood hazard map indicates that areas of whole entire area having flood conditions. Slopes of curves represent the flood hazard potential in different district because of uneven land surface. In these curves, a steep slope represents a high potential of hazards while gentle slope represents a low potential. Gondia and Chandrapur district low laying areas but Bhandara , Nagpur, Gadchiroli is fully submerged under the flood water.


Demarcation of flood line on the Wainganga River


Flood Impact Map


Sr.No . Area Sq.km. No. of Villages Bhandara Chandrapur Gadchiroli Gondia Nagpur 01 Below 1 70 29 62 11 46 02 1 – 2 47 29 45 14 36 03 2 – 3 38 17 13 06 39 04 3 – 4 23 14 12 00 17 05 4 – 5 04 04 07 04 05 06 Above 5 06 08 07 00 04 Total 188 102 147 35 148 Submergence of District Area under Wainganga Basin Submergence of Bhandara district Area Bhandara district stretches over an area of 3738.00 Sq. Km. In the terms of flood area, Bhandara district constitutes of the 336.35 km 2 or 9.00% of the total area of Bhandara district. In Bhandara district is having high lying areas compared to another district. Result shows that there is no submergence Sindhi and Sitepar village along the Wainganga River. When water level rise further entire area of above 5 km 2 i.e. 35.1 km 2 . Bhandara Urban area covers 8.55 km 2 followed by Betala is 5.53 km 2 , Bapera is 5.36 km 2 , Pauni Urban is 5.31 km 2 , Vihirgaon is 5.25 km 2 and Bhagadi is 5.10 km 2 . But in low lying area in Kurmuda village is 0.05 km 2 , Katangdhara is 0.09 km 2 and Ajimabad Hamesha 0.25 km 2 .


Submergence of Chandrapur district Area Chandrapur district stretches over an area of 10,920 sq. km. In the terms of flood area, Chandrapur district constitutes of the 225.98 km 2 or 2.07 % of the total area and 102 villages affected by flood in Chandrapur district. Compare to other districts, area of this district are flat surfaced and low lying. Results indicate that above 5 km 2 cover area is 51.49 km 2 out of this 225.98 km 2 . That means Awalgaon (8.09 km 2 ), Chichgaon (6.14 km 2 ), Balda (6.82 km 2 ), Jungaon (6.35 km 2 ), Ladaj (7.88 km 2 ), Kharkada (5.00 km 2 ), Pimpalgaon (5.85) and Sonapur (5.36 km 2 ) villages steep slope. Because of its entire 51.49 km 2 area was totally submerged.Awalgaon is a high rise area in this district to affect by flood i.e.8.09 km 2 . Submergence Area of Gadchiroli district Gadchiroli district stretches over an area of 14,412 Sq.km. In the terms of flood area, Gadchiroli district constitutes of the 254.11 km 2 or 1.76 % of the total area and 147 villages affected by flood in Gadchiroli district out of which 17.45 km 2 area covered with reserve forest . . Results indicate that above 5 km 2 cover area is 45.09 km 2 out of this 254.11 km 2 . That means Bamhani (6.53 km 2 ), Chamorshi (6.47 km 2 ), Deulgaon (5.23 km 2 ), Gadchiroli (8.55 km 2 ), Gotipur Raiyyatwari (7.17 km 2 ), Chargaon (5.34 km 2 ) and Talodhi Mokasa (5.80 km 2 ) villages steep slope. Because of its entire 45.09 km 2 area was totally submerged.


Submergence Area of Gondia district Gondia district stretches over an area of 5641 Sq. Km. In the terms of flood area, Gondia district constitutes of the 53.09 km 2 or.0.94% of the total area and only 35 villages affected by flood in this district . Indora Bk , Korani , Navegaon etc. villages are the areas covered in is very safe area in this district because it was affected by flood when water level got higher than the surrounding area. Under submerge total area is only 53.09 km 2 . Similar manner as Banaghar , Birsola , Bondarani and Dangurdi a high rise area along the Wainganga River. Submergence Area of Nagpur district Nagpur district stretches over an area of 9,892 Sq. Km. In the terms of flood area, Nagpur district constitutes of the 322.13 km 2 or 3.26 % of the total area and only 148 villages affected by flood in this district . The district comprises of wide and major areas submergence the flood namely Chunchaghat , Kamthi Urban, Palora and Sonegaon and also is covered under 27.75 km 2 . Similarly is low lying area compared to high in the particular area i.e. Bandrachuta , Bachhera , Chandkapur , Chapeghat , Chirwha , Gondegaon , Hingana , Jakhegaon , Mangali , Rajwai , Waregaon , Weltur etc.


Morphometry Control on Floods Linear Aspects The total number of the stream in Wainganga River basin is 4870 and total length of all streams is 16634.51 km. The bifurcation ratio (3.55) for entire basin indicates high rate of stream integration. Bifurcation ratio is 3.55 means seven smaller stream segments have merged to form one larger segment. High channel sinuosity index (1.41) refers relatively less resistance of the rocks and structures that means greater chance of flood. Areal Aspects Sr.No . Morphometric Parameter Result 01 Area (Sq. Km.) 5.41 02 Basin perimeter (Km.) 965.25 03 Drainage density (Km./Sq. Km.) 0.63 04 Stream frequency (No./ Sq. Km.) 0.18 05 Basin length (km.) 16634.51 06 Circularity ratio 0.35 07 Form factor ratio 0.19 08 Elipticity Index 3.87 In Wainganga river basin the form factor value is only 0.19 which indicates fairly elongated river basin. In general principle there is positive relation between form factor value and flood propensity. In Wainganga river basin although the basin is elongated and form factor value is very low but flood condition is grave .


The circularity ratio value (0.35) of the basin which indicating that the basin is elongated in shape, low discharge of runoff and highly permeability of the subsoil condition . The mean value of Dd in Wainganga river basin is 0.63 km. /sq.km. This indicates the resistance permeable material with fairly vegetative cover and low relief. But as the spatial variation is concerned, the upper Wainganga basin indicates very high Dd value (5 to 8 km. per sq. km.). Therefore, the basin is weak and impermeable surface material and relatively greater topographical relief. The average stream frequency is 0.18/sq.km. The stream frequency is very high (5- 8/sq.km.) in the Wainganga river basin while it is low (1 or <1/sq.km.) in the lower basin. Greater stream frequency in the Upper basin indicates relatively steeper slope, greater relief variation and multifaceted slope directions. Very low stream frequency in the Lower segment of the basin says the monotonous flat slope with marginal relief variations .


FLOOD MANAGEMENT AND CAUSES OF FLOOD ON THE WAINGANGA RIVER Causes of flood in the Wainganga River Basin 1.Excess Flows 2. Reduced Carrying Capacity of Rivers Sr. No. Year Wainganga At Ashti Kanhan At Satrapur Monsoon Non-Monsoon Annual Monsoon Non-Monsoon Annual 01 2000-2001 9.013 0.00 9.013 0.359 0.000 0.359 02 2001-2002 7.792 0.00 7.792 1.326 0.002 1.328 03 2002-2003 12.810 0.002 12.812 0.701 0.005 0.706 04 2003-2004 14.203 0.003 14.206 1.929 0.006 1.935 05 2004-2005 2.532 0.005 2.537 0.184 0.001 0.185 06 2005-2006 15.226 0.007 15.233 2.978 0.013 2.991 07 2006-2007 13.687 0.011 13.098 2.217 0.004 2.221 08 2007-2008 18.077 0.009 18.086 1.995 0.008 2.003 09 2008-2009 3.864 0.001 3.865 0.014 0.002 0.016 10 2009-2010 5.247 0.010 5.257 2.081 0.006 2.087 Total 102.451 0.048 101.899 13.784 0.047 13.831 Time series of sediment load by site in Wainganga River Basin


3. Runoff versus Infiltration The flood discharge of a stream depends on the amount of runoff. The runoff is determined by the amount of infiltration of water into the soil, which is in depends on the texture of soil, nature of vegetation, and length and steepness of slope. Sr. No. Soil Depth Area Sq.km. 01 Deep Soil Depth 3735.03 02 Marginal Soil Depth 10024.71 03 Moderate Soil Depth 1101.28 04 Shallow Soil Depth 7299.50 05 Thin Soil Depth 3628.28 06 Water bodies 558.21 Total 26347.01 Distribution of Soil Depth in the Wainganga Basin The soil depth in the Wainganga region ranges from deep soils with 150 cm and area covered with 3735.03 km 2 to shallow soils with a depth of less than 20 cm. The region with deep soils can be found in the riverine and flood plain areas of Wainganga. They are under extensive cultivation and are concentrated in the district of Bhandara , Gondia and the riverine areas in Gadchiroli . Shallow soils can be found in the hilly regions of Ramtek , Umred , Gaikhuri range in Bhandara is an area cover about 7299.50 km 2 . Marginal soil depth has been cover whole area of the Wainganga River (Area – 10024.71 km 2 )


Depth of Soil Map


4.Sedimentation carrying capacity and Changing Courses of Rivers 5.Large Catchment Area 6.Siltation 7.Cloud Bursts 8.Heavy Rainfall 9. Deforestation Management of Floods 1.Flood Frequency 2.Treatment of Watersheds 3.Watershed Delineation 4.Reservoirs 5.Water Spreading 6.Groundwater Recharge 7.Stream Channelization 8.Flood Embankments 9.Forecasting and Warning


Strategy of control floods Strategy 1 – Increasing preparedness against floods a. Flood anticipation system b. Information dissemination of flood prone zone maps c. Identification of flood lines d. Flood Alarm System e. Building a flood response system for Wainganga River basin Strategy 2: Into increase ability to resist the damage caused by disaster Situation a. Rapid Communication Network between Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh b. Formation of integrated Disaster Management Organization (IDMO ) c. Communication with Vulnerable Communities d. Rapid Action Force e. Assessment of damages and rehabilitation Strategy 3: Develop Mechanisms for timely and long term recovery from disaster situation


FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 1.The Wainganga river basin total calculated Plain region is in 42.62% and it is expanded in 11,229.92 area sq.km. The southern lowlands, a slightly undulating plain, comparatively well cultivated and drained by the Wainganga River and its tributaries. A number of Sub River and Tributary in piedmont plateau region developed Narrow cultivated land . 2. The major land use categories in the Wainganga River basin includes build up land (1.89%) and agricultural land (14.17%) that comprises of generally Kharif , Rabi and double crop system in the region. Forest cover (65.75%) comprises of dense forest (15.03%), Sparse vegetation (23.01%), Open Scrub (27.71%) and recent plantation. Deciduous or Dense forest largely spreads out in the region in the east of the all Wainganga river basin area. Forest cover comprises of deciduous forests, degraded forests, forest blanks and recent plantations. Water Bodies (2.11%), Barren Land (9.48%), Fallow Land (4.19%), Gravel Land (0.52%), Rocky Land or Open Space (1.88%) can also be found in the region. Waste land with or without scrub and barren rocky/stony waste can also be found in the region .


3 .. The variation found in Grid 20.25 0 to 80.25 0 have highest rainfall 1059.38 mm and in the 20.00 0 to 80.25 0 lowest rainfall is 640.57 mm in the year of1961 to 1970. In the 1971 to 1980 decade found of the highest rainfall 1001.31 mm in 21.75 0 to 80.00 0 grids and also 640.57 mm lowest rainfall occurs reference to grid 20.75 0 to 80.25 0 . In the decade of 1981 to 1990 highest rainfall is 1097.10 mm and lowest rainfall 672.44 mm in 21.50 0 to 80.00 0 and 21.25 0 to 80.50 0 respectively. The recent 24 years the maximum rainfall 1248.46 mm and minimum rainfall 616.56 mm found that area 21.50 0 to 80.00 0 and 21.75 0 to 78.50 0 . 4. According to Strahler’s scheme of Stream Ordering in Wainganga basin is 7 th order drainage basin and total stream 4870 that included 1 st 3318, 2 nd order 1117, 3 rd order 331 , 4 th order 88, 5 th order 11, 6 th order 4 stream. The Wainganga River basin total means Bifurcation Ratio is 3.55 that is a natural river system where uniformity is seen with respect to climate, rock type and stage of development. The number of streams of a given order in a drainage basin systematically with increasing stream order and to reach up number of segments is 2786.1. In the Wainganga River having sinuosity index more than 1.41 is defined as meandering. Drainage basin geometry shape mainly in sub basin of Wainganga is dendritic to dendritic type . The Wainganga River sub-basin drainage density is Coarse (drainage density 0.63) on account of such as basalt, hilly relief, hard rock which tends to give low drainage density. Stream frequency is the measure of number of stream per unit area so it’s having 0.18 km 2 . This value is low which indicates the basin is highly thick vegetative cover and permeable sub soil .


5.For the study of flood analysis 620 villages including Bhandara , Gondia, Nagpur, Chandrapur and Gadchiroli district in Maharashtra have been analyzed with the total area of submergence under the flood water is 1191.66 km 2 . From the analysis it has been investigated that due to the change in the river dynamics, there is change in the geomorphology of the area, the formation of sand bar, formation of floodplain along the new channels, formation of channel bars due to high sedimentation load which has been marked . 6. Bhandara , Chandrapur , Gadchiroli , Gondia and Nagpur district stretches over an area of 3738 km 2 , 10920 km 2 , 14412 km 2 ,5641 km 2 and 9892 km 2 in respectively. In the terms of flood area, Bhandara Chandrapur , Gadchiroli , Gondia and Nagpur district constitutes of the 336.35 km 2 , 225.98 km 2 , 254.11 km 2 , 53.09 km 2 and 322.13 km 2 of the submergence area under flood water. 7. Average annual rainfall in the catchment is 853.49 mm. 54 grid stations received less than the average rainfall while the remaining stations received more than that analysis of standard deviation (S.D.) in 1961 – 70 was 102.23, 1971 – 80 was 92.79, 1981 – 90 was 130.25 and 1991 – 2014 was 129.67.


Recommendations 1. There is need to preserve land as well as forest cover because of soil erosion has been take place during rainy season in the study region so plantation at high flood prone zone areas. 2. Technical training from various government departments, such as forestry, irrigation and NGOs is needed and awareness regarding flood hazards and probable precautionary measures should be prepared among the people. 3. Participatory each watershed management is essential for proper planning to avoid the flood situation. 4. GPS, Geographical information system and remote sensing etc. modern techniques should be applied for the detailed Flood survey useful to control of flood. 5. Needed to more detailed meteorological data is required for flood study. 6. Flood lines can be marked for the agriculture purpose also so that beyond those lines no any crops can be taken. 7. It is also suggested that the possibilities of protecting/ relocation/ exchanging the sites of vital installations like electricity sub stations/ power houses, telephone exchanges etc. should be seriously examined so that they should be safe from possible flood damage. 8. Flood warning system and flood forecasting which can be understandable to layman must be allocated/ developed in the river channel area which would be helpful in the flood period.


Limitation 1. 54 years data is not enough in draw recurrence interval at high flood prone area. 2. Some remote inaccessible location cannot study. 3. Agriculture losses in terms of crops are recorded but degradation of agriculture plots are left out. 4. Most of the time socio-economic losses cannot be recorded in the Government offices . 5. The Flood map has been generated from the public domain data with the use of satellite imagery. The approach followed can be applied in many of the flood prone area where availability of the data is poor and resources are limited. Use of high-resolution data and DEM will increase the efficiency of the model. Scope for further study 1 . For evaluating the average rainfall for different sub basins, Theissen Polygon method may be adopted in place of arithmetic mean method. 2. For more accuracy, the study may be carried out utilizing the toposheets of 1:50,000 scale. 3. For computation of surface balance yield the stream wise balance may be calculated considering the order of hierarchy of the stream courses. 4. Mathematical models can be developed for each sub basin based on hydrological, meteorological, geographical, ground water and morphological parameters. 5. Flood forecasting models based on the above parameters of the catchment can be developed.


BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS . Anderson H.W. (1957), Relating sediment yield to watershed variables, Trans. Amer. Geophysics. U. Vol. 38. pp. 921-940. Bhattacharjee N. and Barman R. (2009), “Flood and their Hazard Impact on Flood Plain Dwellers in Mangaldai Sub-Division, Assam: A Study in Geographical Geomorphology” Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers. Vol - 31, No-2. pp. 143-154. Brookes A. and Shields F. D. (1996), River Restoration: Guiding principles for Sustainable projects, J. Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester , UK. Kale V.S. and Hire P.S. (2004), Effectiveness of monsoon floods on the Tapi River, India: Role of channel geometry and hydrologic regime: Geomorphology, v. 57. pp. 275–291, doi : 10.1016/ S0169-555 X (03)00107-7. Kale Vishwas S. and Gupta Avijit (2001), Introduction to Geomorphology, pp. 84- 86 . Morisawa M. E. (1959), Relation of quantitative geomorphology to stream flow in representative watersheds of the Appalachian Plateau Province, Columbia University, Office of Naval Research, Project NR 389-042, and Technical Report 20. Singh R. L. (1971), India, A Regional Geography. NGSI, Varanasi, Researcher Publication. 6. pp. 20-45. Singh Savindra (1978), A quantitative analysis of drainage texture of small drainage basins of the Ranchi plateau, in Morphology and Evolution of landforms, Geology Department, Delhi University. Singh Savindra (1981), Estimation of drainage density, National Geographer, Vol.16, No. 2. pp. 81-89. Straher A.N. (1964), Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks, in Handbook of Applied Hydrology (edited by V.T. Chow).


Ph.D. Thesis Bhamare S. M. (1987), Geomorphic Analysis of Panzara Basin, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Savitribai Phule  Pune University, Pune. pp. 143- 180. Bhavani R. (2013), Hydrological and Ground Water Management Studies of the Chitravathi Basin, Andhra Pradesh. pp. 133-148. Bikram Manandhar (2010), Flood plain analysis an risk assessment of Lothar khola , Unpublished project for M.Sc. in Watershed Management by Tribhuvan University Institute of forestry, Pokhara , Nepal. Chaudhari V.P. (2012), Geographical study of Flood affected settlements in Dhule District (MS), Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Shri Jagdish Prasad Jhubarmal Tibrewala University, Rajasthan. Hire P.S (2000), Geomorphic and hydrologic studies of floods in the Tapi basin, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Savitribai Phule  Pune University, Pune. Joshi V.U. (1992), Late Quaternary Colluvial Stratigraphy, morphology and associated geomorphic features in the foot hill zones of western upland Maharashtra, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Savitribai Phule  Pune University, Pune. Kulkarni Savita (2011), Geomorphological study of rock bed and gravel bed channel: A case study of Dhul River Channel, Maharashtra. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth Pune. Kumar Rajesh (2010), Fluvial process in Lower Rapti River Basin:A case study of Impacts on Arable land, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi. Patil S.B. (2008), “Geomorphology and Settlements in Dhule district (M.S.)” Unpublished Ph.D. thesis submitted to N.M.U. Jalgaon .


RESEARCH PROJECTS Paranjpye Vijay (2011): Wainganga Planning for Water Resource Development, Research project published Gomukh Environmental Trust, Pune. pp. 61 -114. Paranjpye Vijay (2013): A Master Plan for Integrated Development and Management of Water Resources of Wainganga Sub- Basin", Research project published Gomukh Environmental Trust, Pune. pp. 10- 37 . GOVERNMENT PROJECT’S OTHERS



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