“ROLE OF WATER CONSERVATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT- A CASE STUDY OF MODE

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“ROLE OF WATER CONSERVATION IN RURAL DEVELOPMENT- A CASE STUDY OF MODEL VILLAGES IN SOUTH AHMEDNAGAR DISTRICT” BY Dr. Lagad Santosh Jabaji & Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar

Introduction :

Introduction Water is basic natural resource on the earth for all living organisms including mankind and for development and survival of plant community. People generally say “no water no life”. This quantity of water resource is very high on the earth but only small quantity is useful for mankind. As global population is increasing rapidly, water for food production is becoming an increasing scare resource and the situation is further aggravated by climate change. The changes made by human community demanding water and the uneven distributions of water in nature have made the problem of water resource worst. In the world many more rain fed areas are the hotspot of food insecurity, soil degradation, water sacristy, poverty, out migration, malnutrition and poor social economical development. Hence there is urgent need for early rational and practical policy for development, use and the conservation of water resource for the overall development.

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India is one of the major agricultural countries of the world. Today agriculture and allied sector contribute nearly 25% of Gross Domestic Production (GDP), while about 60-70 % of the population depends on agriculture for their livelihood. Indian arid and semiarid lands constitute more than 50% of the country’s geographical areas and are home of 60% of the rural population, where water resource is main problem. Several experiences have already proved that the watershed development programs have become powerful engines of development especially to reduce poverty and maintain food, fodder and fuel security with sustainable manner for huge mass population in India. The watershed development programmes not only enhance the crop productivity but also minimize the risk of degradation of natural resources base.

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A major part of the Maharashtra comes under rain shadow of Sahadri Mountain. Nearly one third part of area falls under drought prone area. Maharashtra has large variation in rainfall distribution. Maharashtra receives 920 mm rainfall annually but there is large variation. 1) Sahyadri Mountain & Kokan- 2500-4000 mm 2) Rainshadow Division- East Sahyadri to Western Districts of Marathwada - 400-800 mm 3) Vidharbh- Eastern Marathwada – 700-900 mm. Those regions receiving less than 1000 mm rainfall are considered as drought prone region. In Maharashtra 2.08 lakh hector land is cultivable, from it 17.3% land is irrigated, 82.7% is non irrigated agricultural land. In this context watershed management is powerful tool for overall development but more awareness is necessary. .

Selection of study region:

Selection of study region Ahmednagar district is mostly in rain shadow to the east of Western Ghat . Ahmednagar is one of populous district in Maharashtra. As per 2011 census the total population of the district is 45,43,159 Water is required for various purposes and the small amount of rainfall is not able to fulfils the demand of water. So the large population of the district has huge burden of the scare resource of water.

Hypothesis:

Hypothesis The hypothesis of the present study are: 1. Socio- economic development of villages depends on sustainability of water resource . 2. Water conservation methods depend on physiographic setting.

Aims and Objectives of the Present Study :

Aims and Objectives of the Present Study 1. To analyze social-economic characteristics of population in study area. 2. To identify impact of watershed in rural development. 3. To identify potential watershed villages in selected tahesil. 4. To analyze the problem and prospects of watershed programmes for sustainable development.

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Methodology Data Collection Spatial Data Non Spatial Data Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Village Survey GPS Reading Toposheet Tahsil Cadastral Map SRTM Data Contour Map Drainage Map TIN DEM Slope Aspect Socio Economic Survey Census Socio Economic Reviews Climatic Report Thematic Layer Analysis Statistical Analysis Water Harvesting Structure Interpretation of all the outputs

Introduction to Study Area:

Introduction to Study Area

Study Area:

Study Area For the present study south part of Ahmednagar district is selected. The part of south Ahmednagar district lies between 18 0 8’20” to 19 0 21’20” North latitude and 74 0 8’ 20” to 75 0 35’ 10” East longitude. South boundary of the study area is formed by Bhima river, west is delineated by Ghod river and east boundary conformed by Sina river. The study area is situated on deccan trap of India.

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latitude - 18 0 8’20” North to 19 0 21’20” North longitude- 74 0 8’ 20” East to 75 0 35’ 10” East

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Relief

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Drainage Pattern Soil Types

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Climate The climate of Ahmednagar district is characterized by hot summer and general dryness during major period of year except during south west monsoon season. The coldest season in the Ahmednagar district commence from December and ends in the month of February . Average Temperature

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Demographic Characteristics In the regional geography, the study of population and its indicators is noteworthy. In fact, it is the part and parcel of any regional geographical studies, because population is the great resource among all the resources. The disparity in spatial development in economy of the region is the combined result of natural environment, its resources and the existing demographic structure and spatial pattern of population in the region. An analysis of various aspects of population i.e. growth, distribution, density, sex ratio, literacy, occupational structure and urbanization etc. provides a clear understanding of the problems in the region which must be taken for rational regional and intra-regional planning. Population Distribution in (%) Population Growth Rate in (%)

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Population Density(Person per Sq.Km .) Sex Ratio (Female Per Thousand Male) Literacy (%) Occupational Structure of 1991(%)

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Occupational Structure of 2001 (%) Occupational Structure of 2011 (%)

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Watershed “ With respect to the outlet” says MuCuen, “the watershed consists of all land area that shed water to the outlet during a rainstorm”. A watershed can be defined “as the drainage basin or catchment area of a particular stream or river”. “The land area that supplies water to a particular river or lake is called watershed”. “Watershed is a natural unit draining runoff water to common point of outlet”. The term watershed is used to indicate an area of land from which all water falling as rain or snow would flow towards a single point. This includes both surface water flow, such as river, streams and creeks and the underground movement of water. Watershed is not simply the hydrological unit but also socio-political-ecological entity which play crucial role in determining food, social and economical security and provides life support services to rural people.

Aims and Objectives of Watershed Development Programme :

Aims and Objectives of Watershed Development Programme 1. Utilization of land according to its capacity and improvement of agriculture productivity. 2. Storage of rain water as far as possible. 3. Conservation of excess water through various methods . 4. Improvement surface and groundwater availability in sufficient and renovation of traditional methods of water harvesting. 5. Improvement and protection of vegetation cover in sufficient quantity for control of soil erosion and ecological balance.

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Increase in fodder and fuel availability. 7. Adoption of Ecological restoration methods like pasture development, horticulture, agro-forestry activities and reforestation . 8. Sufficient community action for the operation and maintenance of assets created and further development of the potential of the nature resources in the watershed . 9. Increase in household income, employment generation, poverty alleviation, community development through various activities and development of human resources and economic resources of the villages as well as enhancement quality of life among local community.

Demographical, Socio-economic Transformation Pre and Post Watershed Development:

Demographical, Socio-economic Transformation Pre and Post Watershed Development Watershed development is miracle which trans form the society. Watershed developments not only increase water availability of the area but also change the society. It takes social and economical transformation through various activities. Watershed development is the foundation of economic and social transformation. Watershed development teaches, earned water through hard rock, but didn’t use it wantonly. Use it for welfare of their village and downtrodden community of the village to raise their social transformation. This is major transformation, brought by the economic transformation.

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Demographical, Socio-economic Transformation in Model Villages Before and After Watershed Development Programme

Demographic Transformation:

Demographic Transformation

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Household Social Conditions

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Sr . No Name of Village Low Medium High B. W A.W B. W A.W B.W A.W 1 Hiwrebajar 18.2 13.6 56.1 54.5 25.8 31.8 2 Ralegansiddi 32.8 25 65.6 71.9 1.6 3.1 3 Chikhli 17.7 12.9 67.7 69.4 14.5 17.7 4 Taklikhandeswari 22.2 14.3 76.2 82.5 1.6 3.2 5 Rajuri 14.5 8.1 79 82.3 6.5 9.7 Average 21.1 14.8 68.8 71.9 10.1 13.2 * Standard of Living Index Standard of living index before and after watershed development in model watershed villages (Percentage) . Criteria of SLI ** Standard of Living Index (SLI)- 1 ) Low - Gas stove, Pressure cooker, Electric fan, Bicycle, Radio 2 ) Medium - Sofa set, Refrigerator, T.V., Motorcycle, Spry pump and including all low category items 3) High - All household items Reference -National Family Health Survey 1991

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Households Amenities

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Sr. No. Name of Model Villages Bio gas Solar Wind Other B. W. A.W B. W. A.W B. W. A.W B. W. A.W 1 Hiwrebajar 20 62.9 13.3 14.3 NA 1.2 65.5 21.6 2 Ralegansiddi 13 57.4 0.5 1.8 NA 0.8 86.5 40 3 Chikhli 21.4 47.5 0.8 1.4 NA 0.6 77.8 50.5 4 Taklikhandeswari 34.8 59.3 0.7 1.5 NA NA 64.5 39.2 5 Rajuri 20 48.9 NA 0.9 NA NA 55 50.2 Average 21.84 55.20 3.06 3.98 NA 0.52 69.86 40.3 Use of renewable energy resources in model watershed villages (Percentage).

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Households Land use Characteristics

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Household Agricultural Characteristics

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Ranking Coefficient Agricultural Productivity Grade Before W.D. Name of Village After W.D. Name of Village 0 - 1 Very High - - 1 - 2 High Rajuri Rajuri 2 - 3 Medium Hiwrebajar , Chikhali Hiwrebajar, Ralegansiddi 3 - 4 Low Takali Khandeshwari Chikhali , Takali Khandeshw . 4 - 5 Very Low Ralegansiddi - Agriculture productivity index (Kendall ’ s Method).

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Household Livestock

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Household Migration

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Migration Migration of model watershed villages (Percentage). Name of Village Hiwrebajar Ralegansiddi Chikhli Takali Kh . Rajuri Average Migration 28.6 31.3 3.2 9.7 3.3 15.4 Purpose of Migration

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Proposed Rain Water Harvesting Structures

Proposed Rain Water Harvesting Structures:

Proposed Rain Water Harvesting Structures Water resource development is a continuous process, which has to be resorted because of ever-increasing demand. The major irrigation projects cater to millions of hectares of land, whereas at the other extreme local level projects such as small pond/tanks involving small structures may also be used to fulfill the requirements of a small community at the village level. For the proposed rain water harvesting 25 villages are selected.

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Sr.No Nagar Parner Shrigonda Karjat Jamkhed 1 Bardari Deswade Arangaon Dhumala Bhose Anandwadi 2 Madadgaon Gatewadi Bangarde Chandgaon Khurd Bavi 3 Nim . Wagh Hivara Korda Ghutewadi Chapadgaon Jawalke 4 Ranjani Pimpri Gawali Thite Sangvi Mulewadi Matewadi 5 Sarola Baddi Wasdare Vadgul Supe Pimpalkhed List of Propose Village Watershed

Sites Selection Criteria for Watershed Management Structure :

Sites Selection Criteria for Watershed Management Structure 1. Continuous Contour Trench (CCT) 2. Loose Boulder Structure (LBS) 3. Farm Ponds 4. Check Dam 5. Percolation Tank

Village Ranjani Rainwater Harvesting Structure:

Village Ranjani Rainwater Harvesting Structure

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Sr. No. Watershed Structure Number Existing Proposed 1 CCT - - 2 LBS 11 07 3 FP 09 08 4 CD 09 16 5 PT 01 01

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Village Name Water Harvesting Structure Village Name Water Harvesting Structure Existing Proposed Existing Proposed Nagar Ghutewadi 67 66 Bardari 41 28 Thite Sangvi 22 22 Madadgaon 28 28 Vadgul 85 59 Nim . Wagh 30 34 Karjat Ranjani 30 32 Bhose 92 68 Sarola Baddi 22 19 Chandgaon Khurd 64 45 Parner Chapadgaon 36 36 Deswade 38 37 Mulewadi 70 55 Gatewadi 22 28 Supe 56 42 Hivara Korda 41 28 Jamkhed Pimpri Gawali 25 29 Anandwadi 31 28 Wasdare 30 28 Bavi 32 31 Shrigonda Jawalke 31 33 Arangaon Dhumala 63 46 Matewadi 28 26 Bangarde 76 64 Pimpalkhed 25 32

Conclusion and Suggestion:

Conclusion and Suggestion

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South Ahmednagar district is situated on Decan trap region times Basalt lava flow. 70 percent area of the study region covers by Basaltic hard rock. Due to this type of topography ground water recharge capacity of the region is low . 2) Digital Elevation Model shows the elevation variation in the study area. Elevation is high in north- west part of the region at Vadgaon Darya and Jamgaon (1000 Mt.) in Parner tahesil and north-east border of Nagar tahesil at Agadgaon village. Low elevation is found in south Shrigonda (563 to 617 Mt.), west Karjat tahesils at the bank of Bhima river and south-west region of Jamkhed tahesils at the bank of Sina river (484 to 563 Mt.)

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3) Slope map shows undulation of the study area. Major hills are found in north and north-east part of study area. Middle West range of the Harishchandragad range runs through Parner and Karjat tahesils divided study area in to two parts. In the west part of the study area slop direction is towards south and in the east part slop direction is from north-east to south-west. Generally direction of slop is mainly towards south in the channel of the rivers Bhima and Sina . 4) Bhima is Major River in the study area. About 80% area is covered by Bhima Basin. This river has dendritic river pattern, and its tributary also follow same pattern. It drains from continuously north-west toward south and supplied water to the area of nearby. All rivers of the study area are non-perennial rivers, during the summer, the rivers are dry and some are dry in whole year.

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5) According to the map of soil types large part of the study area is covered with gray soil, which has very low fertility. Area lying Bhima , Ghod and Sina has medium black soil and occasional patches of deep black soil are seen in low lying area of Karjat and Jamkhed Tahesils . 6)The forests in the study area represent the "Southern Tropical Dry Deciduous" type. They are scattered in sheltered pockets of spurs and valleys and distributed unevenly.

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7)Temperature is high in summer and low in winter. Average mean temperature is 41 0 c and drop down temperature up to 9 0 c in the winter. But in the winter season mean average temperature is 28.5 0 c. The arrival of south- west monsoon in the district there is fall down in temperature (30 0 c to 40 0 c) and weather become pleasant. The average mean annual rainfall in the district is 578.8 mm. and the south part of Ahmednagar district it is only 366mm. In the study area average mean annual rainfall is decreasing as increasing years i . e. in 1991 (477mm), 2011 (406mm) and 2014 (382mm). The decreases average rainfall creates serious problem in study area. 8) In the tahesils of South Ahmednagar district percentage of population slightly decreased in 2001 (36.39) as compared to 1991 (36.57) population and again it is increased in 2011 (36.72) as compared with population percentage of 2001 census. In general all tahesils of study area have less population growth rate as compare with the average population growth rate of Ahmednagar district

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9. Population density of Ahmednagar district as well as in study area increasing continuously in all census year. Density of Ahmednagar district is increased by 69 persons per sq.km. in that last three decades. The density of Nagar tahesil is increased by 134 persons per sq.km. followed by Shrigonda (51), Jamkhed (46),Karjat (41) and Parner (33) persons per sq. km. in last three decades. Population density of Nagar tahesil is higher in every census year than district and respective tahesils . It is because Nagar tahesil comprises district headquarter and urban agglomeration as is growing rapidly compared to other tahesils of study area. 10. Declining sex ratio in study area is serious social and demographic problem. It is found that except Nagar tahesil all remaining tahesils of study area of the district shows declining sex ratio at the alarming rate. Within the study area all tahesils literacy rate is increases in every census year but still expect Nagar (86.35%) tahesil all tahesils has less literacy as compare to the district average (79.05%).

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11. In general it is found that in Ahmednagar distinct as well as in study area population engage in primary as well as secondary occupation shows declining trend and population engage in tertiary occupation shows increasing trend in every census year. But average percentage of population engaged in secondary occupation is declined rapidly as compared to primary occupation in 1991 (10.51), 2001(3.67) and in 2011 it is only 2.89 percent. 12.Road transport network is quite good, but except small portion of Nagar and Shrigonda tahesils all remaining tahesils could not connected by railway transport network because lack of railway lines. All rivers are seasonal rivers and can’t have big cannel there are lack of navigational waterways.

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13. From 1991 to 2011 in the selected watershed villages general the three villages namely Hiwrebajar (22.70 to 8.06), Ralegansiddi (31.43 to 2.07) and Chikhli (21.72 to 1.62) show rapid declining trend of population growth rate whereas village Taklikhandeswari and Rajuri shows fluctuating trend of population growth rate. Compare with population density of Ahmednagar district density of all ideal and model villages has less density during study period. It is found that decadal increase in population density is high from 2001 to 2011 as compare with increase in density from 1991 to 2001. As per increasing census year density of population also increased in all model villages. 14.Declining sex ratio is serious problem in all model villages. In 1991 Hiwrebajar (1026 Female’s /‘000’ Male) and Rajuri (1014 Female’s /‘000’ Male ) shows excess sex ratio and reaming all villages has less than average district sex ratio (949 Female’s /‘000’ Male). In general except Taklikhandeswari remaining model villages are showing depict and declining sex ratio from last three decades. Taklikhandeswari is only village which shows continuous improvement in sex ratio, but it is also not very good condition because still sex ratio of Taklikhandeswari (928 Female’s /‘000’ Male) is below the average sex ratio of the district (939 Female’s /‘000’ Male). All model villages are showing alarming situation of continuously declining sex ratio. About 0 to 6 age child sex ratio except Taklikhandeswari all villages shows rapidly declining child sex ratio from 1991 to 2011

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15. All model villages are showing continuously increasing trend of literacy rate. In general the literacy rate is increased from 1991 to 2011, but the growth rate of literacy is higher in-between 1991 to 2001 as compared 2001 to 2011 and it is noticed that it is always in favors of male population. 16.The average proportion of working population is increased in all model watershed villages. Among them the proportion of working population of Rajuri is the high (65.31%), where as the proportion working population of Taklikhandeswari is least (50.04%). it is observed that there is an increasing trend of working population from 1991 to 2011 due to watershed development and their allied developmental activities.

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17. From the study of household social conditions data it is clear that joint family system is dominant in study area. Among them Chikhli has highest (87.1%) and Ralegansiddi is lowest i.e. (40%) joint family households. In general it is found that the in all model watershed villages highest proportion of population consist of general category and only. 18.In all model watershed villages average percentage of Kesari ration card householders are higher (67.44) as compare to yellow (23.44) and white (9.12) ration cards. It indicates highest percentage of households has medium income and still near about ¼ households are in below poverty line and less percentage households has very high annual income. Generally it is found that improvement in income level of the villagers after watershed development.

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19. Dealing with type of houses, it is the favor of watershed development. Before watershed development 86.6 percent households have kaccha type of houses, but after watershed developments the value are showing positive result with the highest concentration towards pacca houses i.e.85.5 percent. 20.The Standard of Living Index (SLI) shows available facilities of the household in-between before and after watershed development. The SLI consists of three categories i.e. low, medium and high. It has favored of watershed development, by showing increases percentage of high SLI of average 3 percentages, medium SLI by 3.3 percent after watershed development. And decreased average percentage of low SLI 6.3 percentage. Generally all model villages’ shows improvement in low SLI to medium and high.

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21.Use of renewable energy resources is less in all model watershed villages. Average percentage use of bio gas is increased after watershed development up to 33.36. Still use of solar and wind energy is very less in all model watershed villages. Except these average percentage use of other energy resources is high i.e. 40.3 percent. On an average the use of traditional cooking fuel has decreased rapidly in all model watershed villages. After watershed development it is favored to LPG. 22.The Kitchen is described in three categories, separate room, inside room and open space, the statistics displays that before this program proportion of open Space was higher almost in all model villages followed by inside room; however after this Watershed Development this share moved towards the separate kitchen. The toilet facility shared of own, public and open field toilet, also improved due to the Watershed Development, as the absorption of people from open field progressed towards the own toilet .

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23.The proportion of average percentage of inherited ownership of land from parents (87.9) is very high and from purchased (11.5) and government (0.6) is very less. These figures indicate that villagers are able to maintain their standard of living from their own occupation. It is positive sign of development in the villages of the study region. The land possessed is also mentioned, where the villages Chikhli , Taklikhandeswari and Rajuri are the villages with higher proportion at more than 8 Acre land in possession, with the Ralegansiddhi favoring less than 5 Acre in possession. In general average percentage of 0 to 5 acre households land holders are high and followed by above 8 acres and in between 5 to 8 acre in the all model watershed villages 24.In all model watershed villages in the study area has high percentage of land under irrigation, followed by non-irrigation, barren and land under gavthan , land under forest. Land under forest cover is very less in all model watershed villages only situation is good in village Ralegansiddi as compare to remaining watershed villages. In general all model watershed villages from the agriculture land average 95.3 percent land is irrigated and only 4.7 percent land is non-irrigated. Among all villages the number of households having below 5 acres (61.5) irrigated land is more than remaining two categories i.e. 5 to 8 (21.2) and above 8 acres (17.3). Due to perennial source of water for irrigation the standard of living and economic condition of peoples are increased.

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25. The average percentage of rain water irrigation before watershed development in the model watershed villages was 43.9 percent, but after watershed development it decreased up to 5.8 percentages because of availability of other sources of water for irrigation and implementation of watershed development programmes . In general it is found that after watershed development the main source of water for irrigation is wells. The average percentage of bore well irrigation is very less due to ban on bore wells in the all model watershed villages. 26. In general before watershed development availability of water to the agriculture land is average 05 months and after successfully implementation of watershed development programmess it increased up to average 04 months and rises up to 09 months in a year in all model watershed of the study area.

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27.The trend of agriculture cultivation methods is shifting from bullock to tractor after watershed development. However, in village Chikhli it is very less. It is found that after watershed development the use of pesticides and fertilizers is almost doubled in all model watershed villages. 28 . Before watershed development in all villages produced average 2 crops in a year i.e. Kharip and Rabbi One crop in each, but after successful implementation of watershed programmes it increased by one in all villages except Chikhli .

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29. The pattern of agriculture productivity of model villages of south Ahmednagar District has been delineated with the help of Kendall’s method. Though watershed development takes places in village Rajuri but in agriculture productivity not shows any change in before and after watershed development. During both period of time Hiwrebajar comes under medium agriculture productivity index but drastic change found in village Ralegansiddi before watershed development it has in very low agriculture productivity but after watershed development it transforms in medium agriculture productivity. Village Chikhli shows inverse condition before watershed development it has medium agriculture productivity area but after watershed development it has in low agriculture area. Village Chikhli has increases its agriculture production but as compare sample selected villages rate of agriculture production is decreases due to temporal rainfall variation is low. Taklikhandeswari has shows same agriculture productivity before and after watershed development because in the surveyed year this village receiving very low annual average rainfall as well as production of fodder crops is increases as compare to remaining crops.

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30. Livestock is one of the important components of watershed management to manage the human resource. In all model villages has different type of livestock in sufficient quantity to per household for income generation and use of biotic fertilizers for the agriculture land. 31. In general among these model watershed villages’ two villages namely Hiwrebajar and Ralegansiddi has higher average percentage of migration and remaining three are less migration. It is not so because of development but due to physical location of them. Case of purpose of migration for services is highest, followed by business, education, labour and least migration in laborious purpose is found. This statics shows development of educational attainment, increasing standard of living, social awareness etc. of the model watershed villages due to increasing income from agriculture and their allied activity. In all model watershed villages shows duration of migration less than four month is higher than all season’s migration and highest percentage of migrant have monthly income more than 15000/- Rs.

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32. For management of rainwater harvesting, different structures are proposed for 25 village watersheds. Sites for continuous contour trenches are proposed along the contour which can control the loss of water and soil erosion and recharge the ground water as well as in the hilly reaches of village watersheds loose boulder structures (LBS) are suggested. 33. Farm ponds are proposed in upper part of hills and plateau reaches of village watersheds, because water to be out from it by siphon and it can save the electricity. But existing farm ponds made in fols region are not in use, so of lot of money and time is wasted with this practice. Ponds are useful for domestic and irrigation purposes. More numbers of ponds are proposed in the plateau reaches of village watersheds due to suitable sites. No suitable site is found for farm ponds in lower reaches.

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34. Earthen or cement check dams are proposed in the channels of river and tributaries where sites are suitable. Mainly check dams are suggested in the middle and lower part of all selected village watersheds and where bulge of water is high at least in the rainy season these check dams can be made by available soil and cements. 35. Suitable sites for percolation tanks are suggested in the respective watersheds. Percolation tanks are proposed where bed of tank in hard and many more streams are joining in this points and volume of water is high. Forth and third order of streams is suitable site for construction of percolation tank.

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Contribution to the Society 1 . Drinking and domestic water problem will solve in the drought prone area. 2.Peoples should know sustainable use of natural resources. 3.Socio-economic status of project beneficiaries is increased through this work 4. Awareness of demographic, social and economical problems is made in study area. 5.Environmental awareness and sustainable development of the area is possible by the present work.

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Recommendations 1.Due to reducing of vegetation cover in the study region huge land is exposed to face physical and anthropogenic activities and soil erosion has started, hence there is urgent need to preserve pasture land and forest cover. 2.Social awareness is necessary about several demographic characteristics such as declining sex ratio, high population growth rate, increasing dependency ratio etc. which creates several social problem. 3.For the increasing income of farmers establishment of agro-base occupations / industries and use of modern techniques in field of agriculture are necessary. 4.Farmer must be trained for additional income generation activities along with agriculture, such as dairy farming, hatchrich and poultry farm, nursery, goat rearing etc.

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References 1.Gulzar R.K., Jat B.C. (2008), Geography of Water Resource, Rawat Pubication , New Delhi. P.1 2. Nagarajan N. (2012), Watershed Management- A Multidimensional Approach, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Annamali University, Annamalainagar , India. P.1 3. Molden D. 2007, Water for Food, Water for Life, Earthscan , Londan and International Water Management Institute, Colombo. 4. Kular D. R. (2012), India-A Comprehensive Geography, Kalyani Publication, New Delhi. P. 554 5. Pray C.E.and Nagarajan L. (2009), Improving Crops for Arid Land – Pearl Millet and Soughum in India, International Food Policy, Washinton D.C. P.p. 83-88 6. Kerr J, Pangare G, Pangare VL and George PJ . (2000), An Evaluation of Dryland Watershed Development in India. EPTD Discussion Paper 68. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington, DC, USA. 7. Samra J. S. ( 1997), Status of Research on Watershed Management. Central Soil and Water Conservation Research and Training Institute, Dehradun , India. 8. Wani S P, Pathak P, Tan H M, Ramakrishna A, Singh P and Sreedevi T K. (2002 ), Integrated watershed management for minimizing land degradation and sustaining productivity in Asia. Pages 207-230 in integrated land management productivity in Asia, ( Zafar Adeel ed.). Proceedings of joint UNU-CAS International Workshop, Beijing, China, 8-13 September, 2001. 9. Dhamdare S. V. (2009), Maharashtrachi Jalsampada , Dimond Publication, Pune. P.p 1-32 10. Pokharkar D.V. (2013), A Study of Watershed Development Programme in Sangamner Taluka - A Geographical Analysis, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth , Pune. P.p. 3-20 11. Wani S. P. and Garg Kaushal . (2008), Watershed Mangement Concept and Principles International Crop Research Institute for Semi- Arid Tropics, Hydrabad . P.p1-4 12. Kerr J., Pangare G., George J. (2009), An Evalution of Dryland Watershed Development Project in India, EPTD Discussion P[ aper No.68, Environment Technology Division, International Food Policy Research Institue , Washington. D.C. 13. Pokharkar D.V. (2013), A Study of Watershed Development Programme in Sangamner Taluka - A Geographical Analysis, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth , Pune. P.14 14. Samual A., Paranjpe S., Peddi S., Adagale R., Deshpande P., and Kulkarni S. Watershed Development in Maharashtra – Present Scenario and Issues For Restructuring the Programme, Society For Promoting Participation Ecosystem Management, Pune P.p.6-7 15. Naik A.V. (2009), Watershed Management- A way of Sustainable Development, EPW Research Foundation, Mumbai. P.35 16. Wani S. P. and Garg Kaushal . (2008), Watershed Mangement Concept and Principles, International Crop Research Institute for Semi- Arid Tropics, Hydrabad . P.p1-4 17. O’ Sullivan P.E. and Reynold , (2004), The Lakes Handbook, Limology and Limnetic Ecology, Blackwell Publisher, Molden,USA . P.p.1-32 18. Hanson H.C. (1954), Dictonary of Ecology, Crown Publication, New York. 19. Nagarajan N. (2012), Watershed Management- A Multidimensional Approach, Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Annamali University, Annamalainagar , India. P.p.1-17 20. Sing R.V. (2003), Watershed Planning and Mangement , Yash Publishing House, Bikaner. P.p.1-8

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Plate no 1.1. Interaction with Hon. Popatrao Pawar , Karyadhksha , Aadarsha Gaon Project, Govt. of Maharashtra, regarding micro watershed management of Hivrebajar . Plate no. 1.2. Water Harvesting Structure (Percolation Tank) in Hivrebajar .

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Plate no 1.4. Interaction with Hon. Anna Hazare , great social worker at Ralegansiddi of Maharashtra, regarding micro watershed management. Plate no.1.5. Drinking water facility of village Ralegansiddi .

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