Herodotus

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Gondia Education Society's C.J. Patel College, Tirora , Dist.- Gondia 441911. Subject : THEOROTICAL AND APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Topic HERODOTUS Is presented by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar M.A., B.Ed., SET, NET, Ph.D., M.B.A . Head, Department of Geography C.J . Patel College Tirora .

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INTRODUCTION. In the ancient period geography grew out of explorations, mapping of the areas known and the speculation about the material collected. Different civilazation connected the geography concepts. The Greeks were Pioneers in many branches of knowledge. Their period is known as the ‘Golden age of Greek’. They borrowed many of the concepts of astronomy, geometry and mathematics from the Egyptians , chaladaeans and Assyrians. Between the 5 th and 3 rd century B.C, the Greek colonies were established in different parts of the Mediterranean sea and Euxine (Black Sea). In the 5 th century B.C, Miletus, owing to its location and the colonies on the Euxine, become the main centre of geographical enquiry.

HERODOTUS (485-425 B.C):

HERODOTUS (485-425 B.C) He was born at halicarnassus in the 5 th century B.C . He stayed at Athens . The main center of hellenic culture afterwards from athens in 433 B.C, He went to Thurii --- a town in south italy Herodotus wrote most of his works at Athens before leaving for Thurii , but these were completed at Thurii only. Herodotus was a great traveller and his contribution to Geography is highlyremarkeably as he wrote after making personal observation during many years of travel . Westward he visited Italy and though strait of Marmara and Bosphorus (Turkey) reached the Euxine Sea.

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Herodotus Works.- He was quite familiar with the coasts of Asia Minor ,as also with the island of the Aegean, the mainland of Greece. He was the ‘father of history’. According to of him ‘‘ All history must be treated geographically and all geography must be treated historically’’ . His work is an excellent example of historical geography. While describing the surface of the earth, he gave and interesting account of the then existing tribes and their life-styles. Anthropologists considers him as the foremost ethnographer. He belonged to the Pythagorean School of Philosophy and thus tried to establish a symmetrical correspondence in the distribution of land, and in the source, direction and course of the Ister (Danube) and Nile rivers. He believed that the sun driven southward out of its regular course by the winds at the approach of winter. He was the first scholar who tried to draw a meridian on the world map. He was familiar with the Arabian Sea, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean and believed in only two inland seas, one stretching northward and the second eastward from the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean respectively , i.e., Red Sea and the Mediterranean Sea. He tried to establish the relation between temperature and wind. He discribed ester ( Danube ) as the greatest river of world. He divided by world landmass.

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That is continent into three parts.- 1. Europe. 2. Asia. 3. Libia. After that he has divided three latitude zone. 1. Mediterranean coast. 2. Central area of wild beasts. 3. South to Sahara Desert. Herodotus has mention that in the desert of Sahara there are five oases, namely, 1. Ammonium (Siwah) 2. Augila 3. Garamantes 4. Atarantes 5. Atlantes

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