Contrubutions of Ritter

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Gondia Education Society's C.J. Patel College, Tirora , Dist.- Gondia 441911. Subject : THEOROTICAL AND APPLIED GEOGRAPHY Topic Contributions of Carl Ritter Is presented by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar M.A., B.Ed., SET, NET, Ph.D., M.B.A . Head, Department of Geography C.J . Patel College Tirora .


CARL RITTER Introduction:- One of the comtempories of Alexander Van Humboldt and scholar of diversify interests was Carl Ritter. He is also Known as one of the founders of modern geographical thought. He was a dedicated fieldworker and believed in empirical research. Moreover Ritter was a teleological. And had a strong belief in God in and an agnostic like Humboldt. Ritter had a vision of an ordered and harmonious universe. Thus, his approach was theological. As a teacher, he made it clear to his pupils how God’s plan was revealed in the harmony of man and nature.


CARL RITTER EDUCATION Ritter was born in 1779 . His father was a physician, who died when Ritter was only five years old. After gettint his early education in a school at Schnepfenthal near Gotha through non-formal methods, he was taught by G. Salzmann and Guts Maths. In 1814, Ritter joined the University fo Gottingen and studied Geography, History Pedagogy, Physics, Chemistry, Mineralogy and Botany. In 1818,Ritter was appointed as Professor of History at the University of Berlin. He founded the Berlin Geographical society. In 1859,he breathed his last the year in which Humboldt also expired and Darwin published his origin of species. Ritter, in his class lectures, emphasized the point that geography is not a dry gazetteer of names of places, rivers, mountains and trade routes.It is a subject of great important which deals with man-nature interrelationship. He developed the concept of ‘Unity in Diversity’.


Ritter declared geography to be ‘Erdkunde ’. or earth science. Which deals with local conditions and embraces the attributes of place with respect to topical, formal and material characteristics. The first attribute was topographical deals with natural divisions of the earth surface. The second included the distribution and movement of water, sea atmosphere and base of human life. The material conditions were described as the geographical aspect of natural history, this convert the distribution of minerals, plants and animals. Ritter was Teleogical :- As started above the scientific stance of Ritter was teleogical.Teleology seeks to understand events in relation to their underlying purposes.Teleological explanations are threfore often regarded as the opposite of mechanical explanations, where the phenomena and obervations are understand was outcomes of prime causes such as the ‘Laws Of Nature.’ Geography of ‘Erdkunde’ - Ritter

Ritter explain ,strong belief of God :- :

Ritter explain ,strong belief of God :- Ritter was influenced by W.F.Hegel (1970-1831).He studied the working of nature in order to understand the purpose behind its order. He view of science sprang from his firm belief in God as the planner of the universe. He did not regard the shape of continents as accidental, but rather as determined by God, So that their form and location enabled them to play the role designed by God for the development of human kind. Carl Ritter claimed that the conform principle of geography is " The relation of all phenomena and forms of nature to the human race.” He makes the rhetorical claim that geography as the science of earth reaches for beyond far real objectives, namely,the description of the earth as the home of man.

Principle of Unity in Diversity :-:

Principle of Unity in Diversity :- The fundamental principle evolved by Ritter was ‘Unity in diversity’. According to him, there is a fundamental unity in the biotic and abiotic components of habitat in which man sculptures his cultural environment. In such an approach, all the physical and cultural components of environment are taken into consideration and their interrelationship is established in understanding the geography of an areas unit. This is a regional approach. Unity of diversity means that every naturally bounded area is a unity in respect of climates production, culture, popuation and history, Ritter makes few deterministic observations. He seldom does more than repeat what Humboldt had already written and gives the same synthetically accounts of continents. The merit of Ritter’s work comes not from his description of the continents but from his ability to deduce these from a system of laws governing, “the concept of regional association of terrestrial phenomena at various levels over the earth surface.”

Die Erdkunde :- :

Die Erdkunde :- Ritter monumenta work is entitled as Erdkunde. It means that a comprehensive German word which stands for science of he earth in relation to nature and history. Ritter remarks that “the earth and its inhabitants stand in the closest reciprocal relations and one cannot be truly presented in all its relationships without the other. Hence, history and geography must always remains inseparable.” Land influences the inhabitants and in term the inhabitants transform the landscape. In Erdkunde, he advanced the theory of the north-west movement of civilization in Europe. Two volumes of Erdkunde :- The first two volumes of the Erdkunde were intended to be followed by a study of history. Between 1817 and 1859, he completed 19 Volumes of Erdkunde. But these volumes cover only Africa and parts of Asia.In spite of the fact that he lived long, he was not able to finish his work of Europe.


The major geographical concepts of Ritter may be summed up as follows. Ritter conceived geography as an empirical science rather than one based on deduction from rational principles o apriority theory. There is a coherence in the spatial arrangement of terrestrial phenomena. Boundary-line, whether wet or dry (such as rivers or mountains) were instrument for understanding the real purpose of geography which is understanding the content of areas. According to Ritter, geography was concerned with objects on the earth as they exist together in an area, He studied areas synthetically. Ritter holds a holistic view with respect to the content and purpose of geographic study, and the whole study was focused on and culminated in man.


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