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Morphometric Analysis of the Wainganga River.

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“Morphometric Analysis of the Wainganga River Basin Using Traditional & GIS Technique” Thesis Submitted to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur. For the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Under the Faculty of Social Science Geography by Nanabhau S. Kudnar Under Guidance of Dr. Devendra K. Bisen Principal M.B. Patel College, Deori, Gondia. :

“ Morphometric Analysis of the Wainganga River Basin Using Traditional & GIS Technique” Thesis Submitted to Rashtrasant Tukadoji Maharaj Nagpur University, Nagpur. For the award of the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy Under the Faculty of Social Science Geography by Nanabhau S. Kudnar Under Guidance of Dr. Devendra K. Bisen Principal M.B. Patel College , Deori , Gondia.

INTRODUCTION OF STUDY AREA:

INTRODUCTION OF STUDY AREA The Wainganga River rises at El 640.0 m near village Partabpur (21°57’N & 79°34’E ) Seoni District of Madhya Pradesh. The total river basin area- 49949.48 sq. km. Latitude extension- 19°30’N to 22°30 N’ Longitude extension- 79°00’E to 80°30 E’ It is joined by the Wardha River at a place called Gundapet ( Choprala ). Maharashtra Plateau. There after the river is known as Pranhita River. Total length of the Wainganga River is 638.91 km Madhya Pradesh- 270.2 km Maharashtra -336.17 km Travels Border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra- 32 km

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Importance of Study Area 1) High Source of Water 2) Hydropower 3) Navigation 4) Natural Recourses Area- MP- 45.3% Mah.-52.75% Chha.-1.94%

THE PROBLEMS OF STUDY AREA:

THE PROBLEMS OF STUDY AREA

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To study morphometric characteristics of the Wainganga River Basin. Preparing different thematic layers by utilizing the capabilities of GIS based on the satellite imageries viz., Aspect map, DEM, slope map, Land use map, Flood map, Geological map, change in river Morphometry map, relative relief map, etc. To identify the spatial and temporal changes in main channel of river basin. Analysis of meteorological data and preparation of spatial distribution maps of rainfall of various seasons of the study area. To apply advance Geographical techniques like RS and GIS for higher implementation accuracy and maximum benefits to the regional development. Comparing Morphometry analysis of traditional and GIS based method.

HYPOTHESIS:

HYPOTHESIS Complex geological structure of rocks in the study area has control over the orientation of streams at the sub- catchment scale. Drainage morphometric across the study area show different patterns that are controlled by a range of geological structure. Basin M orphometry depends on the configuration of surface and runoff characteristics. The cross-sectional area of the river channel increases with distance downstream.  Charging and Discharge of the Wainganga River basin differs in different seasons. Current management practices contribute to general environmental degradation in the basin. Residents of the basin have the will and capacity to manage their resources.

DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY:

DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY Segment Type of Data Centre Spatial Data Toposheets No. 55J , 55K, 55N, 55O, 55P , 56M , 64B, 64C, 64D, 65A. Survey of India, Scale 1:250000 Satellite Imagery– LANDSAT-8, OLI and TIRS dated- December- 2013. National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad (NRSC) Non-Spatial Data Soil Data, Metrological Data. Indian Society of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning - ISSLUP - Nagpur – India. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India http://www.nbsslup.in India Meteorological Department, Pune     Government of India Ministry of Water Resources. Central Ground Water Board.

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Methodology Data Collection Spatial Data Non Spatial Data Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Field Survey GPS Reading Toposheet Tehsil Cadastral Map Steatite Image Contour Map Drainage Map TIN DEM Slope Aspect Water Res. Report Soil Report Climatic Report Thematic Layer Analysis Statistical Analysis Demarcation of Flood Line Interpretation of all the outputs Flood Map

Physiographical Regions of the Wainganga sub-basin:

Physiographical Regions of the Wainganga sub-basin Sr. No. Region's Categories Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Mountain Region [Above 600m] 527600.9 5276.01 10.56% 2 Plateau Region [300 to 600m] 1694426 16944.26 33.92% 3 Plain Region [Below 300m] 2772922 27729.22 55.51% Total 4994948 49949.48 100%

Mean daily maximum temperature varies from 26o-30o C in July to 32o-33o C in October and show a general increase from north to south and from coast to up country in the west. The minimum daily temperatures varies month wise viz. 10° to 15°C in January, 22° to 26°C in August, 23° to 25°C in July and 18° to 22°C in October. :

Mean daily maximum temperature varies from 26 o -30 o C in July to 32 o -33 o C in October and show a general increase from north to south and from coast to up country in the west. The minimum daily temperatures varies month wise viz. 10° to 15°C in January, 22° to 26°C in August, 23° to 25°C in July and 18° to 22°C in October. Temperature of the Wainganga sub-basin

The Land use pattern of the Wainganga sub-basin:

The Land use pattern of the Wainganga sub-basin Sr. No. Land use/Land Cover Category Area (sq. km.) Total Geographical Area (%) 1 Dense Forest 8018.55 16.05 2 Sparce Vegetation 9994.97 20.01 3 Open Scrub 12995.75 26.01 4 Agriculture 8876.70 17.77 5 Settlement 897.19 1.80 6 Water Bodies 809.10 1.62 7 Barren Land 4318.96 8.65 8 Fallow Land 2676.20 5.36 9 Gravel Land 171.09 0.34 10 Rocky Land/ Open Space 1190.96 2.38 Grand Total 49949.48 100

Geology:

Geology Sr. No. Litholgy Lithology_Details Area (ha.) Area (sq.km.) Area in % 1 Pt3pg Painganga Group Gondwana Supergroup 126994.12 1269.94 2.54% 2 C?P1gt Kamthi and Talchir Formation Gondwana Supergroup 42005.05 420.05 0.84% 3 Agn Gneissic Complex Archaean 2406469.58 24064.70 48.18% 4 Pt1s Sakoli Group Palaeo Proterozoic 347819.60 3478.20 6.96% 5 Q Alluvium Quaternary 57757.42 577.57 1.16% 6 PTgk Maleri Formation Gondwana Supergroup 42372.24 423.72 0.85% 7 Czl Laterite Cainozoic 60328.57 603.29 1.21% 8 βK3Pgd Deccan Trap Cainozoic 106004.30 1060.04 2.12% 9 β KPgd Deccan Trap Uppar Cretaceous to Palaeogene 915725.65 9157.26 18.33% 10 λPt1n Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 51777.76 517.78 1.04% 11 αPt1n Rhyolite Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 27467.92 274.68 0.55% 12 γPt1d Dongargarh Granite Palaeo Proterozoic 367918.07 3679.18 7.37% 13 λPt1nb Rhyolite Bijli Formation Palaeo Proterozoic 25931.81 259.32 0.52% 14 KI Lameta Group Cretaceous 5003.31 50.03 0.10% 15 Pt12k Khairagarh Group PalaeoMeso Proterozoic 214538.17 2145.38 4.30% 16 γPt1m Malanjkhand Granite Palaeo Proterozoic 18376.16 183.76 0.37% 17 Pt1sa Sausar Group Palaeo Proterozoic 108498.74 1084.99 2.17% 18 Pmo Motur Formation Gondwana Supergroup 27759.61 277.60 0.56% 19 γPt1 Granite of Narmada-Son valley Palaeo Proterozoic 20259.77 202.60 0.41% 20 Pt12c Chilpi Group PalaeoMeso Proterozoic 21945.56 219.46 0.44%       4994953.40 49949.53 100%

HYDROLOGY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN :

HYDROLOGY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN

THE WAINGANGA RIVER SUB-BASIN:

THE WAINGANGA RIVER SUB- BASIN Sr. No. River Basin  Area (Sq. km)  Sr. No. River Basin  Area (Sq. km) 1 Ambi 830.37 15 Maru 727.90 2 Andhari 1223.88 16 Nahar 877.37 3 Bagh 2938.72 17 Pal 276.23 4 Bawanthadi 2161.79 18 Pathari 514.29 5 Chandan 1145.29 19 Pench 4717.86 6 Chulbund 2537.22 20 Phuar 429.91 7 Deo 840.32 21 Pohar 874.55 8 Gadhavi 1557.23 22 Sagar 1065.46 9 Haman 2078.26 23 Satti 830.85 10 Hira 1017.77 24 Son 1428.96 11 Kanhan 7640.26 25 Sur 1004.24 12 Kathani 932.73 26 Tipagsrhi 796.49 13 Khobragarhi 200.52 27 Wainganga 11160.66 14 Mal 140.39       Grand Total 49949.48      

LINEAR ASPECTS OF THE BASIN OR NETWORK ANALYSIS Strahler's scheme of Stream Ordering :

LINEAR ASPECTS OF THE BASIN OR NETWORK ANALYSIS Strahler's scheme of Stream Ordering Sr. No. Stream Order Total Stream 1 1 st 6502 2 2 nd 2190 3 3 rd 605 4 4 th 153 5 5 th 17 6 6 th 4 7 7 th 1 Total 9472

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BIFURCATION RATIO ( R b ) Is defined as a ratio of the number of streams of a given order (N) to the number of streams of the next higher order (N).

Meander Properties :

Meander Properties

AREAL ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN :

AREAL ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN GEOMETRY OF BASIN SHAPE According to Miller (1953), Basin Circularity ( Rc ) = Au/Ac Where Au= 4 x 3.14 x A Ac = square of perimeter For Wainganga River, Rc = 4 x 3.14 x 49949.68/ ( 1282.30)² = 627367.98 / 1644293.29 = 0.38 The value suggests that the basin is not elongated and tends more towards being circular.

RELIEF ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN :

RELIEF ASPECTS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN ABSOLUTE RELIEF It is a maximum elevation of a unit area. The Tamia hills are highest 1,148 m (3,765 feet) height above Mean Sea Level point in the study area.

Area-Height Break Up:

Area-Height Break Up Sr. No. Height Group (meters) Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Below- 280 2328467.3 23284.67 46.62% 2 281-480 1423869.4 14238.69 28.51% 3 481-680 653825.4 6538.25 13.09% 4 681-880 450538 4505.38 9.02% 5 Above 880 138184.024 1367.611 2.77% Total 4994884.1 49949.48 100%

Slope Area Distribution:

Slope Area D istribution Sr. No. Slope Class Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Gentle 2328467.3 23284.67 46.62% 2 Moderate 1423869.4 14238.69 28.51% 3 Stiff 653825.4 6538.25 13.09% 4 Steep 450538 4505.38 9.02% 5 Very Steep 124937.2 1249.37 2.50% 6 Extra Steep 11824.47 118.24 0.24% 7 Precipitous 1422.354 14.22 0.03% Total 4994884.1 49948.84 100%

RELATIVE RELIEFS:

RELATIVE RELIEFS Relative relief is difference between summit level, the highest altitude for a given area, and base level, lowest altitude for a given area . Total basin relief = H= ZH – ZL = Height of highest point – height of basin mouth = 1148 m – 140 m = 1008 m Relief ratio = R = H/ Lb = Total basin relief/ Length of basin = 1008 m / 297 km = 3.39

Relative Relief Area (Savinder Singh):

Relative Relief Area ( Savinder Singh) Sr. No. Class Category Area (ha.) Area (sq. km) Area in % 1 0-15 Extremely low relative relief - - - 2 15-30 Moderately low relative relief - - - 3 30-60 Low relative relief 26127.48 261.27 0.52% 4 60-120 Moderately relative relief 1432349.09 14323.49 28.69% 5 120-240 Moderately high relative relief 2895513.05 28955.13 58.00% 6 Above 240 High relative relief 638043.48 6380.43 12.78%

The Wainganga River Cross-section near Khairlangi in Balaghat (MP) :

The Wainganga River Cross-section near Khairlangi in Balaghat (MP) Sr. No. GPS Location Height (Mts.) Distance (Mts.) 1 N 21° 33.295’ E 079° 58.285’ 284 0 2 N 21° 33.308’ E 079° 58.311’ 282 98 3 N 21° 33.329’ E 079° 58.322’ 263 196 4 N 21° 33.340’ E 079° 58.334’ 263 294 5 N 21° 33.380’ E 079° 58.389’ 263 392 6 N 21° 33.528’ E 079° 58.436’ 288 490

Result of River Morphometry and Comparison between Traditional and GIS Method:

Result of River Morphometry and Comparison between Traditional and GIS Method Sr. No. Parameters Traditional Value GIS Value Difference 1 Total Stream 9472 9472 No 2 Mean Bifurcation Ratio (R b ) 3.97 3.97 No 3 Number of Streams Segments 5232.97 5232.97 No 4 length ratio (R L ) 1 1.0001 0.0001 5 Sinuosity Index 2.15 1.5 0.65 6 Absolute Relief 1,148 m 1,148 m No 7 Relative Relief 1008 m 1008 m No 8 Relief Ratio(R h ) 3.39 3.39 No 9 Drainage Density (D d ) (Km/Km 2 ) 0.64 km/km 2 0.66 km/km 2 0.2 km/km 2 10 Drainage Frequency(F s ) (Km) 2 0.16 streams/km² 0.19 streams/km² 0.3 streams/km² 11 Elongation Ratio 0.11 0.12 0.1 12 Basin Circularity Ratio 0.38 km 2 0.38 km 2 No 13 Length of the Basin (Km) 290 km 297 Km 7 km 14 Dissection Index 0.81 0.81 No 15 Area of the Basin (Km) 2 49949.48 sq.km. 49947.68 sq.km. No 16 Perimeter (Km) 1282.30 1282.30 No

Site No. 1: GPS Location- N 21° 32.371’ and E 079° 59.077’ Elevation 278 m. :

Site No. 1: GPS Location- N 21° 32.371’ and E 079° 59.077’ Elevation 278 m.

Tourism :

Tourism SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED IN THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN, BASED ON MORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS

Water Utilization :

Water Utilization State Projects Annual Irrigation (ha) Annual Utilization (MCM) Madhya Pradesh Major, 2 Nos. 116358 206.11 Medium, 20 Nos. 38690 267.46 Minors 28218 127 State Total 183266 600.57 Maharashtra Major, 10 Nos. 169252 2327 Medium, 31 Nos. 57936 278 Minor - 109024 928 State Total 336212 3533 Total up to Wainganga Site Major-12 Medium-51 Minor-410 and Traditional tanks -43,000. 519478 4133.57

3. Industries:

3. Industries Industrial Water Use Thermal Power Plant Sugar Industries Biomass Based Power Project Solar and Wind Energy Based Power project

4. NAVIGATION:

4. NAVIGATION Sr. No. Name of Taluka Location on the river Name of River No. of Ferry boats Current employment (2013) 1 Tirora Mundipar Wainganga 3 4 2 Brahmapuri Ladaj Wainganga 5 12 3 Brahmapuri Dighori Wainganga 8 18 4 Brahmapuri Itankolari Wainganga 9 10 5 Brahmapuri Tapal Wainganga 5 18 6 Brahmapuri Bhaleshwar Wainganga 9 21 7 Brahmapuri Kharkada Wainganga 11 12 8 Brahmapuri Mudza Wainganga 5 16 9 Kuhi Ambhora Wainganga 6 12 10 Tumsar Madgi Wainganga 2 6 11 Balaghat Khairlangi Wainganga 2 8 12 Lakhandur Donad Chulband 2 6 13 Lakhandur Khairna Chulband 1 6

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Sr. No. Name of Taluka Location on the river Name of River No. of Ferry boats Current employment (2013) 14 Saoli Kadholi Wainganga 14 24 15 Saoli Sonapur Wainganga 18 20 16 Saoli Donala Wainganga 11 24 17 Saoli Sirsi Wainganga 9 20 18 Saoli Ni.Pethgaon Wainganga 15 18 19 Saoli Vihirgaon Wainganga 13 19 20 Saoli Haramba Wainganga 11 20 21 Bhandara Kothurna Wainganga 1 7 22 Bhandara Korambi Wainganga 1 5 23 Bhandara Navegaonpipari Wainganga 4 12 24 Bhandara Ambhora Wainganga 6 18 25 Bhandara Jamgaonwadad Wainganga 2 6 26 Pauni Ranpavna Wainganga 1 7 27 Pauni Gulegaon Wainganga 1 8   Total     175 357

5. WATER FOR TOURISM:

5. WATER FOR TOURISM Agro-tourism in the Wainganga River Basin Eco-tourism Nagzira Wildlife Sanctuary Navegaon National Park Kanha National Park Pench National Park Tamia Hills

WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN :

WATER RESOURCES DEVELOPMENT AND MANAGEMENT PLAN Plan for development of Agriculture

2. Plan for Water Quality Assessment in the Wainganga River :

2 . Plan for Water Quality Assessment in the Wainganga River Sr. No. River Name Geographical Location Parameter Observation min-max 1 Wainganga River N 21 0 25.282’to E 079 0 52.501’ Mundipar Village- Tirora , Dist. Gondia pH 7.99-9.01 Dissolved Oxygen 4.16-6.10 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 4.40-7.09 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 20-36 Nitrate 0.29-2.16 Total coliform 52-132 2 Wainganga River N 21° 33.308’to E 079° 58.311’ Khairlangi- Balaghat. pH 7.02-8.81 Dissolved Oxygen 4.12-6.13 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 4.45-6.89 Nitrate 0.32-2.18 Total coliform 50-130

3. Flood Disaster Management Plan (DMP) Number of Villages affected by floods in the Wainganga River and its tributary.:

3. Flood Disaster Management Plan (DMP ) Number of Villages affected by floods in the Wainganga River and its tributary. Sr. No. District No. of Village Affected River Years of Major Flood 1 Nagpur 12 Wainganga, Maru, Kanhan 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 2 Bhandara 96 Wainganga 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 3 Gondia 30 Wainganga, Chulband, Bagh 1994, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 4 Chandrapur 90 Wainganga 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 5 Gadchiroli 54 Wainganga, Maru 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014 6 Balaghat 60 Wainganga, Dev, Soan and Bagh. 1992, 1994, 1998, 2001, 2005, 2007, 2014

Tourism :

Tourism IMPORTANCE OF TRADITIONAL WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION :

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION Analysis of Drainage Parameters The area height break-up indicates that a large proportion (46.62%) of the total area falls in altitudinal zone of below 280 meters followed by 281-480 meters (28.51%). Beyond these height-groups, the areal shares of the altitudinal zones decrease so much so that it is only 2.77% for above 880 meters. Slope map indicated Gentle to Precipitous slopes varying from 46.62 to 0.03 percent for the study area.

Analysis of drainage Morphometry :

It is 7 th order drainage basin and total stream 9472 that included 1 st 6502, 2 nd order 2190, 3 rd order 605, 4 th order 153, 5 th order 17, 6 th order 4 stream. Mean Bifurcation Ratio 3.97, Number of Streams Segments 5232.97, length ratio (R L ) 1.0001, Sinuosity Index 1.5 and drainage basin geometry shape mainly in sub dendritic to dendritic type. It is observed that the drainage density 0.66 and Drainage Frequency 0.19 value is low which indicates the basin is highly thick vegetative cover and permeable sub soil . Analysis of drainage Morphometry

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The Basin Circularity ratio 0.38 Elongation Ratio 0.12 reveal that the basin is strongly elongated and highly permeable homogenous geologic materials. The Tamia hills are highest 1,148 m (3,765 feet) height above Mean Sea Level point in the study area it means Absolute Relief is 1,148 m. This study would help the local people to utilize the resources for sustainable development of the basin area.

‘SWOT’ ANALYSIS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN:

‘SWOT’ ANALYSIS OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN Strengths of Study Area Water-surplus region falling in the category of Assured Rainfall Zone. There is good availability of groundwater in this study area. Presence of 43,381 traditional tank systems in the study area.

2. Weaknesses of Study Area :

2. Weaknesses of Study Area Poor standard of living of people due to lack of access to potable drinking water and sanitation. Low community confidence in government investments. Systems for coordinated and integrated reservoir operations, forecasting and disaster management plans and procedures to reduce the negative impact of floods are inadequate.

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Unavailability , irregular data collection and poor access to data, like as metrological data, irrigation data, ecological data etc. Dereliction and deterioration of Malguzari Tanks due to administrative problems leading to break down of traditional water management systems and socio-economic losses. Lack of communication, integration and coordination between the irrigation, agriculture and the forest, fisheries, tourism departments has lead to bottlenecks in project implementation, wastage in public investment and in fructuous investments.

3. Opportunities of Study Area :

3. Opportunities of Study Area Water Surplus region with great scope for increasing area under irrigation. Development of Gond Malguzari Tanks as a model for water management systems with the community as decision-makers and replication in similar areas. Scope for constructing series of barrage simultaneously providing irrigation facilities and maintenance of environmental flows.

4. Threats of Study Area :

4. Threats of Study Area Use of water resources for power generation without creating infrastructure for power distribution or adequate share of power for residents is a potential threat to social equity and justice. The increasing momentum of the Naxalite Movement is a threat to social stability and development.

RECOMMENDATIONS :

RECOMMENDATIONS Need for a River Conservation and Development Policy. Need for Exchange of Hydrological Data and Co-ordinated Action Plan for Flood Control. Recommendation for revival of Malguzari Tanks.

SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY :

SCOPE FOR FURTHER STUDY For evaluating the average rainfall for different sub basins, Theissen Polygon method may be adopted in place of arithmetic mean method. For more accuracy, the study may be carried out utilizing the toposheets of 1:50,000 scale. For computation of surface balance yield the stream wise balance may be calculated considering the order of hierarchy of the stream courses.

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Mathematical models can be developed for each sub basin based on hydrological, meteorological, geographical, ground water and morphological parameters. Flood forecasting models based on the above parameters of the catchment can be developed.

BIBLIOGRAPHY :

BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS Horton R.E. (1932): Drainage basin characteristics, Trans. Amer. Geophysics. U. Vol. 14 . Ion Zavoianu (1985): Developments in Water Science, 20, Morphometry of Drainage Basin, Second revised edition Published in co-edition by Editura Acdemiei , Bucharest, and Elsevier Science Publishers, Amsterdam . Singh Savindra (2009): Geomorphology, Prayag Pustak Bhavan Allahabad. Straher A.N. (1964): Quantitative geomorphology of drainage basins and channel networks, in Handbook of Applied Hydrology (edited by V.T. Chow). Straher A.N. (1969): Physical Geography, 3 rd edition, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

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Ph.D. Thesis Bhamare S. M. (1987): Geomorphic Analysis of Panzara Basin, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Savitribai Phule   Pune University, Pune . Hire P.S (2000): Geomorphic and hydrologic studies of floods in the Tapi basin, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, Savitribai Phule   Pune University, Pune . Kulkarni Savita (2011): Geomorphological study of rock bed and gravel bed channel: A case study of Dhul River Channel, Maharashtra. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth Pune. Joshi V.U. (1992): Late Quaternary Colluvial Stratigraphy, morphology and associated geomorphic features in the foot hill zones of western upland Maharashtra, Unpublished Ph.D. thesis Savitribai Phule   Pune University, Pune .

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RESEARCH PROJECTS Paranjpye Vijay (2011): Wainganga Planning for Water Resource Development, Research project published Gomukh Environmental Trust, Pune. pp. 61 -114. Paranjpye Vijay (2013): A Master Plan for Integrated Development and Management of Water Resources of Wainganga Sub- Basin", Research project published Gomukh Environmental Trust, Pune. pp. 10- 37 . GOVERNMENT PROJECT’S OTHERS

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THANKS……

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