Wainganga River Water Pollution

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Wainganga River Water Pollution

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“WATER POLLUTION A MAJOR ISSUE IN URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN” by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar Head, Department of Geography C.J. Patel College Tirora, Dist- Gondia. :

“ WATER POLLUTION A MAJOR ISSUE IN URBAN AREAS: A CASE STUDY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN ” by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar Head, Department of Geography C.J. Patel College Tirora, Dist - Gondia .

INTRODUCTION OF STUDY AREA:

INTRODUCTION OF STUDY AREA The Wainganga River rises at El 640.0 m near village Partabpur (21°57’N & 79°34’E ) Seoni District of Madhya Pradesh. The total river basin area- 49949.48 sq. km. Latitude extension- 19°30’N to 22°30 N’ Longitude extension- 79°00’E to 80°30 E’ It is joined by the Wardha River at a place called Gundapet ( Choprala ). Maharashtra Plateau. There after the river is known as Pranhita River. Total length of the Wainganga River is 638.91 km Madhya Pradesh- 270.2 km Maharashtra -336.17 km Travels Border between Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra- 32 km

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Importance of Study Area 1) High Source of Water 2) Hydropower 3) Navigation 4) Natural Recourses Area- MP- 45.3% Mah.-52.75% Chha.-1.94%

THE PROBLEMS OF STUDY AREA:

THE PROBLEMS OF STUDY AREA

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES:

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To explore the present position of municipal water supply (domestic). To examine ground water potentiality and hygiene quality of ground water. To examine the nature and consequences associated with inadequate water supply.

DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY:

DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY Segment Type of Data Centre Spatial Data Toposheets No. 55J , 55K, 55N, 55O, 55P , 56M , 64B, 64C, 64D, 65A. Survey of India, Scale 1:250000 Satellite Imagery– LANDSAT-8, OLI and TIRS dated- December- 2013. National Remote Sensing Centre, Hyderabad (NRSC) Non-Spatial Data Soil Data, Metrological Data. Indian Society of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning - ISSLUP - Nagpur – India. National Bureau of Soil Survey and Land Use Planning (NBSS & LUP), Indian Council of Agricultural Research, India http://www.nbsslup.in India Meteorological Department, Pune     Government of India Ministry of Water Resources. Central Ground Water Board.

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Methodology Data Collection Spatial Data Non Spatial Data Primary Secondary Primary Secondary Field Survey GPS Reading Toposheet Tehsil Cadastral Map Steatite Image Contour Map Drainage Map TIN DEM Slope Aspect Water Res. Report Soil Report Climatic Report Thematic Layer Analysis Statistical Analysis Demarcation of Flood Line Interpretation of all the outputs Flood Map

Physiographical Regions of the Wainganga sub-basin:

Physiographical Regions of the Wainganga sub-basin Sr. No. Region's Categories Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Mountain Region [Above 600m] 527600.9 5276.01 10.56% 2 Plateau Region [300 to 600m] 1694426 16944.26 33.92% 3 Plain Region [Below 300m] 2772922 27729.22 55.51% Total 4994948 49949.48 100%

Mean daily maximum temperature varies from 26o-30o C in July to 32o-33o C in October and show a general increase from north to south and from coast to up country in the west. The minimum daily temperatures varies month wise viz. 10° to 15°C in January, 22° to 26°C in August, 23° to 25°C in July and 18° to 22°C in October. :

Mean daily maximum temperature varies from 26 o -30 o C in July to 32 o -33 o C in October and show a general increase from north to south and from coast to up country in the west. The minimum daily temperatures varies month wise viz. 10° to 15°C in January, 22° to 26°C in August, 23° to 25°C in July and 18° to 22°C in October. Temperature of the Wainganga sub-basin

The Land use pattern of the Wainganga sub-basin:

The Land use pattern of the Wainganga sub-basin Sr. No. Land use/Land Cover Category Area (sq. km.) Total Geographical Area (%) 1 Dense Forest 8018.55 16.05 2 Sparce Vegetation 9994.97 20.01 3 Open Scrub 12995.75 26.01 4 Agriculture 8876.70 17.77 5 Settlement 897.19 1.80 6 Water Bodies 809.10 1.62 7 Barren Land 4318.96 8.65 8 Fallow Land 2676.20 5.36 9 Gravel Land 171.09 0.34 10 Rocky Land/ Open Space 1190.96 2.38 Grand Total 49949.48 100

Geology:

Geology Sr. No. Litholgy Lithology_Details Area (ha.) Area (sq.km.) Area in % 1 Pt3pg Painganga Group Gondwana Supergroup 126994.12 1269.94 2.54% 2 C?P1gt Kamthi and Talchir Formation Gondwana Supergroup 42005.05 420.05 0.84% 3 Agn Gneissic Complex Archaean 2406469.58 24064.70 48.18% 4 Pt1s Sakoli Group Palaeo Proterozoic 347819.60 3478.20 6.96% 5 Q Alluvium Quaternary 57757.42 577.57 1.16% 6 PTgk Maleri Formation Gondwana Supergroup 42372.24 423.72 0.85% 7 Czl Laterite Cainozoic 60328.57 603.29 1.21% 8 βK3Pgd Deccan Trap Cainozoic 106004.30 1060.04 2.12% 9 β KPgd Deccan Trap Uppar Cretaceous to Palaeogene 915725.65 9157.26 18.33% 10 λPt1n Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 51777.76 517.78 1.04% 11 αPt1n Rhyolite Nandgaon Group Palaeo Proterozoic 27467.92 274.68 0.55% 12 γPt1d Dongargarh Granite Palaeo Proterozoic 367918.07 3679.18 7.37% 13 λPt1nb Rhyolite Bijli Formation Palaeo Proterozoic 25931.81 259.32 0.52% 14 KI Lameta Group Cretaceous 5003.31 50.03 0.10% 15 Pt12k Khairagarh Group PalaeoMeso Proterozoic 214538.17 2145.38 4.30% 16 γPt1m Malanjkhand Granite Palaeo Proterozoic 18376.16 183.76 0.37% 17 Pt1sa Sausar Group Palaeo Proterozoic 108498.74 1084.99 2.17% 18 Pmo Motur Formation Gondwana Supergroup 27759.61 277.60 0.56% 19 γPt1 Granite of Narmada-Son valley Palaeo Proterozoic 20259.77 202.60 0.41% 20 Pt12c Chilpi Group PalaeoMeso Proterozoic 21945.56 219.46 0.44%       4994953.40 49949.53 100%

HYDROLOGY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN :

HYDROLOGY OF THE WAINGANGA RIVER BASIN

THE WAINGANGA RIVER SUB-BASIN:

THE WAINGANGA RIVER SUB- BASIN Sr. No. River Basin  Area (Sq. km)  Sr. No. River Basin  Area (Sq. km) 1 Ambi 830.37 15 Maru 727.90 2 Andhari 1223.88 16 Nahar 877.37 3 Bagh 2938.72 17 Pal 276.23 4 Bawanthadi 2161.79 18 Pathari 514.29 5 Chandan 1145.29 19 Pench 4717.86 6 Chulbund 2537.22 20 Phuar 429.91 7 Deo 840.32 21 Pohar 874.55 8 Gadhavi 1557.23 22 Sagar 1065.46 9 Haman 2078.26 23 Satti 830.85 10 Hira 1017.77 24 Son 1428.96 11 Kanhan 7640.26 25 Sur 1004.24 12 Kathani 932.73 26 Tipagsrhi 796.49 13 Khobragarhi 200.52 27 Wainganga 11160.66 14 Mal 140.39       Grand Total 49949.48      

LINEAR ASPECTS OF THE BASIN OR NETWORK ANALYSIS Strahler's scheme of Stream Ordering :

LINEAR ASPECTS OF THE BASIN OR NETWORK ANALYSIS Strahler's scheme of Stream Ordering Sr. No. Stream Order Total Stream 1 1 st 6502 2 2 nd 2190 3 3 rd 605 4 4 th 153 5 5 th 17 6 6 th 4 7 7 th 1 Total 9472

Area-Height Break Up:

Area-Height Break Up Sr. No. Height Group (meters) Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Below- 280 2328467.3 23284.67 46.62% 2 281-480 1423869.4 14238.69 28.51% 3 481-680 653825.4 6538.25 13.09% 4 681-880 450538 4505.38 9.02% 5 Above 880 138184.024 1367.611 2.77% Total 4994884.1 49949.48 100%

Slope Area Distribution:

Slope Area D istribution Sr. No. Slope Class Area (ha.) Area (Sq. Km) Area (%) 1 Gentle 2328467.3 23284.67 46.62% 2 Moderate 1423869.4 14238.69 28.51% 3 Stiff 653825.4 6538.25 13.09% 4 Steep 450538 4505.38 9.02% 5 Very Steep 124937.2 1249.37 2.50% 6 Extra Steep 11824.47 118.24 0.24% 7 Precipitous 1422.354 14.22 0.03% Total 4994884.1 49948.84 100%

Relative Relief Area (Savinder Singh):

Relative Relief Area ( Savinder Singh) Sr. No. Class Category Area (ha.) Area (sq. km) Area in % 1 0-15 Extremely low relative relief - - - 2 15-30 Moderately low relative relief - - - 3 30-60 Low relative relief 26127.48 261.27 0.52% 4 60-120 Moderately relative relief 1432349.09 14323.49 28.69% 5 120-240 Moderately high relative relief 2895513.05 28955.13 58.00% 6 Above 240 High relative relief 638043.48 6380.43 12.78%

The Wainganga River Cross-section near Khairlangi in Balaghat (MP) :

The Wainganga River Cross-section near Khairlangi in Balaghat (MP) Sr. No. GPS Location Height (Mts.) Distance (Mts.) 1 N 21° 33.295’ E 079° 58.285’ 284 0 2 N 21° 33.308’ E 079° 58.311’ 282 98 3 N 21° 33.329’ E 079° 58.322’ 263 196 4 N 21° 33.340’ E 079° 58.334’ 263 294 5 N 21° 33.380’ E 079° 58.389’ 263 392 6 N 21° 33.528’ E 079° 58.436’ 288 490

Site No. 1: GPS Location- N 21° 32.371’ and E 079° 59.077’ Elevation 278 m. :

Site No. 1: GPS Location- N 21° 32.371’ and E 079° 59.077’ Elevation 278 m.

Water Utilization :

Water Utilization State Projects Annual Irrigation (ha) Annual Utilization (MCM) Madhya Pradesh Major, 2 Nos. 116358 206.11 Medium, 20 Nos. 38690 267.46 Minors 28218 127 State Total 183266 600.57 Maharashtra Major, 10 Nos. 169252 2327 Medium, 31 Nos. 57936 278 Minor - 109024 928 State Total 336212 3533 Total up to Wainganga Site Major-12 Medium-51 Minor-410 and Traditional tanks -43,000. 519478 4133.57

Industries:

Industries Industrial Water Use Thermal Power Plant Sugar Industries Biomass Based Power Project Solar and Wind Energy Based Power project

Plan for Water Quality Assessment in the Wainganga River :

Plan for Water Quality Assessment in the Wainganga River Sr. No. River Name Geographical Location Parameter Observation min-max 1 Wainganga River N 21 0 25.282’to E 079 0 52.501’ Mundipar Village- Tirora , Dist. Gondia pH 7.99-9.01 Dissolved Oxygen 4.16-6.10 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 4.40-7.09 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 20-36 Nitrate 0.29-2.16 Total coliform 52-132 2 Wainganga River N 21° 33.308’to E 079° 58.311’ Khairlangi - Balaghat . pH 7.02-8.81 Dissolved Oxygen 4.12-6.13 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 4.45-6.89 Nitrate 0.32-2.18 Total coliform 50-130

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3 Kanhan River N 21 0 15.211’ to E 079 0 08.152’ pH 8.07-8.98 Dissolved Oxygen 4-6.9 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 5-9.8 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 26-38 Nitrate 0.37-3.9 Total coliform 50-280 4 Wainganga River – Ambhora. N 21 0 16. 315’ to E 079 0 10.115’ pH 7.64-8.93 Dissolved Oxygen 4.17-5.9 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 4-11.78 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 24-40 Nitrate 0.25-4.35 Total coliform 70-170

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5 Nag River   Bhandewadi Road Bridge. pH 7.45-8.80 Dissolved Oxygen 4.17-5.9 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 8-124.00 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 48.00-268.00 Nitrate 0.10-2.35 Total coliform 80-370 6 Pili River   Mankapur Bridge on Koradi Road. pH 6.47-8.80 Dissolved Oxygen 3.17-4.5 BOD (Biological Oxygen Demand) 8.80-160 COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) 24.00-290.00 Nitrate 0.12-2.10 Total coliform 90-395

WATER POLLUTION A MAJOR ISSUE IN URBAN AREAS:

WATER POLLUTION A MAJOR ISSUE IN URBAN AREA S Unauthorized Settlements Underutilized and under developed rivers and lakes: Sub optimal waste management system : Sewage is the biggest reason for Nag River pollution

High Rainfall and Flood in Nagpur :

High Rainfall and Flood in Nagpur Water Pollution

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION :

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION under-utilized river banks and edges poor condition of infrastructure lines on the river floods during monsoons dilapidated structures on river bank Bio-chemical oxygen demand increases In urban Area. Contributors of pollutants are residential areas and also a few industries contribute to organic load.

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THANKS……

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