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River Flow


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Gondia Education Society's C.J. Patel College, Tirora , Dist.- Gondia 441911. Subject : FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY Topic Flow And Types of Flow Is presented by Dr. Nanabhau S. Kudnar M.A., B.Ed., SET, NET, Ph.D., M.B.A . Head, Department of Geography C.J . Patel College Tirora .


Introduction The area drained by a particular river & its tributaries is known as river or drainage basin. Flow means, in general, the route followed by a river in a particular direction.


TYPE OF FLOW There are four types of flow they are:- Steady & unsteady flow Uniform flow steady non uniform flow Unsteady flow

Types of flow:

Types of flow Steady and unsteady flow: Time is criterion for this type of flow. Flow is said to steady if the depth of flow is at a particular point does not change. The flow is unsteady when depth changes with time.


Uniform flow: Here space is a criteria. In this type of flow, depth and velocity of the flow are same at every section of the channel. It occurs when gravity force and resistance force are in equilibrium.


Steady non- uniform flow: In this type of flow, depth varies with distance but not with time. This may varied gradually or rapidly. unsteady flow: this is most common type of flow in which depth varies with time and space which requires the solution of energy momentum and friction equation with time.

Regimes of Flow:

Regimes of Flow If we plot the velocity profile of a river, that is curve showing how the flow velocity varies with the depth. There are mainly two types of velocity profile: i ) Laminar flow regime ii) Turbulent flow regime.

Laminar flow:

Laminar flow It is rare in natural river but can occur when the river channel is smooth and straight and maximum flow velocity is low and occur in the lower course of a river. Water flows smoothly in sheet parallel to river bed. Water at surface flow is faster than to the river bed.

Turbulent flow:

Turbulent flow It is common type of flow and occurs in complex winding channels and in rivers with riffle and pool. Flow is not calm but swirls about in chaotic eddies. Flow velocity is farter at surface than channel bed.

Stream energy:

Stream energy The ability of a stream to erode and transport is related to the force exerted by flowing water on the channel bed and wall. The force per area is known as boundary shear stress ( τ ). It is measured in Newtons per square of channel boundary(Nm -2 )

Stream energy-boundary shear stress:

Stream energy-boundary shear stress τ = YRS Where, Y= weight of water R= hydraulic radius S= slope For most channel often mean depth(d) is substituted for radius(R).


REFERENCES Introduction to geomorphology - vishwas Kale -A. Gupta Geomorphology - Savindra Singh



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