Vapor Absorption Heat Pump - Basics ppt

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Working Principle of a Vapour Absorption Machine

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VAPOUR ABSORPTION MACHINES Presented by - Cooling Division – C&H SBU - Thermax

Welcome to the home of Energy & Environment:

Welcome to the home of Energy & Environment W e have tried to answer the following questions, so that, it would help you understand the product in a much easier way. Who are you and what do you do? What is Cooling and what are the conventional methods of cooling? How does an Electrical Chiller work? When should one go for an Absorption Chiller and how did a VAM evolve in Thermax? Why should one go for an Absorption Chiller? What are the governing principles of a VAM? How does an Absorption Machine work? What makes Thermax VAMs more unique and reliable? What do we offer and where we can/have offered? What do those Abbreviations mean? I have more queries, how can I get them cleared? How can we reach you? Who has certified us?

Who are you and what do you do?:

Who are you and what do you do? Vision – To be a globally respected high performance organization offering sustainable solution in energy and environment Boilers & Heaters Absorption Cooling Water & Waste Solutions Air Pollution Control Chemicals Cogeneration

What is Cooling and what are the conventional methods of cooling?:

What is Cooling and what are the conventional methods of cooling? Cooling – Transfer of heat from source to sink by performing an external work; even a body @ -272*C has one more degree of heat energy to be removed to achieve absolute zero (i.e.), 0*K (or) -273*C 1 TR = 3024KCal = 3.52KW = amount of energy released by 1ton of ice , when it melts to water, at 0*C CONVENTIONAL METHODS OF COOLING: Natural Refrigeration E.g., Clay water pot, Sweating Mechanical Refrigeration Gas Refrigerators Vapour Refrigerators Vapour Compression Vapour Absorption

How does an Electrical Chiller work?:

How does an Electrical Chiller work? Parts & Process involved: Evaporator - Refrigerant Vapourization Compressor - Refrigerant (Vapour Phase) Compression Condenser - Refrigerant ---> Vapour to Liquid Expansion Valve - Pressure Reducer / Throttling Valve – To help refrigerant achieve the required Temperature

When should one go for an Absorption Chiller and how did a VAM evolve in Thermax?:

When should one go for an Absorption Chiller and how did a VAM evolve in Thermax? We would go for an Absorption Chiller: When excess heat source is available, for e.g., availability of excess steam in a boiler When Heat is ineffectively dissipated into the atmosphere, for e.g., exhaust from a D.G, steam from a turbine outlet When the operational expenditure of VAM is very much lesser than the VCM, for e.g., when the industry is facing issues with power supply from the grid (high cost/frequent power cuts) When the production cost of steam is almost negligible, for e.g., In sugar plants, they have a co-gen power plant by using the baggasse (a by-product of the process) Evolution of VAM technology in Thermax: 1984-87 – Marketing tie-up with Sanyo, Japan 1988-94 – Technology collaboration with Sanyo, Japan 1991-96 - Direct Fired – Technology tie-up – Kawasaki Till Date – Installed over 3000 Machines in over 50 Countries 92% + Market Share in India

Why should one go for an Absorption Chiller?:

Why should one go for an Absorption Chiller? We should go for an Absorption Chiller, because: It is a simple Heat Exchanger operating at different pressures, hence, we can assure that it has an unmatched Reliability It has a very less operating and maintenance cost, along with an automatic and step-less modulation system It does not have any moving parts, hence, no noise, no vibration and no dynamic load (Roof-top positioning is possible) Waste heat is utilized usefully and in-turn, avoids the need for switching to a HT connection and also avoids a DG running especially for the chilling purpose (the load on EB power and DG is reduced to a huge extent) It operates on an environment friendly refrigerant (i.e.), CFC free, ozone friendly machine It is fully automated, hence, we require minimal amount of human intervention

What are the governing principles of a VAM?:

What are the governing principles of a VAM? Working Materials – Thermax VAM Refrigerant – DM Water Salt – Lithium Bromide (LiBr) Inhibitor – Lithium Molybdate ( Moly ) Performance Booster – Octyl Alcohol Boiling Point of Water is directly proportional to the Vapour Pressure of the system @atm. Pressure (760mm of Hg) – Water boils @100*C In VAM, we maintain a shell pressure of 6mm of Hg, which facilitates the water to boil @3.7*C Hygroscopic nature of Salt As we need to separate salt and water, it has to have a higher Vapour pressure difference, hence, we use LiBr as the salt solution The operating concentration of LiBr lies between 57-64% in Water

How does an Absorption Machine work?:

How does an Absorption Machine work? Parts & Process involved: Evaporator – Refrigerant Vapourization Absorber – Refrigerant (Vapour) – Absorption by Absorbent Generator – Regeneration of Refrigerant & Absorbent Condenser – Liquefaction of Refrigerant Totally we have 2 Shells: Lower Shell – Evaporator and Absorber Upper Shell – Generator and Condenser

PowerPoint Presentation:

Evaporator (Left Chamber) – Vapourization of Refrigerant – Heat Removal from Chilled Water

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Absorber (Right Chamber) – Absorption of Refrigerant by absorbent – Heat added to Cooling Water

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Generator(Top Right Chamber) - Regeneration of Refrigerant & Absorbent - Heat addition to Dil. Salt Soln.

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Condenser(Top Left Chamber) - Condensation of Refrigerant - Heat transfer to Cooling Water

What makes Thermax VAMs more unique and reliable?:

What makes Thermax VAMs more unique and reliable? Step-less Modulation - for a cooling load of 10 to 100%, the heat input can be modulated without any drop in Efficiency Crystallization free m/c - pro-active, anti-crystallization mechanism is provided instead of a Reactive Auto de-crystallization mechanism using Online Concentration Control setup Split Evaporator Design - twin-evaporator is provided to improve the COP of the machine by 5% and capacity by 10% SS 430 Ti Generator Tubes - straight; plain; Titanium stabilized; Ferritic; Stainless Steel tubes in the HTG, to avoid the failure of generator tubes due to the presence of high temperature and concentration Canned Motor Pumps - the impeller and the motor are packaged in a single shell, bolted construction Distributor Tray - gravity feed mechanism is paired up with the distributor tray (nozzle is avoided) for the spray system

What makes Thermax VAMs more unique and reliable?:

Advanced Series Flow: In a double effect machine, we split the flow of the dil. LiBr into two different paths. One line would flow through LTHE, HTHE and then flows to the HTG, whereas, the other line flows through the DHE and HR and mixes into the first line before reaching the HTG, in order to have a maximum utilization of the heat input. The LTHE gets heated by the incoming Abs. spray line, the HTHE gets heated by the Intermediate solution coming out of the HTG, the DHE gets heated by the Vapour coming out of the LTG and the HR gets heated by the steam coming out of the HTG. Thus, we can say that, Thermax VAMs have minimum amount of heat loss What makes Thermax VAMs more unique and reliable? Variable Flow Drive: VFD modulates the frequency input to the Abs. Pump, based on the Generator level, which subsequently avoids 1) frequent ON/OFF of Abs. Pump – reduction in heat exchanger life 2) excess heat input during part load conditions

What do we offer and where we can/have offered?:

What do we offer and where we can/have offered? We offer, Steam Fired VAM – 50 to 3500TR Exhaust Fired VAM – 50 to 3500TR Direct Fired VAM – 50 to 3000TR Hot Water Fired VAM – 50 to 1150TR We had offered to, Breweries & Distilleries Chemical Industry Commercial Centers Dairy & Confectionary Educational Institutions Engineering & Electronic Industry Hotels & Hospitality Medical Centers P aper Plants Pharmaceuticals Power Plants Refineries & Petro-chemicals Steel Plants Super Markets & Malls Combination of two or three heat sources are possible: COGENIE or TRIGENIE

What do those Abbreviations mean?:

What do those Abbreviations mean? Abs. COP *C DG HT HTG HTHE Kg/scm LTG LiBr LTHE m/c SS SCV TR VAM VCM Absorbent Co-efficient Of Performance degree Celsius Diesel Generator High Transmission High Temperature Generator High Temperature Heat Exchanger kilogram/square centimeter Low Temperature Generator Lithium Bromide Low Temperature Heat Exchanger machine Stainless Steel Steam Control Valve Tonnage of Refrigeration Vapour Absorption Machine Vapour Compression Machine

I have more queries, how can I get them cleared?:

I have more queries, how can I get them cleared? Thank you for your patient viewing & hearing We hope that we have answered the questions which may rise, when you think of an absorption machine. If you have any of the feasible scenarios for an absorption machine, we are always on your search-list. We would be very much delighted to work in one- breath with you for a greener, energy efficient future For anymore queries, please feel free to contact the respective regional sales engineer or visit www.thermaxindia.com and post your query The contact details are given below

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