Renewable sources of energy

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physics Project:

physics Project Alternative or Non-Conventional Sources of Energy

By- Nalin Khurb X-B 10:

By- Nalin Khurb X-B 10 Project submitted to Harshit Sir

Acknowledgement:

Acknowledgement This is to certify that this project has been made in strict guidance of our Physics teacher, Mr. Harshit Sir. Also I have learned many new things and great facts during the making process of this project.

Index:

Index What are Alternative Sources? What is the need? Solar Energy How does Solar Energy work? Applications Of Solar Energy. Tidal Energy. Working Of Tidal Turbines. Wave Energy.

Slide 5:

9. Ocean Thermal Energy. 10. Working Of Ocean Thermal Energy. 11. Geo-Thermal Energy. 12. Working of Geo-Thermal Power Plant. 13. Nuclear Energy. Working Of a Nuclear Reactor. Conclusion.

Slide 6:

What are alternative sources of energy???

Slide 7:

An alternative source of energy is the source of energy that provides an alternative to the existing energy source i.e., fossil Fuels.

What is the NEED for alternative sources of energy???:

What is the NEED for alternative sources of energy???

Slide 9:

The fossil fuels that we use today will get exhausted after a period of few decades. The existing sources of energy pose a threat to our environment. They release harmful greenhouse gases that results in global warming. Today not all existing sources provide us with value for money. E.g.:- the gasoline that we use in cars is only utilized to around 25% rest all is wasted in the form of toxic gases. This proves that the sources of energy present today do not show our planet’s brighter future.

Solar energy:

Solar energy Solar energy is the energy which we get from the sun and it can be in two forms. Either by directly using it to heat a substance or indirectly heating a substance and using the heat afterwards. It is a type of renewable source of energy and does not pollute the environment. Electricity can also be produced with the help of solar energy by using solar cells.

Slide 11:

They are made of single-crystal silicon and silver which make them expensive. They can surely be the future source of energy.

How does solar energy work???:

How does solar energy work??? Solar cells are also called photovoltaic. When the light strikes the semiconductor {solar cell} then much of it is absorbed so therefore the energy reaches the semiconductor and it strikes the free electrons present in it which make them move. The biggest drawback for solar energy is that it cannot be used in the night or in a cloudy weather. To overcome this problem some devices such as street lights charge their batteries in the daytime and spent the charged energy in the night. Similarly it can happen in the case of traffic signal lights.

Applications of solar energy:

Applications of solar energy Solar lamps. Street lights. Orbiting Satellite. Calculators. Traffic signal lights. Solar geyser. Solar cooker. A solar cell

Tidal Energy:

Tidal Energy It is a form of hydro-electricity that we get from the tides. It can be used to produce electricity. Although its practical use requires a much greater investment but it can be called as the fuel of the future. The major disadvantage of tidal energy is that it is limited to coastal areas and that to receiving high and low tides. Also, a small proportion of fish may enter the turbine area and get killed. Ecologists have shown their concerns regarding this.

Working of Tidal Turbines :

Working of Tidal Turbines When the water level increases during the high tide then the water enters the empty chambers rotating the turbine. When the water level decreases during a low tide then also it rotates the turbine as shown in the figure above.

Wave Energy:

Wave Energy Wave power devices extract energy directly from the surface motion of ocean waves or from pressure fluctuations below the surface.

Ocean thermal energy:

Ocean thermal energy Ocean thermal energy uses the temperature difference that exists between deep and shallow waters to run a heat engine. As with any heat engine, the greatest efficiency and power is produced with the largest temperature difference.

Working of Ocean Thermal Energy Plant:

Working of Ocean Thermal Energy Plant The heat of the warm water near the surface of the water is used to boil a substance{R-134a} with a lower boiling temperature. The vapors of the substance are used to turn a turbine. Water from the deep is pumped with a help of a pump. This condenses the substance which is again vaporized by warm water and so the cycle continues.

Geothermal energy:

Geothermal energy Geothermal energy is generated in the Earth's core. Temperatures hotter than the sun's surface are continuously produced inside the Earth by the decay of radioactive particles present in the core of the Earth. It is a completely clean source of energy. It also does not have any harmful environmental impacts.

Working of a Geothermal Power Plant:

Working of a Geothermal Power Plant In the first step the water is pumped into a well that is 1 to 2 kms deep where the temperature of water becomes to 500-700 degree Celsius. This water comes out of the output pipe as steam. The steam is then sent to the turbine which produces electricity. The condenser then condenses the steam and the water is pumped into the well. So like this the cycle continues and continuously electricity gets produced.

Nuclear Energy:

Nuclear Energy When the nucleus of a heavy atom is bombarded with light neutrons, they split up and further strike with each other. This splitting up of atoms is called as nuclear fission. This starts a chain reaction in which a large amount of heat and light is produced. This type of energy is called as nuclear energy. Nuclear energy requires the use of radioactive elements such as uranium, plutonium and thorium. These elements are not easily available in the environment. Nuclear reactors are the plants in which nuclear reaction takes place.

Disadvantages of using Nuclear Energy:

Disadvantages of using Nuclear Energy There are many security as well as environmental concerns regarding the use of radio-active elements as a source of energy. The by products after a nuclear reaction if not disposed of properly can cause nuclear radiation. In a nuclear meltdown, when the nuclear fission reaction goes out of control can lead to nuclear explosion and the release of great amounts of radiation. Nuclear reactors only last for about 40 – 50 years.

A schematic diagram to show how a nuclear reactor works?:

A schematic diagram to show how a nuclear reactor works?

Working of a Nuclear Reactor:

Working of a Nuclear Reactor When the water reaches the core of the reactor where the radio-active element and the control rods are present, it becomes hot and starts to vaporize. This vapor is used to run the turbine which is connected to the generator to produce electricity. The vapor is then condensed by a condenser. The condensed vapor again enters the reactors core and the process continues.

Conclusion:

Conclusion Although all the alternative sources are not totally environmentally friendly. But they can surely provide us with energy when the fossil fuels gets exhausted, which will happen in the near future.

Bibliography:

Bibliography Encyclopedia. NCERT Book. Discovery Channel. Internet. Thank You