Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher -NCTA 2011

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Slide 1:

Emergency Vehicle Driving Firefighters Annual Refresher Training

Emergency Vehicle Response Operations Safety Program:

Emergency Vehicle Response Operations Safety Program Instructor: Battalion Chief Dennis Hohl, Black Jack Fire Protection District

Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course Goals:

Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course Goals Review the necessary emergency vehicle drivers competency skills course. Review the current and applicable traffic laws and fire service best safety practices for emergency vehicle drivers. Review the Physics and Dynamics associated with the driving and operation of fire apparatus under all conditions.

Emergency Vehicle Response Operations Course Objectives:

Emergency Vehicle Response Operations Course Objectives Objectives Understand the goal of this emergency vehicle driver training program. Recognize the importance of an emergency vehicle driver training program. Identify the elements of a comprehensive emergency vehicle driver training program

Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course:

Missouri State Law Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations Extent of the Problem: Case Studies Necessity of SOGs V. Emergency Vehicle Driving Dynamics Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course

Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course:

Missouri State Traffic Ordinances and the operation of Emergency Vehicles Missouri Revised Statutes Chapter 304, Traffic Regulations Section 304.022, August 28, 2005 Emergency Vehicle Driver Refresher Course

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law:

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law CDL requirements Exemptions granted to emergency vehicle drivers Requirements for members of the public

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law:

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law Emergency vehicle drivers are subject to state vehicle laws unless a specific exemption exists. Exemptions apply only to true emergencies. Emergency vehicle drivers can and have been found criminally and / or civilly liable for their actions while operating emergency vehicles.

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law:

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law 5. (1) The driver of any vehicle referred to in subsection 4 of this section shall not sound the siren thereon or have the front red lights or blue lights on except when such vehicle is responding to an emergency call or when in pursuit of an actual or suspected law violator, or when responding to, but not upon returning from, a fire. (2) The driver of an emergency vehicle may: Park or stand irrespective of the provisions of sections 304.014 to 304.026*; (b) Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation; (c) Exceed the prima facie speed limit so long as the driver does not endanger life or property;

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law:

Emergency Vehicle Driving under Missouri State Law (d) Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions. (3) The exemptions granted to an emergency vehicle pursuant to subdivision (2) of this subsection shall apply only when the driver of any such vehicle while in motion sounds audible signal by bell, siren, or exhaust whistle as may be reasonably necessary, and when the vehicle is equipped with at least one lighted lamp displaying a red light or blue light visible under normal atmospheric conditions from a distance of five hundred feet to the front of such vehicle. 6. No person shall purchase an emergency light as described in this section without furnishing the seller of such light an affidavit stating that the light will be used exclusively for emergency vehicle purposes. 7. Violation of this section shall be deemed a class B misdemeanor.

Brief Review of Missouri State Laws for Emergency Vehicle Operators:

Brief Review of Missouri State Laws for Emergency Vehicle Operators 2. The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle may: (1) Park or stand , irrespective of the provisions of this ordinance; (2) Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign , but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation; (3) Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as he does not endanger life or property; (4) Disregard regulations governing direction of movement or turning in specified directions.

These provisions do not eliminate an emergency vehicle driver’s responsibility from exercising DUE REGARD for the safety of all persons.:

These provisions do not eliminate an emergency vehicle driver’s responsibility from exercising DUE REGARD for the safety of all persons. 4. The foregoing provisions shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of all persons , nor shall such provisions protect the driver from the consequences of his reckless disregard for the safety of others.

Seat Belt Use is Required by Missouri State Law. This includes Fire Apparatus and Ambulances:

Seat Belt Use is Required by Missouri State Law. This includes Fire Apparatus and Ambulances 307.178. 1. As used in this section, the term "passenger car" means every motor vehicle designed for carrying ten persons or less and used for the transportation of persons; except that, the term "passenger car" shall not include motorcycles, motorized bicycles, motor tricycles and trucks with a licensed gross weight of twelve thousand pounds or more. 2. Each driver, except persons employed by the United States Postal Service while performing duties for that federal agency which require the operator to service postal boxes from their vehicles, or which require frequent entry into and exit from their vehicles, and front seat passenger of a passenger car manufactured after January 1, 1968, operated on a street or highway in this state, and persons less than eighteen years of age operating or riding in a truck, as defined in section 301.010, RSMo, on a street or highway of this state shall wear a properly adjusted and fastened safety belt that meets federal National Highway, Transportation and Safety Act requirements; except that, a child less than four years of age shall be protected as required in section 210.104, RSMo. No person shall be stopped, inspected, or detained solely to determine compliance with this subsection. The provisions of this section shall not be applicable to persons who have a medical reason for failing to have a seat belt fastened about their body, nor shall the provisions of this section be applicable to persons while operating or riding a motor vehicle being used in agricultural work-related activities. Noncompliance with this subsection shall not constitute probable cause for violation of any other provision of law.

Sgt. Al Notham, Missouri State Highway Patrol:

Sgt. Al Notham, Missouri State Highway Patrol Questions / Discussion

Five Categories of Emergency Vehicle Drivers Requirements:

Five Categories of Emergency Vehicle Drivers Requirements 1. State motor vehicle and traffic laws Missouri Revised Statutes Chapter 304, Traffic Regulations 2 . Nationally recognized standards NFPA, IAFF, USFA, IAFC, VFIS 3. State and federal occupational and safety regulations NIOSH, OSHA, DOT

Five Categories of Emergency Vehicle Drivers Requirements:

Five Categories of Emergency Vehicle Drivers Requirements 4. Local ordinances City and County Ordinances 5. Organizational policies, procedures, and guidelines Your Fire District SOP / SOG

What Organizations are involved in Emergency Vehicle Response Safety?:

What Organizations are involved in Emergency Vehicle Response Safety?

International Association of Fire Chiefs:

International Association of Fire Chiefs

Federal Emergency Management Agency and International Association of Firefighters:

Federal Emergency Management Agency and International Association of Firefighters International Association of Fire Fighters Division of Occupational Safety Health, and Medicine

Volunteer Firemens Insurance Services:

Volunteer Firemens Insurance Services

International Association of Fire Chiefs:

International Association of Fire Chiefs

United States Fire Administration:

United States Fire Administration

Fire Department Safety Officer Association:

Fire Department Safety Officer Association

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health:

National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health

Occupational Safety and Health Administration:

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute:

Maryland Fire and Rescue Institute

Firefighter Close Calls.Com:

Firefighter Close Calls.Com

Firehouse Magazine and Firehouse.Com:

Firehouse Magazine and Firehouse.Com

Slide 29:

Take a 10 Minute Break

Be back in 8 Minutes…:

Be back in 8 Minutes…

We start again in 6 minutes… :

We start again in 6 minutes…

You have 4 minutes left …:

You have 4 minutes left …

We start again in 2 Minutes..:

We start again in 2 Minutes..

Importance of Emergency Vehicle Driver Training:

Importance of Emergency Vehicle Driver Training All emergencies involve vehicle response. 25% of firefighters killed are responding to or returning from incidents. Drivers being criminally charged. Driver training program demonstrates the organization’s commitment to safety.

Driver/Operator Training:

Driver/Operator Training All driver/operators must meet the requirements of NFPA 1002 Must be a formal training program on the exact types of apparatus that will be driven in the field Departments should consider requiring CDLs to ensure at least a minimal level of training

Extent of the Problem:

Extent of the Problem Objectives of this course: Understand the complexities of driving under emergency conditions and the existence of laws governing an emergency vehicle. Recognize the high incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles and the associated deaths and injuries.

Extent of the Problem:

Extent of the Problem Know the types, conditions, and causes of accidents involving emergency vehicles. Recognize the factors that contribute to the incidence of accidents involving emergency vehicles.

Keep things in Perspective:

Keep things in Perspective A Common Misconception: …to rely solely on the fact that there are laws governing emergency vehicle response and that this will insure a safe emergency vehicle response.

On-Duty Firefighter Deaths 1977 - 1999:

On-Duty Firefighter Deaths 1977 - 1999 Source: U. S. F.A, Annual Firefighter Fatality Studies 1977-99 * NFPA Journal

Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Frequency of Accidents:

Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Frequency of Accidents 45% 13% 11% 7% Intersections 24% Source: VFIS

Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Severity of Accidents:

Emergency Vehicle Incidents Based on Severity of Accidents 29% 13% 8% 5% Intersections 45% Source:VFIS

Contributing Factors:

Contributing Factors 53% 18% 8% 21% 59% 21% 8% 12% Source: VFIS

Intersection Accident Details:

Intersection Accident Details Type of Response Warning Devices Percent of Reported Incidents Emergency Lights/Siren 68 % Emergency Lights Only 8 % Emergency Neither 2 % Emergency Unknown 1 % Return from Emergency Lights Only 1 % Return from Emergency Neither 2 % Training Neither 1 % Other Neither 5 % Unknown Unknown 12 % Source: VFIS

Impact of Emergency Vehicle Accidents:

Impact of Emergency Vehicle Accidents Personal injury or death to emergency responders Peripheral injury or death to others Vehicle, equipment, property loss Long term personal psychological impacts Increased insurance premiums Possible legal, civil, criminal actions Damage to agencies and personnel professional and public reputation

Make safety part of your organizations daily culture:

Make safety part of your organizations daily culture Injuries and deaths are not “part of the business” of being a firefighter, and should NOT be accepted as such. The only acceptable level of injury and death is zero Given the hazards we face, this is not realistic, but substantial improvements can be made, and should be made.

What we need to do to make that change happen is…:

What we need to do to make that change happen is… Fire departments and unions must develop and enforce applicable SOPs Each fire fighter must take responsibility for their own actions We must watch out for each other and stop unsafe actions when we see them

Slide 48:

In Texas, a member of the Hico VFD was killed Tuesday when he lost control of his fire apparatus while responding to a fire in Hamilton County. Clint Dewayne Rice, 28, of Hico , was driving a 1968 Heil tanker truck to a grass fire at about 2:30 p.m. when he lost control rounding a turn, causing the truck to overturn, a spokesman for the Texas Department of Public Safety said. Rice was ejected from the truck when it flipped and was pronounced dead at the scene, the spokesman said. He was not wearing a seat belt. Firefighter ejected from apparatus and killed

Slide 49:

Also in Texas, safety belt use is being questioned in the 2005 death of a 27 year old Amarillo firefighter. A state report states that least some crew members were not wearing safety belts when Firefighter Brian Hunton fell from the Amarillo Fire Department truck on April 23. The truck was one of four responding about 10 p.m. to a fire.  As Hunton , got into his protective gear, he was not wearing his safety belt. He fell from a door that opened as the truck turned, according to eyewitness accounts. The police report of the accident said none of the four firefighters in the truck carrying Hunton was wearing a safety belt.. Firefighter ejected from apparatus and killed

Slide 50:

February 9 2007: 47 year old Detroit Firefighter Joe Torkos , driving Engine 17 to an emergency call, was ejected through the windshield , pinned beneath the apparatus , and killed during a violent collision with a speeding SUV. Lt. Walt Grysko was also ejected through the windshield by the force of the collision, and is in serious condition at Ford Hospital in Detroit. NEITHER firefighter was wearing his seatbelt Firefighter Joe Torkos killed in Fire Apparatus Crash on February 9 2007

Seat belts are NOT Optional ! :

Seat belts are NOT Optional !

Lets examine some other tragic examples of things gone wrong:

Lets examine some other tragic examples of things gone wrong Texas City, Texas – 1999 (3 firefighters injured, 1 killed) Chicago, Illinois- 2000 (1 firefighter killed) Columbus, Ohio – 2002 (4 firefighters and 5 civilians injured) Las Vegas, Nevada- 2003 (4 firefighters injured) Brookline, Massachusetts – 2004 (1 firefighter killed) Los Angeles, California – 2004 (1 firefighter killed) Total Results = 4 Firefighters Killed, 11 firefighters, and 5 civilians injured

Texas City F.D Engine 33, three man crew October 5 1999 09:38 hours Emergency Medical Response:

Texas City F.D Engine 33, three man crew October 5 1999 09:38 hours Emergency Medical Response Responding Code 3, the fire apparatus driver entered an intersection against a red light without stopping. A passenger vehicle impacted the apparatus on the drivers side, and forced the apparatus into a bridge support. 54 year old Fire Captain was ejected through the windshield, struck the pavement, received serious head injuries and was killed. Apparatus driver also received serious injuries, and the third firefighter had minor injuries. Factors: Excessive Speed and No Seatbelt

Texas City F.D Engine 33, three man crew October 5 1999 09:38 hours Emergency Medical Response:

Texas City F.D Engine 33, three man crew October 5 1999 09:38 hours Emergency Medical Response

Slide 55:

Texas City F.D Engine 33, three man crew October 5 1999 09:38 hours Emergency Medical Response

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

All apparatus occupants must wear their seat belts at all times when the vehicle is in motion. Bring the apparatus to a complete stop at all red lights and stop signs. Lessons Learned from this Accident

The Company Officer’s Responsibility::

The Company Officer’s Responsibility: Supervise the driver/operator and crew. Acts as a “co-pilot”. A second set of eyes and ears for the driver. May tell the driver/operator to slow down, but never to speed up. Ensure all members are seated and belted at all times. SET THE PROPER EXAMPLE Officer’s Side Speedometer

Ensuring Seatbelt Safety:

Ensuring Seatbelt Safety High-Visibility Seat Belts Officer’s Side Mirror Frisco, TX Local 3732

The Fire Fighter’s Responsibility:

The Fire Fighter’s Responsibility Take responsibility for your own safety and wear the seatbelt Do not loosen or remove the seatbelt during the response. Do not ride an apparatus that doesn’t have proper seating and working seatbelts! To do otherwise is an unsafe act!!

Slide 60:

30 year rear mount aerial responding to an automatic fire alarm. Apparatus entered a four way stop intersection without stopping, and was struck by a pickup truck, which also ran the stop sign. The officers door came open upon impact, and a 43 year old Fire Lieutenant was thrown through the open door onto the pavement. He died a few hours later from multiple traumatic injuries he had received. Chicago F.D, Truck Co. 24, five man crew April 29 2000, 11:51 hours Residential Automatic Fire Alarm

Slide 61:

This shows the door through which the lieutenant was ejected. The door latch had been reported as defective and was serviced prior to the crash. The officers seatbelt was found to be inoperative. The seatbelt would have saved this firefighters life. Chicago F.D, Truck Co. 24, five man crew April 29 2000, 11:51 hours Residential Automatic Fire Alarm

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

Bring the apparatus to a complete stop at all red lights and stop signs. Fire departments must maintain apparatus in a safe, operable condition. Fire departments should adopt alternative response policies for calls that have a high probability of being non-emergency in nature. Lessons Learned from this Accident

Slide 63:

Responding with an 11 year old reserve tractor drawn tillered aerial apparatus Code 3 to an automatic fire alarm sounding. Columbus F.D, Ladder 13, four man crew July 15 2002, 17:45 hours Automatic Fire Alarm

Slide 64:

Preparing for a 90 degree left turn at the bottom of a steep hill, the tractor’s brakes failed. Apparatus turned over, crashed into a Tavern and injured the four firefighters, and 5 civilians inside the building. Columbus F.D, Ladder 13, four man crew July 15 2002, 17:45 hours Automatic Fire Alarm

Slide 65:

The tillerman received serious injuries in the accident The truck was serviced 13 days prior to the crash for brake problems, but the brakes were never repaired. The automatic fire alarm was a false alarm. Columbus F.D, Ladder 13, four man crew July 15 2002, 17:45 hours Automatic Fire Alarm

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

Fire departments must maintain all apparatus in a safe, operable condition. Fire departments should adopt alternative response policies for calls that have a high probability of being non-emergency in nature. Lessons Learned from this Accident

The Fire Department’s Responsibility::

The Fire Department’s Responsibility: Develop and enforce SOPs for safe response procedures Educate all personnel on the SOPs Ensure all applicable laws and standards are followed

Las Vegas F.D. Engine 6, four man crew October 31, 2003 23:38 Hours Structure Fire Response:

Las Vegas F.D. Engine 6, four man crew October 31, 2003 23:38 Hours Structure Fire Response LVFD Engine 6 responding to a reported structure fire enters a right hand curve on a highway exit ramp at about 45 MPH.

Slide 69:

Driver looses control, and the apparatus rolls onto left side and skids about 50 yards. 39 year old Fire Captain suffered a spinal cord injury and is now paralyzed from the neck down. Las Vegas F.D. Engine 6, four man crew October 31, 2003 23:38 Hours Structure Fire Response

Slide 70:

Remaining three firefighters suffer minor injuries. Apparatus driver is charged and convicted of driving too fast for road conditions Las Vegas F.D. Engine 6, four man crew October 31, 2003 23:38 Hours Structure Fire Response Factors: Excessive Speed and No Seatbelt

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

Lessons Learned from this Accident All apparatus occupants must wear their seat belts at all times when the vehicle is in motion. Operate the apparatus at a safe and prudent speed at all times.

Wear Your Seatbelts !!!:

Wear Your Seatbelts !!! NFPA 1500 places responsibility for everyone wearing seatbelts on the driver. >80% of fire fighters killed in collisions are not wearing seatbelts Do not move the rig until everyone is seated and belted! McKinney, TX Local 4017

Slide 73:

The engine made a right turn as it pulled from the station The fire fighter seated behind the driver fell out the door and was ejected onto the pavement. The door latch had previously been noted as defective and sent for repair Door hinges attached to cab; latch catch attached to body; cab and body flex differently; door pops open. Firefighter who was ejected died several days later from massive head injuries. NONE of the firefighters had their seatbelts on. Brookline F.D, four man crew April 30 2004, 09:05 hours Odor of Gas in a Structure Call

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

All apparatus occupants must wear their seat belts at all times when the vehicle is in motion. Fire departments must implement and enforce safety policies related to apparatus occupant safety. Lessons Learned from this Accident

The Five Common Causes of Fire Apparatus Collisions:

The Five Common Causes of Fire Apparatus Collisions A. Failure to safely traverse intersections B. Apparatus backing operations C. Excessive speed D. Failure to keep apparatus wheels on the road surface E. Failure to negotiate curves

Intersection Safety:

Intersection Safety Intersection Video Segment 25 minutes

Intersection Hazards:

Intersection Hazards The most likely location to be involved in a collision during an emergency response is an intersection Jersey City, NJ Locals 1064/1066

Safely Negotiating Intersections:

Safely Negotiating Intersections Ensure the apparatus has the right-of-way before entering intersection The driver/operator and company officer must work together to avoid all hazards. Complete stops add only 2-3 seconds per intersection on the response.

Safely Negotiating Intersections:

Do not exceed the posted speed limit, even if you have a green light. Remove foot from throttle and place on brake pedal when approaching or negotiating the intersection. Safely Negotiating Intersections

Safely Negotiating Intersections:

All apparatus occupants must wear their seat belts at all times when the vehicle is in motion. Safely Negotiating Intersections

It is worth repeating…:

It is worth repeating… Bring the apparatus to a complete stop at all red lights and stop signs.

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… When directed to stop by a law enforcement officer At red traffic signals At stop signs Toledo, OH Local 92

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… At negative right-of-way intersections At blind intersections When the driver/operator cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… When encountering a stopped school bus with activated warning lights When any other intersection hazards are present Unguarded or activated railroad crossings

Slide 86:

Engine 273 was released from the scene of a residential fire, and was backing up a street to return to quarters. A 25 year old firefighter was standing on the tailboard as the apparatus backed up the street. As the Company Officer guided the apparatus driver from behind the truck, he turned away from the apparatus for a moment to clear an intersection. Los Angeles F.D, Engine Co. 273, four man crew August 14 2004, 13:42 hours Residential Fire, Returning in service

Slide 87:

When he turned back to make eye contact with the driver, he realized that the tailboard firefighter had fallen into the path of the backing fire apparatus. He tried to stop the moving apparatus, but the firefighter was run over and killed by the backing apparatus. Los Angeles F.D, Engine Co. 273, four man crew August 14 2004, 13:42 hours Residential Fire, Returning in service

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

Fire departments must adopt and enforce safe procedures for apparatus backing operations. Fire fighters must be prohibited from riding on the outside of a moving apparatus. Initially, the LAFD refused to change their backing policy after this incident. Lessons Learned from this Accident

Lessons Learned from this Accident :

JUNE 23, 2005 SPECIAL NOTICE SUBJECT: REVISED LAFD HEAVY APPARATUS BACKING POLICY EFFECTIVE IMMEDIATELY, ALL MEMBERS SHALL ENSURE DEPARTMENT WIDE IMPLEMENTATION AND ADHERENCE TO THE FOLLOWING LAFD HEAVY APPARATUS SAFE BACKING POLICIES: NO MEMBER SHALL RIDE ON THE TAILBOARD OR ANY RUNNING BOARD OF AN APPARATUS WHEN THE APPARATUS IS IN MOTION. IAFF Local 112 pushed for and won a change in this policy. Lessons Learned from this Accident

Apparatus Backing Collisions:

Apparatus Backing Collisions The most common type of apparatus crash. Typically do not involve injuries and deaths (although some have occurred) Responsible for a significant percentage of apparatus damage and dollar losses

Always look for a better option… Better yet, A SAFER OPTION:

Always look for a better option… Better yet, A SAFER OPTION It may be better to go around the block than to back the apparatus up to get there Where you want to be Where you are now

NFPA 1500 Backing Guidelines::

NFPA 1500 Backing Guidelines: Must have at least one guide whenever backing the apparatus. Two is preferable, although only one should communicate with the driver / operator. McKinney, TX Local 4017

NFPA 1500 Backing Guidelines::

NFPA 1500 Backing Guidelines: The communicator must have radio contact with the driver May use flashlights at night; use care not to blind the driver/operator Edmond, OK Local 2359

Backing Safety Devices:

Backing Safety Devices McKinney, TX Local 4017

Phoenix, Arizona September 29 2003:

Phoenix, Arizona September 29 2003 All firefighters had their seatbelts on, and suffered only very minor injuries Excessive Speed in a left hand turn

Hazards of Excessive Speed:

Hazards of Excessive Speed Lose vehicle control after hitting driving surface defect (like a pothole) Lose vehicle control because of swaying / rocking Lose vehicle control on wet / snowy and icy roads

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Roll Over DVD Segment – 30 Minutes

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Three Key Factors to Keep in Mind Excessive relative speed causes most fire apparatus rollovers. Many fatalities can be avoided if occupants wear their seat belts. Both Fire and EMS vehicles are commonly involved in vehicle crashes.

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Components of a Rollover Crash The driver • Training • Experience • Physical Conditioning • State of Mind The vehicle • Height, Weight, Width • Suspension

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Common rollover circumstances Excessive Relative Speed Soft Shoulder Drop-off Uneven Surface Drop-off and Improper recovery techniques applied by driver Physical dynamics of vehicle operations • Inertia • Momentum • Center of Gravity • Friction • Centrifugal Force

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Mechanics of vehicle operations Relative Speed Specific Road Conditions Effect of Body Roll, Center of Gravity and Tire Sidewall Flexibility Effects of Weight Transfer, Under steering, Braking, and Uneven Surfaces Steering Angle and Tire Friction Liquid Slosh Effect Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention

Slide 102:

Relative Speed is Based on a Number of Factors Excessive relative speed is common in most rollover crashes Relative speed is determined in relation to your environment, road conditions, and your vehicle Always maintain a slow, steady, and safe speed Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Specific Road Conditions that affect rollovers • High center crown • Reverse or negative camber • “S” curves • Restrictions of lane widths

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Effects of Body Roll, Center of Gravity, and Tire Sidewall Flexibility The body of a vehicle pivots around the center of gravity side to side Keep body roll to a minimum Radial tires are designed to flex; uncontrollable conditions can cause the tires to flex too much and contribute to vehicle rollover. You must also consider moving loads in an ambulance, such as the movement of medics in the back of the vehicle. Speed is a major contributor to weight shifting back and forth and control of the vehicle.

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Effects of Weight Transfer, Under steering, Braking and Uneven Surfaces Know how your vehicle handles under emergency and non- emergency conditions. Braking and deceleration have an effect on weight transfer. Overcompensation and over steering can cause the vehicle to go out of control. Steering Angle and Tire Friction Six patches of rubber are the only things holding you to the road. Do not over steer if your vehicle drops off the road surface.

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Liquid Slosh Effect Solid loads tend to be steady, more controllable, and hold in place. Liquid loads slosh side to side and front to rear. Baffling is used to minimize the slosh effect in tankers, but it still occurs. Ideally the apparatus should be totally full or totally empty.

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention:

Emergency Vehicle Roll Over Prevention Getting Out of Trouble – Best Practices for Maintaining Vehicle Control • Always wear your seat belt • Do not panic • Get control of your speed • Maintain control of the steering wheel • Steer straight ahead and slow down • Take your foot off the accelerator, but do not brake • Allow the vehicle to slow down on its own • When you reach a slow, safe speed, turn the steering wheel to the left and gently steer the vehicle back onto the highway. • Do not jerk your steering wheel Remember: Laws of Physics + Mechanics of Vehicle Operation + Driver Error = LOSS OF VEHICLE CONTROL

What happens when the Right-Side wheels leave the road?:

What happens when the Right-Side wheels leave the road? May sink into soft soil, causing vehicle to be pulled further off the road May strike an object or overturn Problems as a result of overcorrection may occur when trying to bring the wheels back onto the road surface

Results of Overcorrection:

Results of Overcorrection May cause the vehicle to roll over May strike another vehicle head-on May exit the roadway on the opposite side of the road and overturn or strike an object

Tips for keeping the entire vehicle on the road:

Tips for keeping the entire vehicle on the road Operate the vehicle at a safe and reasonable speed. Drivers must not operate warning devices, read map books or computer monitors, etc. Use extreme caution when passing vehicles on their right side.

Safely bringing the wheels back onto the road surface:

Safely bringing the wheels back onto the road surface When possible, come to a complete stop and then creep back onto the road surface. If a complete stop is not possible or practical, slow to 20 mph or less before bringing the wheels back up on the road surface.

Unfortunately, the story continues…. :

Unfortunately, the story continues….

Personnel Selection:

Personnel Selection Objectives Recognize that proper personnel selection procedures are the first steps in developing an effective program. Understand that the human aspects of driver selection are an important component of the process. Recognize that a number of abilities necessary for driving must be acquired.

Personnel Selection:

Personnel Selection Recognize the importance of maintaining accurate and complete personnel records. Understand the importance of maintaining proficiency through an on-going re-certification program.

Importance of Driver Selection:

Importance of Driver Selection Human Aspects Acquired Abilities Vehicle Characteristics Personnel Records

Human Aspects:

Human Aspects Attitude Immature – Only cares about his / her own safety Brazen / Show Off – More concerned about image than reality Laid back – Reaction may be hours or days later Comic – Never Panic’s but sees humor in everything, even dangerous situations Knowledge A clear perception of truth Vital concerning the vehicles features, behavior, and characteristics No misconceptions about emergency vehicle driving responsibilities Mental Fitness State of mind about driving Understand and respect the responsibility of emergency vehicle driving Attentive and cautious

Human Aspects:

Human Aspects Judgment Ability to make good decisions Decisive Excitability Maturity Physical Fitness Ability to recognize and react to situations properly Age limited experience driving any vehicle (age 18) Limited time in the emergency services (age 21) Losing certain aspects of vision or hearing (age 65) Increasing physical limitations (age 65)

Acquired Abilities:

Acquired Abilities Driver’s License Possibly require a CDL State and Local Laws Violation record can exclude some from driving emergency vehicles Defensive Driving Techniques Acquired ability, learned over time Vehicle Characteristics Not used to driving large, heavy vehicles

American Heat Video:

American Heat Video Reducing Deaths in Fire Apparatus 25 Minutes

Vehicle Characteristics:

Vehicle Characteristics Type of Emergency Vehicle Vehicle Components and Features Special Driver Training

Personnel Files:

Personnel Files Training Records Classes attended, completed, Certifications, Licensing Physical Capability Is driver physically able to perform functions of emergency vehicle driver Driving Record Does the individual have a good driving record Suspected Substance Abuse Policy that tests and / or disciplines as necessary

Driver Re-certification:

Driver Re-certification Actual Emergency Vehicle Driving Experience Observed Proficiency Time Since Last Re-certification Introduction of New Vehicles Introduction of New Technology

Necessity of SOGs:

Necessity of SOGs Objectives Understand the reasons that SOGs are important to operating an effective driver training program. Recognize the subject areas for SOGs that impact the certification, operation, and re-certification of emergency vehicle drivers.

Significance of SOGs:

Significance of SOGs All personnel understand what is expected or required. Intended compliance with all necessary requirements is identified. Pre-planned and agreed upon actions. Resource documents upon which to base training. Resource documents upon which to base legal defense in case of civil or criminal complaints. Required anticipated actions.

SOG Subject Areas:

SOG Subject Areas Eligibility requirements for drivers Training and proficiency testing requirements for drivers Emergency response procedures and requirements Customary and ordinary operational procedures Special situation procedures

Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations:

Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations Objectives: Understand the changing legal climate which exists and its impact upon emergency vehicle drivers and the organization. Identify the primary legal principles which affect drivers and recognize their implications upon emergency vehicle operation.

Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations :

Legal Aspects of Emergency Vehicle Operations 3. Recognize that specific state driving laws affect the emergency vehicle driver. 4. Recognize that individual state or local laws, standards, and requirements impact emergency vehicle driver training and operations.

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand:

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand True Emergency A Situation in which there is a high probability of death or serious injury to an individual or significant property loss . Due Regard Due regard for the safety of others means that a reasonably careful person performing similar duties and under similar circumstances would act in the same manner. Negligence Negligence is a legal deficiency or wrong which results whenever a person fails to exercise that degree of care which a prudent person would exercise under similar circumstances . The negligence may be slight, ordinary, or gross.

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand:

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand Gross Negligence This is reckless disregard of the consequences of an act to another person. It occurs when a person’s actions (or lack of) result in the failure to exercise even a slight degree of care. Willful and Wanton This means intentional or with careless indifference . This is considered to be the most serious form of negligence. Vicarious Liability This is legal liability placed on one person for the acts committed by another. (Captain held accountable for the drivers Gross Negligence)

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand:

Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand Concept of public kindness An old aspect of American society that held that if a person or organization undertook an action on behalf of someone else in their community, they were not, in most cases sued when something went wrong. This concept NO LONGER exists in today’s society. The old adage, “The King can do no wrong” Also known as Sovereign Immunity. Basically the old belief that the “King” or Government agency is exempt from law suits. Now the saying is more like “The king “SHALL” do no wrong. Lawsuits are now common against Emergency Service Organizations, and often name the organization, the vehicle operator, any supervisor or officer, and the chief executive of the organization as defendants in law suits.

Slide 132:

Judicial review will be based on …. Was it a true emergency? Child drowning in a backyard pool vs a small dumpster fire in a parking lot Was due regard for the safety of others exercised? Were you responding with lights and sirens going 60 mph running stop signs on the way to the dumpster fire? Legal Principles and Terms we need to understand

Vehicle Dynamics:

Vehicle Dynamics Objectives Understand the physical forces which act upon vehicles and their impact upon vehicle handling. Recognize that certain vehicle characteristics can influence the impact of physical forces on emergency vehicles.

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Friction Velocity Momentum Inertia Centrifugal Force

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Friction – resistance to motion between two moving objects that touch. Tire/Road Friction Brake Friction Steering Friction

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Velocity – speed Acceleration (velocity increase) Deceleration (velocity decrease) Braking (velocity decrease)

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Directional Control – a derivative of three factors. Steering Turning Tracking

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Momentum – is measured as the product of the object’s mass or weight times its velocity. Inertia – the force it takes for a moving object to stay in motion in the same direction.

Vehicle Dynamics:

Vehicle Dynamics Physical Forces Friction – a force that resists relative motion between two moving objects Drivers hands on steering wheel Engines belts and pulleys Brake shoes on drums, pads, or disks Tires on the road surface

Two most critical friction points in controlling an emergency vehicle:

Two most critical friction points in controlling an emergency vehicle Tires / Road Friction is dependent upon: Tire size, tread condition, type, and inflation. Speed of the vehicle Road surface Weather conditions Brake Friction Energy produced in the form of heat As heat increases, braking ability decreases.

Steering Friction:

Steering Friction Handling is impacted by:: Traction exhibited by the steering tires Number and spacing of the drive axles Weight distribution on the axles Ability of the driver to keep steering tires on the road

Velocity:

Velocity Velocity is Speed Driver has only two types of Control Velocity Control Acceleration = Velocity Increase Deceleration = Velocity Decrease Braking = Velocity Decrease Directional Control has three factors: Steering Turning Tracking

Momentum and the Law of Inertia:

Momentum is simply an objects weight multiplied by it’s velocity The law of Inertia says that an object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will remain in straight motion unless acted upon by an unbalanced force. Inertia is the force required for a moving object to stay in motion in the same direction. As momentum increases, it is harder to overcome the effects of inertia. Momentum and the Law of Inertia

Momentum and the Law of Inertia:

Both Momentum and Inertia affect Velocity Control Increased Momentum = greater required stopping distance Brakes work harder Friction is increased More heat is generated Increased Momentum forces a vehicle to take a wider track around a curve Momentum and the Law of Inertia

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Centrifugal Force

Physical Forces:

Physical Forces Centrifugal Force – the force caused by inertia, which tends to make a rotating body move away from the center of rotation. Higher speed increases the centrifugal forces on the vehicle.

Vehicle Characteristics that the Emergency Vehicle Driver should know:

Vehicle Characteristics that the Emergency Vehicle Driver should know Total weight and weight distribution Center of Gravity Maximum Vehicle Capacity Gross Axle Weight Rating (GAWR) Gross Vehicle Weight Rating (GVWR) Weight distribution should be approximately 1/3 on the front axle, and 2/3 on the rear axles in order for the vehicle to handle and brake properly. Weight distribution from side to side should not exceed 7%

Vehicle Characteristics:

Vehicle Characteristics Suspension System Axles Springs Wheels Tires – only about 40 sq. inches of contact with road surface Proper Inflation Tread Design Tread wear Minimum tread depth allowed is usually 4/32”

Vehicle Characteristics:

Vehicle Characteristics Braking Systems Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABS) Secondary or Auxiliary Braking Systems were required for vehicles weighing over 36,000 lbs. by NFPA 1901 in 1996. Engine Brake (Jake Brake) (Jacobs Engine Brake) Not usually effective at speeds under 20 MPH with automatic transmissions Automatic Transmission Retarder Driveline Retarder

Vehicle Characteristics:

Vehicle Characteristics National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) Report Engine Retarders – Used on wet pavement can cause loss of vehicle control. Misused by many fire departments across the country Limiting Valves – NTSB recommends use on fire apparatus be discontinued Mainly on vehicles built before 1975 Baffling Systems Used to limit the amount of dynamic weight transfer mainly in large capacity tankers and pumpers

American Heat Video:

American Heat Video Vehicle Driving Operations 21 Minutes

Inspections & Maintenance of Emergency Vehicles:

Inspections & Maintenance of Emergency Vehicles Objectives Understand the value and importance of regular inspections of emergency vehicles. Identify the major component systems of an emergency vehicle. Understand how to perform pre- and post-trip inspections.

Inspections & Maintenance of Emergency Vehicles:

Understand the various classes of PM and the importance of a PM program for emergency vehicles. Recognize the role of the driver in inspections and maintenance. Understand the importance of keeping accurate and complete records. Inspections & Maintenance of Emergency Vehicles

Emergency Vehicle Components:

Emergency Vehicle Components Chassis Frame Suspension System Steering and Braking Systems Power Train Components Body Primary Function Components (Task or Mission) Auxiliary Systems

Emergency Vehicle Components:

Emergency Vehicle Components Body Primary Function Auxiliary Systems

Inspections:

Inspections Pre-trip Inspection Vehicle overview Check the engine compartment Start engine and check inside cab Check headlights, signal lights, warning lights, and audio devices Conduct walk around inspection Check controls and indicators Check brake system (air brakes)

Inspections:

Inspections Post-Trip Inspection Cleaning of vehicle. Replacing supplies. Re-fueling and checking fluid levels, if justified. Report any unusual occurrences or malfunctions.

Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance:

Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance Routine Maintenance Scheduled Maintenance Crisis Maintenance

Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance:

Routine Maintenance Fluid level checks Wheels and tires Electrical systems and devices Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance

Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance:

Scheduled Maintenance Manufacturer’s recommended schedule Amount of use Organizational policy Professional standards Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance

Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance:

Crisis Maintenance Classification A (Immediate, Out of Service) Safety Issues, including Brakes, Belts in the Steering system, required lighting, and serious tire problems Classification B (As Soon As Possible) Leaking pump packing Classification C (Next P.M.) Light bulb replacement, upholstery damage, minor fluid leaks Types of Preventative Emergency Vehicle Maintenance

Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance:

Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance Battery or Batteries Braking System Coolant System Electrical System Fuel Hydraulic Fluids

Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance:

Lubrication Oil (Engine) Tires Steering System Belts Tools, Appliances, and Loose Equipment Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance

Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance:

Document the need for maintenance on the assigned vehicle. Verify that the requested and needed maintenance was performed. Role of the Emergency Vehicle Driver in Maintenance

Recordkeeping:

Recordkeeping Maintenance Records Training Records Operational Records

Emergency Vehicle Operations/Safety:

Emergency Vehicle Operations/Safety Objectives Recognize that motivation is both physically and mentally based. Understand that there are a number of important actions which must be completed prior to initiating driving. Recognize that emergency response driving is a complex process.

Motivational Factors that can be Unsafe:

Motivational Factors that can be Unsafe Routine We have always done it this way. Comfort It’s the easiest way to get it done Over Confidence I know it might not be safe, but I know I can get it done this way.

Defensive Driving Goals:

Defensive Driving Goals To maintain the highest level of safety possible at all times. To be prepared for unexpected situations and conditions which can adversely affect safe emergency vehicle operation. To avoid, through effective training and applied practice, unnecessary legal consequences.

Defensive Driving Techniques:

Defensive Driving Techniques Space Management Following Distance Rate of Closure Hazard Identification Correct Braking Techniques

Preparing to Drive:

Preparing to Drive Route Planning Driver Readiness Issues Effective Start-Up Procedures

Preparing to Drive:

Preparing to Drive Route Planning Minimizing accident exposure Enabling the emergency vehicle driver to focus on actual driving tasks Avoiding environmental and construction hazards

Preparing to Drive:

Preparing to Drive Driver Readiness Issues Fatigue Health Personal Problems

Preparing to Drive:

Preparing to Drive Effective Start-Up Procedures Circle of Safety Inspection Adjustment of Cab Features Wearing of Occupant Restraints Receive Signal Before Moving

Emergency Response Driving:

Emergency Response Driving Predicting the predictable Expect the unexpected Handling any unexpected problems

Emergency Response Driving:

Emergency Response Driving IPDE System of Driving Identify Predict Decide Execute

Emergency Response Driving:

Emergency Response Driving Five Good Visual Driving Habits Aim high in steering Get the big picture Keep eyes moving, scan Make sure the other drivers see the emergency vehicle Identify an escape route

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens:

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens Two basic concepts of Emergency Warning Devices: They notify other drivers that an approaching emergency vehicle is operating in an emergency mode. They request other drivers to yield the right of way to the emergency vehicle in accordance with state and/or local law.

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens:

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens RED – Stop. May also attract drivers. BLUE – Emergency vehicle (fire or police). AMBER – Danger/Caution. Excellent for rear of vehicle. CLEAR – Caution. Good visibility, shut off at scenes.

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens:

Use of Emergency Lights and Sirens Procedures for Use of Sirens Use when responding to an emergency Change to yelp mode at least 200’ from intersection High-low mode is least effective Use another audible device to alert drivers who fail to hear siren, such as air horns

Space Management:

Space Management Following Distance 4 second rule at 40 mph or less; 5 second rule above 40 mph Speed Safety Cushion Distance Traveled Required distance to stop 40 MPH 4 Seconds 240 Feet 210 Feet 55 MPH 4 Seconds 320 Feet 340 Feet 55 MPH 5 Seconds 400 Feet 340 Feet

Space Management Factors to consider:

Space Management Factors to consider Rate of Closure / Factors May outrun sirens effectiveness (Federal 2QB works best) Field of view may be blocked Direction of siren may be blocked from view Hearing impaired drivers Inattentive drivers Distracted drivers – cell phones, loud music, kids, stress… Rate of closure is so fast, the other driver has no chance to react Blind spots alongside vehicle you are approaching Traffic closure from behind emergency vehicle Always signal your intent to turn, pass, or stop.

Speed Management:

Speed Management Two important rules about speed: Emergency vehicles must not be driven in excess of the posted speed limits. Emergency vehicles must not exceed cautionary speeds.

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Steering Use both hands Keep arms inside of vehicle Maintain hands in “3” and “9” position

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Braking and Stopping Hydraulic – Pump brake pedal Air – Firmly and steadily press brake pedal, release if wheels lock ABS – Apply firmly and hold down for duration

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Backing Up Park Intelligently Give Audible Notice Use a Spotter Understand Hand Signals Use Side Mirrors Check Front Corners Maintain Speed Control

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Lane Changing Plan ahead Signal your intention Practice space management Make the change of lanes smoothly

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Turning Always signal before turning Whenever possible turn from one proper lane into another proper lane

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Passing Check traffic both ahead and behind Check sides and double check blind spots Signal before initiating pass Accelerate while changing lanes Signal before returning to the driving lane Check mirror before returning to the driving lane Cancel directional signal and resume cruising speed

Basic Maneuvers:

Basic Maneuvers Negotiating Intersections Scan for possible hazards upon approach Slow down as you approach Change siren cadence in advance Check options and avoid opposing lane Come to a complete stop (controlled intersection) Establish eye contact with other drivers Proceed through one lane at a time Be prepared to stop quickly if needed

Crash Avoidance:

Crash Avoidance Crash Avoidance Identify potential escape route Brake smoothly and firmly Accelerate smoothly Steer to avoid head-on impact

Operating Under Adverse Conditions:

Operating Under Adverse Conditions Traction Implications Rain Snow and Ice Leaves Adverse Handling Implications High Winds Vision Implications Night Driving Precipitation

Even though the Law says, you may proceed past a red stop signal or stop sign after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation; :

Even though the Law says, you may proceed past a red stop signal or stop sign after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation; The right thing to do is to come to a complete STOP , and proceed ONLY after all other traffic is accounted for. IAFF Says when approaching a negative right-of-way intersection (red light, stop sign, yield sign) the vehicle shall come to a complete stop and shall proceed only when the driver can account for all oncoming traffic in all lanes yielding the right-of-way. IAFC Says the fire department emergency vehicle shall come to a full stop before entering a negative right-of-way intersection (red light, flashing red light, or stop sign), blind intersection, or any intersection where hazards are present and/or the driver cannot account for all oncoming traffic lanes. NFPA 1500 Contains the requirement for a full stop at red lights and stop signs. It states that the emergency vehicle shall not enter the intersection until all approaching traffic has yielded the right-of-way and it is safe to proceed. The emergency vehicle driver shall ensure that all approaching vehicles in all lanes have yielded the right-of-way before advancing.

Do the Right Thing and Stop at Intersections:

Do the Right Thing and Stop at Intersections USFA Says always stop at intersections with a negative right of way. Proceed through these intersections and railroad crossings only after coming to a complete stop and when you are sure that other vehicles have stopped and given you the right of way VFIS Says Scan for possible hazards, Slow down, Change siren cadence, Check options and avoid opposing lane. Come to a complete stop at any controlled intersection, Establish eye contact, Proceed one lane at a time

Reminder…:

Reminder… Bring the apparatus to a complete stop at all red lights and stop signs.

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… When directed to stop by a law enforcement officer At red traffic signals At stop signs Toledo, OH Local 92

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… At negative right-of-way intersections At blind intersections When the driver/operator cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop…:

NFPA 1500 Requires A Complete Stop… When encountering a stopped school bus with activated warning lights When any other intersection hazards are present Unguarded or activated railroad crossings

Black Jack FPD Policy Requires that::

Black Jack FPD Policy Requires that: Apparatus must come to a complete stop under any of the following circumstances when responding to an emergency : When directed by a law enforcement officer Red traffic lights Stop signs Negative right-of-way intersections Blind intersections When the driver cannot account for all lanes of traffic in an intersection When other intersection hazards are present When encountering a stopped school bus with flashing warning lights

Slide 200:

Stop at Intersections

Slide 201:

Wear your Seatbelts

Slide 202:

Slow Down

Slide 203:

Don’t use Defective Equipment

Slide 204:

Always Follow Safety Policies

Slide 205:

Always use a spotter when backing

Slide 206:

Thanks for your Attention, and Drive Safely

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