firefighter mayday course

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Firefighter Mayday Course based upon the National Fire Academy's Calling the Mayday program.

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Slide 1:

F irefighter A wareness S urvival T echniques and

Section Four::

Section Four: Declaring a Mayday

National Fire Academy MAYDAY Course Video :

National Fire Academy MAYDAY Course Video

Calling A Mayday :

Calling A Mayday OBJECTIVES OF THIS SECTION Upon completion of this section, the participant should be able to: Define a Mayday situation. Identify why firefighters fail to or delay calling a Mayday. Identify Mayday decision-making parameters and calling procedure. Identify Mayday responsibilities of firefighters

Why do firefighters resist calling for help, when they should?:

Why do firefighters resist calling for help, when they should? First , no national fire service standards exist in relation to calling a Mayday. Second, we do not teach or practice calling a Mayday very often in the fire service. Third, we do not have specific parameters, or rules, for when a firefighter must call a Mayday. The Fourth, and final problem is how we have been conditioned to make decisions on the fire ground. Mayday calling is not in our RPDM Catalog, therefore it is more of a challenge for us when we need to use it.

Too many Firefighters have already been injured and killed by failing to call for help in time.:

Too many Firefighters have already been injured and killed by failing to call for help in time. Past experiences in getting out of tight spots has put firefighters in danger. Because they delayed calling the Mayday by trying to first fix the problem, precious time was lost as fire conditions have gotten worse, firefighters became disoriented and lost trying to self rescue, personal accountability was lost, air supply’s have run out, RIT Teams were never activated, and tragic consequences resulted.

Slide 7:

% said YES Possible Mayday Conditions that would cause me to call a Mayday 332 or 98% Tangled, Pinned, or Stuck; low air alarm activation, Mayday 318 or 94% Fall through roof, Mayday 311 or 92% Tangled, Pinned, or Stuck and do not extricate self in 60 seconds, Mayday 301 or 89% Caught in flashover, Mayday 298 or 88% Fall through floor, Mayday 277 or 82% Zero visibility, no contact with hose or lifeline, do not know direction to exit, Mayday 233 or 69% Primary exit blocked by fire or collapse, not at secondary exit in 30 seconds, Mayday 233 or 69% Low air alarm activation, not at exit (door or window) in 30 seconds, Mayday 196 or 58% Cannot find exit (door or window) in 60 seconds, Mayday Firefighter Survey of 339 Experienced Firefighters Question was.. When would you call a Mayday?

Reasons why firefighters fail to call a Mayday in time:

Reasons why firefighters fail to call a Mayday in time The idea of comparing a firefighter calling mayday to a fighter pilot ejecting is a good place to start. How so? Both are about equal in terms of macho. Both are taught to be very aggressive. Both want to win every time out the door. Both play for high stakes, which includes their own lives.

Reasons why firefighters fail to call a Mayday in time:

Reasons why firefighters fail to call a Mayday in time The military has identified 10 reasons why pilots fail to, or delay ejecting when they must. These same conditions can be applied to firefighters who do not call a mayday when they must:

10 Reasons why firefighters fail to call Mayday, and more:

10 Reasons why firefighters fail to call Mayday, and more Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place)

Slide 11:

Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance)

Slide 12:

Pride (personal ego interferes with ability to honestly judge situation) Denial (this can’t really be happening to me) Peer Pressure (fear of looking weak, unable to handle a tough situation) (fear of hazing by others, damaged reputation on the job) (fear of being criticized by peers for failing to succeed) (fear of letting fellow crew members down on the job) (fear of making a bad decision, or not trying hard enough)

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment . Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

Does this list look familiar to you ?:

Does this list look familiar to you ? 10 Mission Critical Factors Failure to attain Tactical Objectives Use of unsafe or unapproved procedures Crews fail to follow established SOP’s Violating limitations of equipment Poor Incident Command Structure Lack of awareness of overall operating environment. Just not paying attention Incomplete or lack of needed Information Ambiguity and unresolved discrepancies Uncertainty, Anxiety, Uneasy “Gut Feeling” Belief of Invulnerability 6 Environmental Factors Training Experience Attitude Complacency Health Peer Pressure 6 Human Behavior Factors Fixation Overconfidence Distraction Information Overload Complacency Inexperience Temporal distortion (time seems to speed up or slow down) Reluctance to give up control (we don’t want to admit the situation is unmanageable for us) Channeled attention (we are so focused on our current task, we fail to realize any increase in the level of danger we are really in) Loss of situational awareness (failure to recognize changes in conditions, or a bad one in the first place) Fear of the unknown (we fear the loss of control of the situation, fear of outcome) Fear of retribution (for failing to complete assigned task, eg; rescue child) Lack of knowledge (firefighter not properly trained in Mayday procedures) Attempting to fix the problem (false confidence in one’s ability to resolve the problem, or too much time wasted trying to fix the problem before calling for assistance) Situational Awareness factors vs Military Study Factors.

How firefighters make decisions on the fire ground:

How firefighters make decisions on the fire ground Firefighters almost always rely on their former training and experience to make decisions in reaction to a fire ground situation. This method of making decisions is called ( RPDM ) or Recognition Primed Decision-Making. The problem is this… Those decisions don’t include a system that outlines when or how they should call a Mayday. Thus, firefighters tend to rely upon Recognition Primed Decision-Making (RPDM) to provide them with the parameters for calling a Mayday, only the parameters are not there for them to use. They have NEVER been there. Result is now you are in an unfamiliar situation and don’t know what to do because you have had no previous experience like this before. THIS IS A SERIOUS THREAT TO YOUR SURVIVAL.

RPDM Experience:

RPDM Experience If firefighters do not have “Mayday Calling” in their RPDM experience, then calling the Mayday will not come naturally when it is really needed. Only through training and drilling can firefighters get the “Mayday Calling” RPDM experience and proper response that might save their life someday.

What Is a Mayday? :

What Is a Mayday? Mayday comes from the French term “m’aider,” an imperative that means “Help me.” Mayday was adopted as a distress call by the International Radio Telegraph Convention in 1927. In international radio language, “Mayday, Mayday, Mayday,” means “Life is in danger, Immediate help needed!” This is the meaning that we want firefighters to convey when they declare a Mayday situation on the fire ground.

Why we should train to call a Mayday:

Why we should train to call a Mayday Firefighters are not usually taught to call Mayday in rookie school or as part of company drills. If they are, it is not reinforced as much as it should be. The firefighters’ Mayday calling system is not tested and drilled often enough to ensure that the system works as it should, and that everyone involved understands their role.

What could be more important?:

What could be more important? If a task has a low frequency of use but high consequences for failure, the task must be taught to the mastery level of performance and drilled to continually maintain competency. What task could have higher consequences than one that will save our own life, or the life of a fellow firefighter?

Slide 25:

11 Structure Fires between 1978 and 2002 have been identified in which firefighters failing to call, or delaying a call of a Mayday have led directly to, or contributed to 24 confirmed firefighter Line of Duty Deaths.

Slide 26:

Take a 10 Minute Break

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” :

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” FALL – If you fall through a roof, through or down a set of stairs or through a floor. COLLAPSE – If your primary exit is blocked by any type of collapse, and you can not reach a secondary exit within 30 seconds. FIRE – If you are caught in a flashover condition, or recognize that a hostile fire event is about to occur, or if your primary exit is blocked by fire.

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called”:

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” ENTANGLED – TRAPPED – PINNED – STUCK – CAUGHT -- WEDGED Anytime you lose your mobility for any of these reasons and can not extricate yourself within 60 seconds, OR your SCBA low air alarm activates while you are trying to extricate yourself.

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called”:

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” LOST -- Anytime you become disoriented, or confused inside a structure within an IDLH environment and are no longer sure where you are or where the exit is located because you have lost contact with: Your Crew, Your Hose line, or Your Lifeline

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called”:

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” LOW AIR – Anytime your low air alert device activates and you can not positively reach an exit door or window within 30 seconds. EQUIPMENT MALFUNCTION – Anytime your SCBA malfunctions or you have difficulty with maintaining proper operation of your SCBA for any reason while operating within an IDLH environment.

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called”:

Mayday Decision Parameters “When a Mayday should be called” INJURED – SICK – Anytime you are operating within an IDLH Atmosphere and you become injured or sick and your crew mates can not safely assist you out of the building immediately.

Calling Mayday on the Radio:

Calling Mayday on the Radio MAYDAY TRANSMISSION PROCEDURES To declare a Mayday, key the mike on your radio and transmit: "Mayday, Mayday! Mayday! Unit Number and position ID ( 3710 Alpha ) declaring a Mayday” Listen for a response. If none is heard, repeat the message until you are acknowledged. DO NOT change your radio channel if you are not answered right away. This might cause you to lose contact for good. Give Command a reasonable chance to respond to you before you switch channels on your radio.

Tactical Radio Communications:

Tactical Radio Communications To avoid confusion during normal radio and emergency radio communications. B,C, and D will often sound alike on the radio, especially through an SCBA Face piece. Firefighters should always use phonetic titles (“3710 Alpha to 3710 Delta and 3710 Bravo ”) for example to be as clear as possible. To improve accountability for all firefighters and Incident Commander. To clarify the strategic and tactical goals, objectives, and safety of all fireground operations.

Riding Positions and Radio Designations:

Riding Positions and Radio Designations Officer Position – “A” Alpha Firefighter Position # 1 – “B” Bravo Driver Position – “D” Delta D also for Driver Firefighter Position # 2 – “C” Charlie (If Occupied) A B C D

Anatomy of a Mayday Call :

Anatomy of a Mayday Call A Mayday call should provide vital data to the Incident Commander, so the proper type of assistance can be directed to the firefighter or crew in need of help as soon as possible. It is vital that a firefighter calling a Mayday remain calm so that he / she may assist in the rescue mission if at all possible.

Anatomy of a Mayday Call:

Anatomy of a Mayday Call Vital Data can easily be transmitted by using a simple Acronym – L.U.N.A.R. L.U.N.A.R. Stands for L ocation of firefighter or crew in need of assistance U nit number of the firefighter or crew in need of assistance

Anatomy of a Mayday Call:

Anatomy of a Mayday Call N ame of firefighter calling the Mayday A ssignment of the firefighter or crew calling the Mayday, and A ir Supply Status R esources required to render assistance to those calling the Mayday

Anatomy of a Mayday Call:

Anatomy of a Mayday Call Once the decision to call a Mayday is realized, the firefighter must concentrate on assisting those coming to his / her assistance. The first thing to do is: Announce over your portable radio “Mayday, Mayday, Mayday” in a clear and calm voice and await acknowledgement. When radio contact is confirmed, proceed to give the LUNAR data as follows:

When you call a Mayday:

When you call a Mayday Your current or Last known L ocation Example “ I was in the Basement, on the Roof, on Division C Side, I am in a bedroom…. Your U nit Number Apparatus or Company you are assigned to; 3710 Alpha Your N ame Be clear so the IC can properly identify you Your fire ground A ssignment First floor search team, fire attack group, roof ventilation group….

Another use for the A in LUNAR:

Another use for the A in LUNAR Your Air Supply Status Use this step to also force yourself to check your remaining air supply level. Try to gauge your air usage , and begin to manage it as efficiently as possible . Advise Command what your Air Supply status is, and continue to advise on a regular basis . This will help you focus on air preservation techniques until you are rescued or exit.

When you call a Mayday:

When you call a Mayday What if any R esources do you need. If Trapped – Need extrication, rescue If Lost – Need assistance finding exit If Injured – Unable to walk, leg injury If Low Air – Need Additional Air Supply Report to Command any specific details about your situation that are relevant to your survival and rescue.

Communicating with Command:

Communicating with Command The Incident Commander will “prompt” you for the vital “L.U.N.A.R. Information that is needed if you can not remember all of it. Be prepared to communicate with the R.I.T. team leader also. The I.C. and the R.I.T. are the only people you should need to communicate with. You are their priority until you are rescued. Give them useful information to help them rescue you.

Officers Managing the Mayday:

Officers Managing the Mayday Command Officers Responsibilities Gain control of the radio channel the Mayday was transmitted on. Use it ONLY for the Mayday / RIT / Rescue Operation. Re-Assign the current fire ground operations to an alternate fire ground radio frequency. DO NOT make the Mayday unit switch. Stay in contact with Mayday Unit , get L.U.N.A.R. information and gain as much additional information as possible. Conduct an immediate PAR for all on scene units. Request next greater alarm , additional command officers, plus EMS Unit. Meet with and deploy the R.I.T. Team immediately Establish and support a R.I.T. / Rescue Group within your incident management structure. Staff additional R.I.T. Teams as required .

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation:

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation A Mayday is declared on the Radio. In response, the Command Officer should Directly acknowledge the unit declaring the Mayday on the radio. Advise all other units to hold all radio traffic, unless emergency. Announce that a Mayday has been declared to all units. Advise the unit calling Mayday to continue with radio traffic. Step 1. Acknowledge MAYDAY transmission and gain control of radio communications with unit declaring the Mayday

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation:

Communication is established with the unit declaring the Mayday, and vital information is collected. The Command Officer should now obtain this information: Last known location of the Mayday Unit Unit number and riding position of the Mayday unit Name of the firefighter declaring the Mayday. Assignment of the firefighter declaring the Mayday, and their Current Air Supply Status Resources that are required to assist the firefighter declaring the Mayday Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 2. Obtain L.U.N.A.R. Information from the Unit Declaring the Mayday

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation:

Communication is maintained with the unit declaring the Mayday, and specific information is collected. The Command Officer should now : Verify the status of the other crew members with the firefighter Determine if the firefighter is alone, injured, trapped, lost…. Advise the firefighter to remain calm and conserve air supply. Reassure the firefighter that help is on the way to him / her. Remind the firefighter to activate their PASS Device. Direct the firefighter to locate a wall or window if possible. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 3. Obtain as much additional information from the unit declaring the Mayday as possible, and verbally assist as much as possible.

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation:

Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Communication is secured with the unit declaring the Mayday, and specific radio assignments are made. The Command Officer should now: Advise the firefighter declaring the Mayday to remain on the current channel. Designate an alternate fire command channel for the initial fire operations Advise all other units not involved in the Mayday to switch to the alternate fire command channel Step 4. Establish control of radio communications to maintain contact with the firefighter declaring the Mayday.

MT-1250 Portable Radios:

MT-1250 Portable Radios Zone C Frequencies C - Dispatch (NCCFA) C - Truck (NCCFA) C - Mutual Aid C - Command A C – Northwest Plaza C – EMS Command C - J C – I C – H C – G C – F C – E C – D C – C C – B C – A ---- Our MAIN Fireground Channel – OFF SCAN You should know how to quickly locate alternate command channels on the portable radios your department uses

Alternate Fireground Channels:

Alternate Fireground Channels I.C. may assign multiple fireground tactical channels during one incident. All personnel should be prepared to locate and switch to any assigned channel as designated by the I.C. Switching channels should be practiced by all. Should be known by all on the fireground. Used to help manage emergency communications during an incident. During a “Mayday” all ongoing fireground operations are to switch to this channel to allow more direct and clear communications between the firefighter declaring the Mayday and the Incident Commander and / or the RIT Team.

Slide 50:

A Personal Accountability Report (PAR) is ordered. The Command Officer should now: Assign an aide, or another officer as the Accountability Officer. Have a PAR conducted on the alternate fire command channel that has been assigned. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 5. Command orders an immediate PAR to determine If any other firefighters are unaccounted for.

Slide 51:

The Rapid Intervention Team is Deployed. The Command Officer should now: Have the RIT Team report to the Command Post. Brief the RIT Team leader on all available information in a face to face meeting to avoid confusion. Verify the correct radio channel for the RIT teams Operations Deploy the RIT Team to the area most likely to assist the firefighter in distress. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 6. Command deploys the RIT Team based on information received from the firefighter declaring the Mayday

Slide 52:

Command establishes a RIT Group in the Incident Command System. The Command Officer should now: Designate the RIT Team Officer as RIT One Team Leader. Assign a Command Officer to be RIT Group Supervisor Confirm that all RIT Operations remain on the correct command channel. Advise the firefighter who declared the Mayday that RIT One is now responding to assist him or her at this time. Ask for a quick status report and updated information. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 7. Command deploys the RIT Team based on information received from the firefighter declaring the Mayday

Slide 53:

Command requests additional resources. The Command Officer should now: Advise Fire Alarm that a Mayday has been declared. Request the next greater full alarm assignment. Request the Command Vehicle to be dispatched. Request at least four Command Officers to respond. Request one additional EMS unit to respond for each firefighter reported missing or declaring a Mayday, PLUS one additional EMS Unit for the rescuers. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 8. Command requests additional resources to Respond, and advises Fire Alarm that a Mayday has been declared on this alarm.

Slide 54:

Command requests additional resources. The Command Officer should now: Request any special technical equipment or personnel that might be needed. Air Cascade, Heavy Rescue, Lighting, Extrication, Foam... Red Cross and Rehabilitation Unit Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 9. Command requests additional resources to Respond, and anticipates what if any specialty equipment might be required.

Slide 55:

Additional resources arrive and command assigns them to the RIT Group RIT Group Supervisor assigns arriving units to RIT teams 2,3,4, or as many as are required. A RIT Group Safety Officer is Assigned. A RIT Group Accountability Officer is Assigned. EMS, Triage and Treatment Groups are assigned for the RIT Group. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 10. Command supports RIT Group with additional resources as they arrive

Slide 56:

Command maintains control of the initial incident through the Incident Command System. The Command Officer should now: Assign all non essential crews to the Rehab group to help maintain accountability. Ensure that Freelancing is not permitted. Maintain accountability for all personnel at all times. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 11. Command supports ongoing fire suppression, rescue, ventilation operations from the original incident.

Slide 57:

Command maintains control of the initial incident through the Incident Command System. The Command Officer should be: Maintaining span of control of 3 to 5 Maximum. Delegating tasks to Command Staff Give up the Radio – Use an Aide. Control access to the command post to vital persons only. Establish a PIO as soon as possible. Command Officers Responsibility during a Mayday Situation Step 12. Command maintains proper span of control to manage the original incident and the Mayday as well.

Mayday Tactical Worksheet:

Mayday Tactical Worksheet A Managing a Mayday is a Low Frequency Event for all Command Officers. It is also the Highest Risk type of Event we will ever face in our careers. This is truly a life threatening Event. Command Officers should USE a Mayday Tactical Worksheet to help them manage a Mayday. Here is one example

Slide 59:

MAYDAY Tactical Worksheet Gain immediate control of the Mayday radio channel Broadcast “Emergency Traffic, All units standby for Emergency Traffic” Then announce “ Unit with a Mayday, go ahead” Acknowledge the unit declaring the Mayday and advise to remain on the current channel. Mayday Unit clear on Radio Assignment Instructions: Yes No Contact Request the LUNAR Information from the Mayday Unit Exact Location of the Mayday unit On stairway to 2 nd floor Mayday Units Identification Number Unit # 1514 Riding Position: Alpha Bravo Charlie Delta Mayday firefighters Name Capt. Jones Mayday units Last Assignment : Fire Attack Search / Rescue Vent. Overhaul Other Air Supply Status : Full ¾ ½ ¼ In Alarm Empty Resources needed Needs help locating exit

Slide 60:

Remain in contact with the Mayday Unit and gain as much information as possible. Status of remaining Crew members : Accounted For Unknown Missing # of Crew 2 inside Mayday Unit is : Trapped Pinned Lost Disoriented Injured Mobile Moving Mayday Unit able to manually activate PASS Devices: Yes No Mayday Unit able to locate / identify : Wall Hoseline Window Light Door Other stairs Assign Communications Channels for RIT / Rescue Group, and Ongoing Fire Operations Mayday Unit advised to REMAIN on current channel: Yes Acknowledged No Not Acknowledged RIT advised to operate on the Mayday Unit’s channel: Yes Acknowledged No Not Acknowledged Alternate fire command channel assigned: Yes Channel #: Command B, Zone C Assign an Accountability Officer and conduct an Immediate P.A.R. Accountability Officer assigned : Yes Officer: 1501 PAR ordered on the alternate fireground channel : Yes PAR Taken by: 1501

Slide 61:

Advise Dispatch of the situation and request additional resources to the scene as follows: Dispatch Center advised of MAYDAY: Yes by: Next Greater Alarm Requested: 2 nd 3 rd 4 th 5th Additional EMS Units Requested : 1 2 3 4 MCI-1 MCI-2 Command Post and 4 Command Officers Requested: Yes by: 1500 Meet with and deploy the Rapid Intervention Team Brief R.I.T. Team : Yes Unit Assigned as RIT One: 2814 by: 1500 RIT team advised to switch to the Mayday Channel : Yes by : 1500 Have the RIT Team deploy and provide as much support as possible

Slide 62:

Establish a RIT / Rescue Branch Director within the Incident Command Structure Chief Officer assigned as RIT Branch Director: Yes Unit assigned: 2902 by: 1500 RIT Branch Safety Officer assigned: Yes Unit Assigned 1400 by: 1500 Staff additional RIT Teams: R.I.T. Team Two Units: 1414 / 1525 R.I.T. Team Three Units: 3914 / 3924 R.I.T. Team Four Units: 1534 / 2424 R.I.T. Team Five Units: 5110 / 4910 R.I.T. Team Six Units: 4024 / 3710 Expand the Incident Command Structure as required P.I.O.: 1503 I.C. Aide: 1524 D Staging Manager: 2401 EMS Branch: 1517 Accountability: 1502 Liaison Officer: Additional resources: Lighting Air Cascade Heavy Rescue Task Force Rehab Bus Red Cross Chaplain CISD Team

Sample MAYDAY Radio call:

Sample MAYDAY Radio call Firefighter – “ Mayday, Mayday, Mayday, 3710 Alpha, firefighter down, need assistance” Command “Command to all units, hold all traffic, we have a Mayday being declared” Command “Command to 3710 Alpha, state your location, name, assignment and situation” (The LUNAR information) Firefighter “3710 Alpha to Command, Parker, doing primary search in the basement from side Charlie, trapped under falling debris, I am unable to extricate myself” Command - “ Command is clear 3710 Alpha, the R.I.T. team is being deployed right now. Activate your PASS so they can locate you. Remain on this channel.” Firefighter “Clear command, activating PASS right now”

Slide 64:

“Command to all divisions, groups and units, switch to Command B for fire ground operations and P.A.R. We have a Mayday on Command A.” “Command to R.I.T. One, report to Command post immediately.” “Command to Accountability, conduct a P.A.R . on Command B.” “Command to Fire Alarm, We have a Mayday on this alarm , transmit a second alarm with four additional command officers , dispatch the Command Van , and one additional EMS Unit .” “Command to 3710 Alpha, advise where you entered the building . Are you injured, or trapped? Advise your Air Supply status ” If things work right, the only people 3710 Alpha should be communicating with is the R.I.T. One Team leader, and the Incident Commander. All others should be on Command B, for the continuing fire ground operations, and the Personnel Accountability Report. It will be difficult, but firefighters actively engaged in fire suppression will naturally want to swarm to the firefighter in trouble. Unless specifically assigned to support the R.I.T. efforts, they MUST resist the urge to freelance at this point. If a crew is in a position to help, and not endanger the overall operation, then of course use their assistance. Any units in Rehab should prepare for immediate deployment in support of the R.I.T. Team until fresh crews can arrive.

Classroom Drills:

Classroom Drills Simulated Mayday Transmissions Firefighters will be handed a script card by the instructor. Command Officers will be handed the Mayday Tactical Worksheet. Instructor will choose one firefighter and one Command Officer from the class. They will be seated, facing away from each other at opposite ends of the room. When directed, the firefighter will follow the instructions on the script card he/she was just handed. Command Officer will respond and follow the Tactical Worksheet through the simulation Treat this situation as if it really happened to you.

Rapid Intervention Teams:

Rapid Intervention Teams F.A.S.T. Truck (Firefighter Assistance and Survival Team) R.I.C. (Rapid Intervention Crew) R.I.T. (Rapid Intervention Team) No matter what you call it, they must be ready to respond with the right equipment, personnel, and … THE RIGHT ATTITUDE ! Minimum of 4 Firefighters per each R.I.T. Team. You will likely require at least 4 R.I.T. Teams to extricate a downed firefighter.

Emergency vs Mayday Radio Communications:

Emergency vs Mayday Radio Communications An “Emergency” message is transmitted if: A firefighter suffers an injury that requires medical attention but is not life-threatening. The Incident Commander changes the firefighting strategy from interior to exterior attack. A structural condition is discovered by anyone on the fireground that could endanger working firefighters. Weak Roof or Flooring Possible Collapse Indicators Active fire is found to be in a roof truss system

Emergency vs Mayday Radio Communications:

Fire is found to be extending within the building unchecked, or into an exposure, or a sudden change in fire / smoke conditions is detected. A loss of water, or water pressure occurs that will endanger firefighters. Safety Officer needs to transmit information about an unsafe act or hazardous condition. Command needs to gain control of the radio channel for any reason during an incident. Emergency vs Mayday Radio Communications

Emergency and Mayday Transmissions:

Emergency and Mayday Transmissions RADIO TRANSMISSION PROCEDURES To send a Mayday or an Emergency message, key the mike on your radio and transmit: "Mayday, Mayday! Mayday!" or “3710 Alpha to Command – Emergency Traffic!" This format must be the same for Mayday and Emergency transmissions. The transmissions differ only in the specific type of Mayday or Emergency message transmitted. Listen for a response. If none is heard, repeat the message until you are acknowledged. Always verify that your message has been received and that it has been understood.

Emergency Radio Traffic:

Emergency Radio Traffic EMERGENCY TRAFFIC is a priority message to be immediately broadcast throughout the fire-ground. ( Safety of the incident scene ) Note: All other radio traffic is to cease until advised by Command or the communications center. A message will be broadcast advising all to return to normal radio traffic. INTERIOR Division: “Interior Division to COMMAND – Emergency Traffic.” COMMAND : “Go ahead Interior Division.” INTERIOR Division: “Floor is weakened. All crews are being withdrawn.”

Emergency Radio Traffic:

An emergency tone, over the radio and loud speakers, will be used as a warning to all at the incident of emergency traffic. ( One ten-second tone will be initiated by communication center.) COMMAND will also report the emergency on the Command Channel and units will sound their air horns for thirty seconds to initiate the evacuation of the building. Dispatch will then announce Emergency Traffic Exists, with the location of the incident, on all channels. At this time, ALL NON-EMERGENCY RADIO TRANSMISSION WILL CEASE UNTIL COMMAND ADVISES THAT THE EMERGENCY NO LONGER EXISTS. An immediate PAR will be taken to verify accountability for all personnel. Emergency Radio Traffic

Slide 72:

National Fire Academy Mayday Certification Requirements Skill Station One of the Mayday Certification Course: Firefighter will Verbally Identify at least 4 of the 7 Mayday Parameters. For each of the 5 Parameters Identified, the firefighter will: Verbally explain the importance of declaring a Mayday for this parameter Explain what Survival Techniques might be used to resolve this situation

Skill Station One The Mayday Parameters:

Skill Station One The Mayday Parameters Firefighter is Lost and Disoriented Firefighter becomes Caught / Tangled Firefighter is Collapsed on / Pinned down by something Firefighter has Fallen Through / Into something Firefighter has an SCBA Alarm / Equipment Emergency Firefighter is Sick or Injured Firefighter is Trapped In a confined space or area Firefighter’s Egress / Exit is Blocked by fire / high heat / hostile fire or smoke conditions

Slide 74:

Skill Station Two of the Mayday Certification Course: Firefighter will demonstrate the proper use of a portable radio to declare a Mayday his or her Left Hand only from the following positions Left Side, Right Side, Face Down, Face Up, and Kneeling National Fire Academy Mayday Certification Requirements

Slide 75:

Skill Station Three of the Mayday Certification Course: Firefighter will demonstrate the proper use of a portable radio to declare a Mayday his or her Right Hand only from the following positions Left Side, Right Side, Face Down, Face Up, and Kneeling National Fire Academy Mayday Certification Requirements

Slide 76:

Proper Radio Usage in a Mayday Parameter 1. Locate the transmit button of his / her portable radio Properly depress the transmit button on the portable radio 3. Speak into the microphone Clearly, Slowly, and Calmly 4. Transmit the correct L.U.N.A.R. information to Command Location - Unit - Name - Assignment - Resources Needed Acknowledge LUNAR information back from command Manually activate their PASS Device for 10 seconds, and then silence it. Skill Stations Two and Three Proper Radio Use Techniques

Slide 77:

Skill Station Four of the Mayday Certification Course: Wearing full PPE and SCBA, the Firefighter will proceed through a simulated residential dwelling with limited visibility. In the process the firefighter will encounter four of the established Mayday Parameters. The firefighter will then identify each of the four specific parameters to the instructor and declare a Mayday using a portable radio, and communicate with a simulated Command Officer until the proper information has been transmitted. Firefighter will then resume the course until all four Mayday Parameters have been completed. National Fire Academy Mayday Certification Requirements

Slide 78:

During a practical evolution, these skills will be tested in a series of simulated Mayday Situations. As you proceed through the obstacle course, you will encounter four of the Mayday Parameters. When you encounter each of the Mayday Parameters, you will identify which situation you are in to the instructor . You should then declare a Mayday on your radio , just as if this was a real situation based upon the skills you just completed. You will communicate with a simulated Command Officer , and after you have properly declared a Mayday, the instructor will then allow you to proceed. Skill Station Four Four Simulated Mayday Parameters

Final Test:

Final Test

Slide 80:

NEVER be afraid to call “MAYDAY” if you feel your life or safety are in immediate danger due to uncontrollable events or circumstances.

Firefighters:

Firefighters You MUST manually activate your PASS Device during each Simulated MAYDAY Evolution before moving to the next one. Remember your previous Survival Skills Training. You should try to practice these skills during the evolutions. You will NOT actually breach any walls, but you will need to use some of these survival skills at times.

Slide 82:

Firefighters: We disregard apparatus every day for alarms that they are not needed on. There is no reason that you can not cancel a Mayday, if you happen to resolve your situation on your own. We would rather have you declare a Mayday FIRST, and get help on the way to you sooner, than to have the RIT Team locate and remove your body later.

Slide 84:

Take a 10 Minute Break

Command Officers Drill:

Command Officers Drill As each firefighter performs the Mayday simulation, each command officer will in turn play the part of the Incident Commander. The officer will announce all required radio transmissions and carry on communications as if the incident was real. Officers will follow and fill out the Mayday Tactical Worksheet as provided to them.

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