Sallis

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Slide 1: 

Creating Active Living Environments for Youth At School & Everywhere James F. Sallis, Ph.D. San Diego State University www.activelivingresearch.org An Active Living Program supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by San Diego State University. www.activelivingresearch.org

Slide 4: 

Troiano, MSSE, 2007

Evidence-Based Intervention Strategies : 

Evidence-Based Intervention Strategies Access to recreational facilities & programs Community design Health care-based programs Mass media Community-based programs Family-based programs School-based approaches Physical Education Policy & Environmental Changes Active commuting to school After-school programs Community use of school facilities School siting Health Education Curricula

Comprehensive Multi-Level Approaches : 

Comprehensive Multi-Level Approaches Individual Biological Psychological Skills Social/cultural Physical Environment Policy Context

What is an Activity-Friendly Environment? : 

What is an Activity-Friendly Environment? A place that makes it easy to choose to be physically active, through planned exercise or routine daily activity.

Slide 8: 

What PE should be

Slide 9: 

What PE is—too often

Slide 10: 

All Kids Should Be Active in PE (50% of class time) And Learn Skills

Evidence-based PE is Available : 

Evidence-based PE is Available Elementary schools Middle schools High schools CATCH SPARK M-SPAN (SPARK) TAAG LEAP

SPARK Outcomes : 

SPARK Outcomes PE specialists>trained classroom teachers> controls Improved quality of PE instruction Increased physical activity in PE Improved cardiorespiratory & muscle fitness Improved sports skills Positive impact on academic achievement Students enjoyed SPARK lessons

Creating Activity-Friendly School Environments : 

Creating Activity-Friendly School Environments Recess is more active when there is equipment & trained supervisors Equipment and supervision can be effective before school, after lunch, & after school Playground markings can stimulate more activity

School Interventions : 

School Interventions Stratton et al. from the UK conducted several studies showing simple markings on elementary playgrounds increases PA about 18 min/day Verstraete from Belgium showed Equipment at Recess increased PA

After-School Programs : 

After-School Programs Up to 70% of daily PA in after-school hours Robinson’s Dance for Health showed after-school program can be effective, especially for minority girls TAAG linked schools & community agencies

Open Schools for Community Use : 

Open Schools for Community Use Schools are in all neighborhoods, and they have space & equipment for PA Potential for partnerships with PA providers Concerns about liability can be overcome Models across the country for converting school grounds to enhance community use Boston Schoolyard Initiative is 10-year school-community collaboration (Lopez) 58 school playgrounds revitalized Open to community

Slide 19: 

Recreation Facilities and Youth PA

Access to Recreation Facilities Related to MVPA & Overweight in Youth : 

Access to Recreation Facilities Related to MVPA & Overweight in Youth Gordon Larsen Pediatr 2006

Slide 21: 

Copyright ©2006 American Academy of Pediatrics Gordon-Larsen, P. et al. Pediatrics 2006;117:417-424 FIGURE 2 Relative odds of having at least 1 PA facility for every 100% increase in proportion of population with college or greater education (N = 42187; adjusted by population density and proportion minority)

Slide 22: 

Endangered: Children Walking to School

Walking/Cycling to School : 

Walking/Cycling to School Decreased 37% from 1977 to 1995 Current rates are 5% to 14% More children walked when there were sidewalks (Ewing, 2004) Evaluations of Safe Routes to Schools program in California shows investments to improve safety (sidewalks, pedestrian crossings) can increase walking & biking to school

Neighborhood Walkability and Active Commuting to School : 

Neighborhood Walkability and Active Commuting to School 201 parents of children aged 4 to 17 Active commuting to school: 25% in hi-walkable neighborhoods 11% in lo-walkable neighborhoods Parent concerns, mostly about traffic, were higher in lo-walkable neighborhoods Kerr, et al. MSSE, 2006

High-Walkable : 

High-Walkable

Low-Walkable : 

Low-Walkable

Slide 27: 

Explaining moderate to vigorous physical activity for buffer of 0.5 mile around the subjects’ homes, by street network distance. Variable p-value Variance explained Gender .048 .04 Ethnicity .007 .05 Access to rec facilities NS .00 Walkability .008 .05 Relation of neighborhood walkability to objectively measured PA in 98 adolescents in San Diego: SCAN. Kligerman, Sallis et al. Am J Health Promotion, 2006

School Siting : 

School Siting School siting should be coordinated with community planning Placing schools on edges of communities can prevent walking & encourage sprawl Schools need to be planned for active commuting, not just for car convenience Opportunities for joint use of parks Need to balance PA space on campus with effects of school siting on communities

Summary : 

Summary We know how to make school PE better; now we need political will & resources Space, equipment, & supervision can promote PA throughout the school day Safe Routes to Schools & promotion of active commuting are needed Focus on after-school PA, which will require building up community programs and resources Opening schools for community use will assist disadvantaged students the most Improved school siting policies can benefit students & the whole community

Slide 30: 

Active Living Research www.activelivingresearch.org An Active Living Program supported by The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and administered by San Diego State University. www.activelivingresearch.org

Active Living Research Goals : 

Active Living Research Goals Establish a strong research base Administer a $12.5 million research budget from 2001-2007 Administer a $15.4 million research budget from 2007-2012, with a focus on childhood obesity prevention Build a transdisciplinary field of researchers Add diversity to pool of investigators Use research to inform & stimulate policy change

Resources from Active Living Research : 

Resources from Active Living Research Annual conferences (Feb 09 in San Diego) Slides from all conferences online Journal special issues online--free Research summaries & briefs—more coming Case studies of active living policy We can support researchers to present at your meetings We want to support evaluations of innovative school policy & environmental changes

Policy Opportunitiesfor Research & Advocacy : 

Policy Opportunitiesfor Research & Advocacy No Child Left Behind reauthorization Include PE & PA Federal transportation bill--2010 More Safe Routes to School support Statewide PE initiatives Improve quantity AND quality Local zoning ordinances to allow & promote walkable developments Joint use agreements between schools & parks

Slide 34: 

“Can’t waste time On PE” is not a Valid excuse. See the Active Education Research Brief

Slide 35: 

More of this Less of this ALR’s Vision for The Future www.drjamessallis.sdsu.edu www.activelivingresearch.org

Summary of Research on Built Environment & Youth Physical Activity : 

Summary of Research on Built Environment & Youth Physical Activity Sallis & Kerr. For PCPFS Research Digest. 2007

New PE Policy Briefs from The California Endowment : 

New PE Policy Briefs from The California Endowment

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